MLA and APA
EVANS LIBRARY RESEARCH SUPPORT WORKSHOP
When to Use a Quote:
When language is especially vivid or expressive
When exact wording is needed for technical accuracy
When it is important to let the debaters of an issue explain their positions in their
When the words of an authority lend weight to an argument
When the language of a source is the topic of your discussion
Taken from: The Bedford Handbook (9th Edition). Hacker, D.,
Sommers, N. I. (2014). The Bedford handbook (9th ed.). Boston,
Mass.: Bedford/St. Martins.
Paraphrasing: restating the language of a source in your own words
Summarizing: a review of the main points
Citations include publication information for the
source such as the author, title, date of publication and
You need to follow the MLA or APA guidelines exactly
to make sure your citations are correct.
Introduce Quotes etc.
When using material from an outside source, make sure
you introduce it with a signal phrase…
Example: Maria Konnikova, (2014) a writer for the New
Yorker suggests, “Maybe the decline of deep reading isn’t
due to reading skill atrophy but to the need to develop a
very different sort of skill, that of teaching yourself to
focus your attention.” (p. 3) Konnikova brings up an
You can use several active verbs such as:
Admitted, contented, asserted, believed, noted, reported,
wrote, or refuted.
Think about the context and make sure you relate your
quote to the point you are making in your paper.
Maria Konnikova, (2014) a writer for the New Yorker
suggests, “Maybe the decline of deep reading isn’t
due to reading skill atrophy but to the need to
develop a very different sort of skill, that of
teaching yourself to focus your attention.
Konnikova brings up an important point, people’s ability to focus directly
impacts their ability to accomplish tasks. In an online environment, with
many distractions that skill is a must.
Konnikova, M. (2014, August 14) Being a Better Online Reader. The New
Yorker. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com
In Text Citations
In text citations are just as important as your works
cited or references page.
Use in-text citations any time your quote, paraphrase
or summarize another source.
MLA: (Author last name page number). i.e. (Smith
APA: (Author last name, Date of Publication, page
number). (depends on how the source is introduced)
(Smith, 2014, 286).
Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year
of Publication. Medium of Publication.
Collins, Suzanne. The Hunger Games. New York : Scholastic Press,
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for
subtitle. Location: Publisher.
Collins, S. (2008). The Hunger Games. New York: Scholastic Press.
Scholarly Article (MLA):
Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume. Issue (Year): pages.
Medium of publication.
Manago, Adriana M. "Me and My 400 Friends: The Anatomy of College
Students' Facebook Networks, Their Communication Patterns, and Well-
Being". Developmental Psychology 48.2 (2012): 369-380. Print.
Scholarly Article (APA):
Manago, A. M., Taylor, T., & Greenfield, P. M. (2012). Me and my 400
friends: The anatomy of college students' Facebook networks, their
communication patterns, and well-being. Developmental
Psychology, 48(2), 369-380. doi:10.1037/a0026338
Article from a Database:
Author. “Title of Article”. Journal Title. Volume number: issue number (year of
publication): page numbers. Database name. Web. Date of Access.
Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century
England.”Historical Journal 50.1 (2007): 173-96. ProQuest . Web. 27 May 2009.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article.Title of Journal,
volume number, page range. Retrieved from
Smyth, A. M., Parker, A. L., & Pease, D. L. (2002). A study of enjoyment of
peas. Journal of Abnormal Eating, 8 (3), 120-125. Retrieved from
Use a citation
LIKE REFWORKS TO HELP KEEP TRACK OF AND
PROPERLY FORMAT YOUR SOURCES
Check Your Work
Use an official style guide or OWL at Purdue to check
The Bedford Handbook (9th edition) has up-to-date
MLA and APA sections.
You can look for help online at
Some examples were taken from the Online Writing
lab at Purdue University. Use the QR code to learn
Information on In text citations was adapted from: