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  1. 1. Page Contents ii-iii Introduction 1-4 Bibby Sterilin 5-12 Technical Information 13-16 Care and Maintenance of Laboratory Glassware 17-309 Glassware Products A-Z 310-311 Special Glassware 312-320 Azlon Laboratory Plastics 321-336 Science Equipment 337-340 Index by Product Name 341-352 Index by Product Code [i]
  2. 2. [ ii ]
  3. 3. For more than 70 years Bibby Sterilin has been one of the world’s leading manufacturers of laboratory glassware. Today, we produce over 3,000 products branded with some of the most famous names in science. • PYREX® borosilicate glassware, including beakers, bottles, flasks and test tubes • QUICKFIT® interchangeable glassware with ground glass joints • E-Mil® high accuracy volumetric glassware • MBL® volumetric glassware including burettes, cylinders, flasks and pipettes • SPRINGHAM® precision made stopcocks • ROTAFLO® needle-valve stopcocks Bibby Sterilin glassware production is based around our UK plant in Stone, Staffordshire, home to some of the world’s most highly skilled scientific glassblowers. Their hand-crafted work is complemented by some of the best modern glass working equipment available. Product excellence is achieved by the enforcement of strict quality standards and meticulous quality control. Most products not only meet but surpass international specifications and requirements. Bibby Sterilin glassware is designed and manufactured in an ISO 9001 environment. All operations follow documented and traceable procedures. The result is a quality conscious culture committed to customer satisfaction. Our catalogued range of glassware is available to customers through a worldwide network of distributors. If you require any help with sourcing, please contact our Customer Service Department for advice. Advice on the selection of products and their usage is available from our qualified scientists and glass technologists. Our aim is to provide the highest level of care – before, during and after the sale. [ iii ]
  4. 4. Some of the most Disposable Plastics More than 35 years after pioneering the use of single famous names in science, use laboratory plastics, the Sterilin® brand continues all part of a single to set standards for quality and reliability in the increasingly sophisticated field of life science. In company with an addition to Sterilin’s established range of consumables unrivalled reputation for medical and research laboratories including Petri for quality and service. dishes, sample containers and pipettes, we have Cell Biology developed new products specifically designed for the The new range of Bibby Sterilin cell culture products industrial market. Sterilin® is now able to supply most offers one of the widest ranges of biotechnology of the plastic disposables required by pharmaceutical, products available today, including tissue culture environmental, food, dairy and water testing laboratories. Continuous investment in the latest injection moulding technology means that every Sterilin® product is made to the highest possible level plasticware from the leading edge Japanese cell of quality. biology company Iwaki®. These products are brought together in a single package to offer an incomparable Reusable Plastics level of product quality, service and support for cell Azlon® reusable plastics cover a broad range of biologists. applications in the modern laboratory and comprise more than 1200 products including bottles, wash [ iv ]
  5. 5. bottles, measuring cylinders, jugs and burettes. Leadership in polymer science and many important ranges of benchtop equipment available, including innovations have combined to make Azlon one of ® water purification equipment and ceramic top the most widely known and respected brands in hotplates and stirrers. Aquatron® and Merit® water stills are just two of the well established Bibby brands which maintain a deserved reputation as market leaders. The Stuart® range comprises over durable plastic labware. Azlon® is also a growing 100 products including block heaters, blood tube name in key plastic packaging markets including rotators, colony counters, hotplates, hybridisation pharmaceuticals, household chemicals and ovens, rockers, shakers, stirrers and water baths. biochemicals. Azlon products are manufactured in ® Bibby Sterilin’s South Wales factory, a site that has Silicone Products benefited from major investment in blow and Esco® branded products comprise an extensive range injection moulding equipment to support the brand’s of silicone compression and extruded items, includ- strong growth. ing specialist custom made parts. Since 1936 Esco has established an unrivalled reputation for quality Science Equipment Bibby Sterilin’s ultra-modern manufacturing facility at Stone houses a research and development facility committed to constant product improvement and and service of silicone rubber and mouldings to innovation. We make one of the most comprehensive healthcare and an increasingly diverse range of industrial clients. [1]
  6. 6. There are very few products made so well that the brand becomes a generic name for everything similar. Pyrex® is one of the few. The name Pyrex® from the latin ‘Fire King’ was given to a borosilicate glass developed in the early years of the 20th century to satisfy the demand for a material with high thermal resistance. This property, coupled with excellent chemical durability, makes Pyrex® the ideal material for laboratory products. Today more than 800 items of glassware carry the famous Pyrex® name including beakers, bottles, flasks, dishes and test tubes; all manufactured to the same exacting quality standards. You can use Pyrex® products with confidence: confidence in the material, confidence in the design and confidence in the manufacture. Whatever the application – Springham® and Rotaflo® have a stopcock to suit. Springham® and Rotaflo® offer one of the most comprehensive selections of stopcocks available to glassblowers and scientists. They are suitable for general-purpose use, fine flow control and high vacuum work. Specify Springham® and Rotaflo® stopcocks for leak-free, trouble-free performance. [2] Pyrex® is a registered trade mark. Bibby Sterilin is a registered user.
  7. 7. E-Mil® and MBL® - two brands of volumetric glassware with international reputations for quality and performance. E-Mil® volumetric flasks, pipettes and burettes are the first choice for scientists who demand the very highest levels of accuracy, while MBL® glassware is ideal for general volumetric applications and offers exceptional value for money. The combined E-Mil® and MBL® ranges comprise over 500 products – one of the widest selections available. E-Mil® and MBL® volumetric glassware for unbeatable choice, accuracy, performance and value. Quickfit® pioneered the concept of interchangeable joints in 1934. Today, the Quickfit® name is renowned throughout the world for quality and reliability. Quickfit® ground-glass joints are precision manufactured with an accurate taper and smooth finish for leak-free performance and assured interchangeability. The Quickfit® range comprises over 1,200 products, enabling the user to construct the widest choice of assemblies. Quickfit® glassware is manufactured exclusively from borosilicate glass. This type of glass has a very low co-efficient of expansion, allowing use at both elevated and sub-zero temperatures. Quickfit® is the first choice of discerning scientists who value maximum performance. [3]
  8. 8. Bibby Sterilin - Staffordshire, UK (Group HQ, Sales office, Glassware and Equipment manufacturing) Tilling Drive, Stone, Staffordshire ST15 0SA United Kingdom (Sales) Tel: +44 (0)1785 812121 Fax: +44 (0)1785 813748 e-mail: Bibby Sterilin - Mid Glamorgan, UK (Plasticware manufacturing) Pengam Road Industrial Estate, Aberbargoed, Mid Glamorgan, CF81 9FW, United Kingdom (Sales) Tel: +44 (0)1785 812121 Bibby Sterilin - Fax:+44 (0)1785 813748 Staffordshire, UK Afora S.A.- Barcelona, Spain Calle Aribau 240, 08006 Barcelona, Spain, Tel: +343 93-306 98 00 Fax: +343 93-306 98 23 e-mail: Bibby Sterilin France - Nemours, France BP79, 77793 Nemours Cedex, France Tel: +33 1 64 45 13 13 Fax: +33 1 64 45 13 00 e-mail: Bibby Sterilin Italia - Milan, Italy Via Alcide de Gasperi 56, 20070 Riozzo Di Cerro Al Lambro, Milano, Italy Tel: +39 02 98230679 Fax: +39 02 98230211 e-mail: Dynalab Corp - New York, USA PO Box 30112, Rochester, New York, 14603 USA Tel: +1 716 334 2060 Fax: +1 716 334 9496 e-mail: [4]
  9. 9. Technical Information Pyrex® Borosilicate Glass Poisson’s Ratio (25°C – 400°C) Young’s Modulus (25°C) 0.2 6400 kg/mm2 Chemical resistance Pyrex® borosilicate glass has a very high resistance to attack from water, acids, salt solutions, halogens and organic solvents. It also has a moderate resistance to alkaline solutions. Only hydrofluoric acid, hot concentrated phosphoric acid and strong alkaline solu- tions cause appreciable corrosion of the glass. Hydrolytic resistance For many applications it is important that laboratory glassware has a high hydrolytical resistance; e.g. during sterilisation procedures, where repeated exposure to All Pyrex®, Quickfit®, SVL®, Rotaflo® and Springham® water vapour at high temperatures can leach out alkali brand products listed in this catalogue are manufactured ions. Pyrex® borosilicate glass has a relatively low alkali from borosilicate glass (unless otherwise specified). A content and consequently a high resistance to attack by large proportion of E-Mil® and MBL® volumetric ware is water. It meets the following standards (determined by also made from borosilicate glass. the glass grain method). Standards Hydrolytic resistance according to ISO 719 (98°C) – class 1 Hydrolytic resistance according to ISO 720 (121°C) – class 1 Pyrex is a borosilicate glass which meets the specifica- ® tions of the following standards: Acid resistance BS ISO 3585, DIN 12217 Type 3.3 borosilicate glass Glasses rich in silica are less likely to be attacked by acids. ASTM E-438 Type 1 class A borosilicate glass Pyrex® borosilicate glass has approximately 80% silica and is exceptionally resistant to acids (except hot con- US Pharmacopoeia Type 1 borosilicate glass centrated phosphoric acid and hydrofluoric acid). The European Pharmacopoeia Type 1 glass acid resistance of Pyrex® borosilicate glass meets the requirements of ISO 1776 and class 1 requirements of Chemical composition DIN 12116. Pyrex® glass has the following typical composition (perkcentage by weight): Alkali resistance Alkaline solutions attack all glasses and Pyrex® borosili- SiO2 = 80.6% cate glass can be classified as reasonably resistant. The B2O3 = 13.0% alkali resistance of Pyrex® borosilicate glass meets class 2 Na2O = 4.0% requirements as defined by ISO 695 and DIN 52322. Al2O3 = 2.3% Temperature resistance Pyrex® borosilicate glass has excellent thermal properties Physical properties due to its high softening point and low coefficient of Coefficient of Expansion (20°C – 300°C) 3.3 x 10-6 K-1 expansion (3.3 x 10-6 K-1). The maximum recommended Density 2.23 g/cm3 working temperature for glassware manufactured from Refractive index (Sodium D line) 1.474 Pyrex® borosilicate glass is 500°C (for short periods of time only). Special care should be taken at temperatures Dielectric Constant (1MHz,20°C) 4.6 above 150°C to ensure that both heating and cooling Specific heat (20°C) 750J/kg°C are achieved in a slow and uniform manner (see “Care Thermal conductivity (20°C) 1.14W/m°C and Maintenance of Laboratory Glassware” section). [5]
  10. 10. Technical Information Pressure data Note: Glass is a brittle material and can break when subjected i) The maximum working pressure only applies at 25°C to strong mechanical forces. As working conditions can and for glass not subject to a temperature gradient. vary enormously, Bibby Sterilin cannot guarantee glass- ii) Assumes glass is free from scratches, chips or cracks ware against breakage when used under conditions of iii) Assumes glass is freely supported and not subjected vacuum or pressure. to clamping forces The use of positive pressures within glassware is particu- iv) The maximum working pressures do NOT apply to larly hazardous and should be avoided if at all possible. cylindrical tubes with flat bottoms If pressure work is unavoidable, the user is advised to v) Safety precautions should always be taken to protect consult the graph below which indicates the maximum personnel when conducting pressure work working pressure for Pyrex® borosilicate glass tubing of vi) See the “Care and Maintenance of Laboratory various diameters and wall thicknesses. Glassware” section for advice. 1000 Optical data 6900 5520 800 100 1-000 2m 90 1-046 80 5m 1-097 4140 600 Percentage Transmission 70 1-155 Optical Density 60 1-222 50 1-301 2760 400 40 1-396 30 1-532 2070 300 20 1-696 Maximum Working Pressure kN/m2 10 1-699 Maximum Working Pressure psi 0 1-000 0. 0.4 0. 0. 0.7 0.8 0. 1 2 3 4 5 1380 200 Wavelength (um) 0. 5m 1m 4m 2m 3m 5m m m m m m m Pyrex® borosilicate glass has the ability to transmit light W A LL through the visible range of the spectrum and can be T H IC 690 100 K N used effectively in the near ultra-violet range, making it ES S 552 80 ideally suitable for work in the field of photochemistry. 414 60 The graph above shows the degree of transmission of light as a function of wavelength in the ultra-violet, 276 40 visible and infra-red sectors of the spectrum, for the 207 30 thickness of glass generally encountered in laboratory ware (up to 5mm). 138 20 102 15 Refractive index (Sodium D line) = 1.474 Visible light transmission, 2mm thick glass = 92% 69 10 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 40 60 80 100 Visible light transmission, 5mm thick glass = 91% Outside Diameter - Data for Glassblowers Glassblowers may find the following information useful: The values shown are based on the formula: Working point = 1252°C P = 13790t D P = maximum working pressure in kN/m2 Softening point = 821°C t = wall thickness, mm D = outside diameter, mm Annealing point = 565°C The formula incorporates a value of 6895 kN/m2 for the Strain point = 510°C maximum permissible tensile stress in the glass surface. [6]
  11. 11. Technical Information Pyrex® Products Centrifuge tubes - calculating RCF values This catalogue lists a number of Pyrex®, Quickfit® and Corex® centrifuge tubes and, against each product entry, advises the maximum Relative Centrifugal Force (RCF) they should be subjected to. Before centrifuging, it is important to calculate the actual RCF values that will be generated. This can quickly be determined by using the following nomogram. RCF Values 25,00 500 20,000 475 450 15,000 425 400 375 10,000 350 30,000 325 20,000 300 6000 275 10,000 250 5000 225 4000 200 3000 2000 175 1000 2000 150 500 140 130 Pyrex® Bottles with plastic coating 200 120 1000 110 100 The Pyrex® range of 1518: media-lab bottles (page 41) 100 have a plastic coating to provide protection against 50 90 80 mechanical impact and to help reduce leakage of the 500 20 contents should the glass break. 10 70 When using these plastic coated bottles please note: 60 3 50 Autoclaving: 200 Radius in mm from centre Speed of Relative centrifugal centrifuge force (xg) of centrifuge spindle to point 1. Autoclaving in steam. Max. temp 121°C. along tube or bottle 2. Switch off heating and allow to cool for 20 To calculate the RCF value at any point along the tube, minutes. measure the radius in mm from the centre of the 3. Aerate autoclave at 100°C and remove water. centrifuge spindle to the particular point. Do not cool with distilled water or vacuum. NB: The point chosen is normally the base of the tube 4 . Open autoclave at 80°C. as this area will experience maximum RCF. Microwave: Not suitable Note this radius value on the right hand column of the nomogram and draw a line from this to the appropriate Freezing: Not suitable centrifuge speed value on the left hand column. The Pressure work: Not suitable for operations involving RCF value is the point where the line crosses the centre pressures or vacuum column. The nomogram is based on the formula: RCF = (11.17 x 10-7) RN2 R = Radius in mm from centrifuge tube to point on tube N = speed of spindle in RPM Values are for tubes in good condition. Do not use centrifuge tubes which are scratched, abraded or chipped as the strength will be seriously impaired. [7]
  12. 12. Technical Information Sintered Discs Quickfit® Products The Pyrex® range of Sintered Glassware employs filter Conical Joints discs manufactured from borosilicate glass.They are resistant to the majority of corrosive reagents, being unaffected by ammonia, sulphuric acid and other sol- vents which can destroy filter paper. The sintered glass- ware is available in six porosities and guidance for the selection of the most appropriate grade is detailed in the following table; Porosity ISO 4793 Pore Pore Principal Grade designation index index uses 24/29 cone 24/29 socket (mic.) > (mic.) ≤ Spherical Joints 0 P250 160 250 Coarse filtration, gas dispersion and support for other filter material 1 P160 100 160 Course precipitate filtration, gas dispersion, coarse grain material filtration S35 ball S35 cup 2 P100 40 100 Medium and crystalline precipitate filtra- Flat Flange Screwthread tion, medium filtration and washing of gases 3 P40 16 40 Analytical work with medium precipitates 4 P16 10 16 Analytical work with fine precipitates 5 P10 4 10 Bacteria filtration 100mm bore flange 28 Screwthread [8]
  13. 13. Technical Information Conical Joints - size designation Screwcap assembly When using screwthreads it is important that the PTFE Size Actual Actual Nominal washer is fitted carefully and correctly. This is best designation dia. of wide dia. of length of end (mm) narrow engagement achieved by opening out the washer to the correct end (mm) (mm) diameter using a tapered former. This should be carried out with the silicone rubber ring and PTFE washer in 5/13 5.0 3.7 13 position in the plastic cap as shown in figure1. 7/16 7.5 5.9 16 Withdraw the tapered former and remove the rubber 10/19 10.0 8.1 19 ring and washer from the cap. 12/21 12.5 10.4 21 14/23 14.5 12.2 23 Fit each component separately to the fitting which is to 19/26 18.8 16.2 26 be held, as shown in figure 2, and screw the cap on to 24/29 24.0 21.1 29 the thread. It is advisable that the ends of all fittings 29/32 29.2 26.0 32 should be slightly tapered or fired in a Bunsen flame to 34/35 34.5 31.0 35 remove sharp edges and produce a slight taper. 40/38 40.0 36.2 38 45/40 45.0 41.0 40 Quickfit® flask dimensions 50/42 50.0 45.8 42 The body diameter of Quickfit® Round Bottomed and 55/44 55.0 50.6 44 Flat Bottomed flasks comply with ISO 1773 (BS 6352). 60/46 60.0 55.4 46 Nominal Approx Approx Nominal Approx Approx capacity bulb bulb capacity bulb bulb ml dia. ‘a’ height ‘b’ ml dia. ‘a’ height ‘b’ Quickfit® screwthread joints mm mm mm mm 5 25 - 1000 132 115 10 30 - 2000 166 155 25 40 - 3000 188 - 50 50 40 5000 220 - 100 65 55 10000 279 - 150 75 65 20000 345 - 250 85 75 - - - 500 105 95 - - - FIG 1 FIG 2 [9]
  14. 14. Technical Information Volumetric Glassware For some measuring cylinders and volumetric flasks, these ISO specifications are identical to the correspon- ding German DIN specifications. It should be noted, however, that the ISO and DIN specifications for pipettes and burettes can differ. The liquid run-out time for pipettes and burettes calibrated to DIN ‘AS’ standards is often much faster than a similar product calibrated to ISO standards. The former requires a ‘waiting time’ to allow for drainage and settlement, before the meniscus is read. Inscriptions The highest level of accuracy. Graduated to very fine tolerances A as specified by the standards authority. A lower level of accuracy. Usually B acceptable for most general purpose volumetric work. BS 604 The standards to which the ISO 1042 product conforms. E-Mil® and MBL® volumetric glassware is manufactured DIN 12697 from two types of glass – soda lime and borosilicate. E-Mil® and MBL® volumetric glass Soda-lime glass is generally used for Class B products or is graduated in ml (millilitres) in where long term exposure to chemicals is unlikely, e.g. ml accordance with international bulb pipettes. standards. Other volumetric products, however, are made from borosilicate glass which has a superior chemical IN - Calibrated to contain the resistance and is suited to glassware which may store IN stated volume. solutions for long periods, e.g. flasks. EX EX - Calibrated to deliver the Use of borosilicate glass means that flasks are likely to BLOWOUT stated volume. retain their accuracy over a longer working life than their BLOWOUT - Appears on certain soda-lime equivalents. On average, borosilicate flasks pipettes in addition to EX indicat- will last for twice as long as soda-lime flasks before they ing that the drop of liquid remain- need to be re-calibrated. ing in the jet after delivery should The ASTM 542-94 Standard Practice for Calibration of be blown out. Laboratory Volumetric Apparatus recommends that volu- metric flasks are calibrated at the following intervals (or 12345 - All Class A Works- sooner if chemical corrosion is observed): Borosilicate 12345 Certified apparatus bears a serial flasks – 10 years: Soda lime flasks – 5 years. 20 sec number for identification and traceability. Standards 20 sec - Class A apparatus cali- Most Bibby Sterilin volumetric glassware is manufactured brated for delivery has the actual and calibrated in accordance with international ISO outflow time in seconds shown standards. on the glassware. E-Mil® and MBL® glassware is calibrated for use at 20°C. [ 10 ]
  15. 15. Technical Information Serial numbers and batch codes For identification and traceability many volumetric products carry an individual serial number or batch code Individual serial numbers are a feature of certain Class A products and all Class A Works Certified apparatus. They allow individual traceability to National Standards. Batch codes are printed on all E-Mil® and MBL® volumetric flasks. The codes, which take the form of dots, identify the year of manufacture and the specific production batch. Graduated Pipettes Nominal Sub-division Colour code capacity (ml) bands 0.2 0.01 1 x black 0.5 0.02 2 x red 1.0 0.01 1 x yellow 1.0 0.10 1 x red 2.0 0.02 1 x black 5.0 0.05 1 x red 10.0 0.10 1 x orange 25.0 0.20 1 x green A second. thinner band of the same colour is used to Works Certificates identify Type 1 pipettes. Many E-Mil Class A products are offered with Works ® Certificates. These items are individually tested for One-mark Pipettes accuracy in our Balance Room and a certificate issued Nominal capacity (ml) Colour Code bands that gives the exact volume contained or delivered. 1 1 x blue Graduated items such as burettes and pipettes are measured at 5 points along the scale. The weighing 2 1 x orange balance and set of weights used for the measurement 3 1 x black are recorded on the certificate and all are traceable to 4 2 x red National Standards. 5 1 x white 10 1 x red Pipettes, colour coding 15 1 x green All pipettes manufactured by Bibby Sterilin Limited are 20 1 x yellow colour coded on the suction stem to allow rapid identifi- 25 1 x blue cation and sorting. The coloured bands conform to the 50 1 x red recommendations of BS 3996, ISO 1769 and DIN 12621. 100 1 x yellow [ 11 ]
  16. 16. Technical Information Re-calibration Re-calibration may be attempted by the user following recommended guidelines. Alternatively, Bibby Sterilin offers a re-calibration service; for details please contact: Customer Services Department Bibby Sterilin Limited Tilling Drive Stone Staffordshire ST15 0SA United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1785 812121 Normally volumetric glassware only needs re-calibrating Fax: +44 (0)1785 813748 after extensive or demanding usage which may have e-mail: affected the original accuracy. It is usually unnecessary if: q the glassware is new but has been stored for a very long time, even several years. Age alone does not affect accuracy. q The glassware is subjected to only modest temper- atures such as cleaning in an automatic washing machine or sterilising in an autoclave at 121°C. q The glassware has been used for less than 5 years with no regular usage of strong acids or alkalis and there are no signs of chemical corrosion. However, re-calibration should definitely be considered under the following circumstances: q The glassware is made from soda-lime glass and has been in use for 5 years. q The glassware is made from borosilicate glass and has been in use for 10 years or more. q The glassware has inadvertently been subjected to temperatures in excess of 150°C. q The glassware is regularly used with strong acids or alkalis. q There are any signs of chemical corrosion, e.g. frosting of the internal glass surfaces. [ 12 ]
  17. 17. When treated with proper care, Bibby Sterilin glassware will give long Care and and satisfactory service. Maintenance of To obtain maximum life and performance from your glassware, Laboratory correct handling is essential. The following notes will serve as a Glassware guide to new users and to remind more experienced handlers of the recommended procedures. General Precautions filter flasks, wash bottle heads etc. Always lubricate the tubing and ease x Before using any piece of on gently whilst wearing protective glassware, take time to examine gloves. it carefully and ensure that it is in good condition. Do not use (Most Bibby Sterilin glassware avoids any glassware which is scratched, chipped, cracked this problem with detachable plastic or etched. Defects like these can seriously weaken hose connectors). the glass and make it prone to breakage in use. x When stirring solutions in glass x Dispose of broken or vessels, such as beakers and flasks, defective glassware safely. avoid using Use a purpose-designed stirring rods disposal bin which is with sharp ends which puncture resistant and can scratch and weaken clearly labelled. the glassware. x Do not lift or carry large glass flasks, beakers or x Whilst Pyrex® borosilicate glass bottles etc. by the neck or is highly resistant to chemical rim. This causes stress and can lead to breakage. attack, the use of hydrofluoric Support from the base and sides. acid, hot phosphoric acid and strong hot alkalis can cause corrosion and should be avoided. x Never use excessive force to fit rubber bungs into the neck of glass aspirators, test tubes, x Do not mix concentrated conical flasks, etc. Take care sulphuric acid with water inside a to select the correct size. glass measuring cylinder. The heat of reaction can break the seal at the base of the cylinder. x Never force rubber hoses or flexible tubing onto the glass side-arms of Buchner [ 13 ]
  18. 18. x Wash glassware promptly after use to x If using a Bunsen burner, avoid hard dried residues. employ a soft flame and use Use a biodegradable, a wire gauze with ceramic phosphate free detergent centre to diffuse the flame. specially formulated for laboratory use. x Pyrex® borosilicate glass is microwave safe. However, x Do not use cleaning as with any microwave brushes which are badly vessel, be sure it holds a microwave absorbing worn and where the metal spine may scratch the material, such as water, glass. before placing in the oven. Note also that fitments Heating and Cooling such as plastic screwcaps may not necessarily be x The maximum recommended working tempera- microwave proof. ture for Pyrex® and Quickfit® glassware is 500°C (for short periods only). However, once the temperature exceeds 150°C extra special care x When autoclaving Pyrex® should be taken to ensure that heating and containers, e.g. bottles, with cooling is achieved in a slow and uniform manner. screwcaps – always slacken off the caps. Autoclaving with tightly screwed caps can result in x Never heat glassware that is scratched, chipped, pressure differences and conse- cracked or etched. Such defects reduce the quent breakage. thermal strength, making the glassware more prone to breakage. Preparation of Media x Do heat vessels gently x Take great care when heating liquids that have a and gradually to avoid HIGH VISCOSITY. Viscous liquids can act as ther- breakage by thermal shock. mal insulators and can cause ‘hot spots’ or even Similarly, allow hot thermal breakage of the glassware. This is particu- glassware to cool gradually larly important with MEDIA SOLUTIONS as the and in a location away viscosity usually increases considerably during from cold draughts. preparation. x If using a hotplate, ensure that the top plate is x Do regularly stir the larger than the base of solution to assist even the vessel to be distribution of heat. If heated. Also, never using a magnetic stirrer put cold glassware set the speed to ensure onto a hotplate which adequate agitation of is already well heated. the whole liquid. Warm up gradually from ambient x Check the stirring action regularly to ensure that temperature. thorough agitation is maintained. [ 14 ]
  19. 19. x Heat vessels gradually and avoid very rapid x Never subject glassware to sudden pressure boil-up rates. changes. Always apply and release pressure gradients and vacuums gradually. x Do not use glass vessels with thick walls e.g. Pyrex ‘Heavy Duty Ware’ or standard beakers or Ground Glass Joints flasks which have capacities of 5 litres or greater. x Lubricate the ground surfaces of joints to pre- vent leakage in use and facilitate separation. Use x For personal safety, consider sitting the hotplate a silicone-free laboratory grease and apply a light in a tray. This will help contain the liquid in the coat completely around the upper part of the joint event of a breakage. Alternatively, consider PTFE joint sleeves which can be fitted between the cone and socket. Vacuum and Pressure Use Because working conditions can vary enormously, Bibby Sterilin cannot guarantee any glassware against breakage when used under vacuum or pressure. The application of positive pressures inside glass x If ground glass joints do seize, then the follow- apparatus is particularly hazardous and should be ing remedies can be considered; avoided if at all possible. Safety precautions should always be taken to protect personnel and a • Always wear thick protective gloves and safety number of these are listed below: spectacles. Never use force. • Carefully rock the cone x Always use an adequate in its socket to achieve safety screen and/or protective separation. cage. • If the joint is ‘dry’, try to x Under no circumstances use provide lubrication. Hold glassware which is scratched, the joint upright and add cracked, chipped or etched. penetrating oil to the top Its strength will be seriously of the cone. Wait until impaired. the penetrating oil is well into the joint before try- ing to separate. x Do not use flat bottomed vessels such as Erlenmeyer • If the use of temperature is permissible, e.g. no flasks and bottles under volatile liquids present, then warm the outer vacuum as they are likely to socket under a running stream of hot water implode. Exceptions are from the tap. Hold under the tap for a few vessels with specially thick- minutes before trying to separate. ened walls such as Buchner filter flasks and desiccators. x Avoid stress caused by over-tightening clamps. Support glassware gently where possible. [ 15 ]
  20. 20. Sintered Glassware x Never pipette by mouth. Always use a purpose designed x New apparatus having pipette filler. sintered glass discs should be washed before use to remove loose particles of dust etc. x All items should be held in a Wash through with hot dilute vertical position when reading hydrochloric acid followed by the meniscus. a thorough rinse with water. The meniscus should be at eye level to avoid parallax errors. x Do ensure that the porosity of the sintered disc is appro- x If using priate for the application. strong Porosity 0 sinters are for corrosive coarse filtration, whilst higher acids etc. grades give progressively finer select volumetric ware filtration. manufactured from chemically resistant borosilicate glass. x Never subject sintered glassware to differential pressures exceeding 100kN/m2 x As with all glassware, (1 bar). scratched or chipped items should not be used. x Take extra care when heating sintered ware as the This information is provided in good faith by thermal endurance is less than Bibby Sterilin for the safety of its customers. standard borosilicate glass Please note that the advice given is for products. Always heat and general laboratory applications and may not cool very gradually. necessarily apply to all tests or procedures. If you are in any doubt, contact the Bibby Sterilin Technical Services Department for Volumetric Glassware specific advice. x Do ensure that all volumetric glassware is kept Bibby Sterilin Limited scrupulously clean. Dirt, and especially grease, can Tilling Drive distort the shape of the meniscus and also cause Stone droplets of liquid to adhere to the vessel walls. Staffordshire ST15 0SA Both seriously impair accuracy. United Kingdom (Good cleanliness is indicated by uniform wetting Tel: + 44 (0) 1785 812121 of the glass surface with distilled water). Fax: + 44 (0) 1785 813748 e-mail: x Do not expose volumetric glassware to direct heat e.g. hotplates, bunsen flame. Pyrex® is a registered trade mark. Bibby Sterilin x Autoclaving at 121°C and cleaning in automatic registered user. dishwashers is acceptable and will not affect the accuracy of Pyrex®, E-Mil® or MBL® glassware. [ 16 ]
  21. 21. Adapters Adapters, cone/screwthread QUICKFIT ® q With screwthread joint complete with plastic cap, silicone rubber ring and PTFE washer q Ideal for securing thermometers, gas inlet tubes, etc. Catalogue Thread Cone Acceptable diameter number size size through screwcap mm ST51/13 13 14/23 6.0 – 7.0 ST52/13 13 19/26 6.0 – 7.0 ST53/13 13 24/29 6.0 – 7.0 ST54/13 13 29/32 6.0 – 7.0 ST55/13 13 34/35 6.0 – 7.0 ST51/18 18 14/23 7.0 – 8.5 ST52/18 18 19/26 7.0 – 8.5 ST53/18 18 24/29 7.0 – 8.5 ST54/18 18 29/32 7.0 – 8.5 ST55/18 18 34/35 7.0 – 8.5 ST52/24 24 19/26 10.5 – 11.5 ST53/24 24 24/29 10.5 – 11.5 ST54/24 24 29/32 10.5 – 11.5 ST55/24 24 34/35 10.5 – 11.5 ST54/28 28 29/32 18.0 – 19.0 ST55/28 28 34/35 18.0 – 19.0 For further information on screwthread joints and spare caps etc., please refer to page 194. Adapters, expansion QUICKFIT ® q Useful for the connection of dissimilar sized ground glass joints q Large sized socket at the top, small sized cone at the base Catalogue number Socket size Cone size XA10 14/23 10/19 XA21 19/26 14/23 XA31 24/29 14/23 XA32 24/29 19/26 XA41 29/32 14/23 XA42 29/32 19/26 XA43 29/32 24/29 XA52 34/35 19/26 XA53 34/35 24/29 XA54 34/35 29/32 XA64 40/38 29/32 XA74 45/40 29/32 17
  22. 22. Adapters Adapters, reduction QUICKFIT ® q Useful for the connection of dissimilar sized ground glass joints q Small sized socket at the top, large sized cone at the bottom Catalogue number Socket size Cone size DA01 10/19 14/23 DA12 14/23 19/26 DA13 14/23 24/29 DA14 14/23 29/32 DA23 19/26 24/29 DA24 19/26 29/32 DA25 19/26 34/35 DA26 19/26 40/38 DA27 19/26 45/40 DA34 24/29 29/32 DA35 24/29 34/35 DA36 24/29 40/38 DA37 24/29 45/40 DA38 24/29 50/42 DA39 24/29 55/44 DA45 29/32 34/35 DA47 29/32 45/40 DA56 34/35 40/38 DA57 34/35 45/40 DA58 34/35 50/42 For information on the care of Quickfit® ground glass joints, please refer to Care and Maintenance of Laboratory Glassware Section (page 15). Adapters, conical/spherical QUICKFIT ® q With socket at the top and spherical ball joint at the bottom Catalogue number Socket size Ball size SB3/35 24/29 S35 For choice of retaining clips, see pages 187, 188 and 191. 18
  23. 23. Adapters Adapters, spherical/conical QUICKFIT ® q With spherical cup joint at the top and cone at the bottom Catalogue number Cone size Cup size CC3/35 24/29 S35 For choice of retaining clips, see pages 187, 188 and 191. Adapters, multiple QUICKFIT ® q With two necks parallel Catalogue number Socket size Cone size MA1/00 10/19 10/19 MA1/11 14/23 14/23 MA1/2 19/26 19/26 MA1/3 19/26 24/29 MA1/5 19/26 34/35 MA1/33 24/29 24/29 MA1/44 29/32 29/32 Adapters, multiple QUICKFIT ® q With two necks: – One vertical – One at 45° Catalogue number Socket size Cone size MA2/2 19/26 19/26 MA2/3 19/26 24/29 19
  24. 24. Adapters Adapter, multiple QUICKFIT ® q With three necks – Two vertical – One at 45° Catalogue Socket size Socket size number parallel necks angled neck Cone size MA4/23 19/26 19/26 24/29 Adapters, swan neck QUICKFIT ® q With screwthread joint to accept thermometers, air leak tubes, etc. Catalogue Socket Cone Thread number size size size MA6/11 14/23 14/23 13 MA6/22 19/26 19/26 13 MA6/23 19/26 24/29 13 MA6/33 24/29 24/29 13 Acceptable diameter of thermometer through the screwcap is 6 – 7mm. Spare caps and washers are detailed on page 194. Adapters, receiver QUICKFIT ® q With short stem q Useful for feeding distillate from condensers into receiving vessels Catalogue Socket Approx stem RA1/03 number size length mm RA1/01 14/23 65 RA1/02 19/26 65 RA1/03 24/29 65 RA1/04 29/32 65 RA1/13 20
  25. 25. Adapters Adapters, receiver QUICKFIT ® q With long stem Catalogue Socket Approx stem number size length mm RA1/10 10/19 120 RA1/03 RA1/11 14/23 190 RA1/12 19/26 200 RA1/13 24/29 200 RA1/14 29/32 200 A choice of retaining clips are described on pages 187 and 188. RA1/13 Adapters, receiver QUICKFIT ® q Straight type Catalogue Socket Overall height number size mm RA1/22 19/26 180 RA1/23 24/29 180 Adapters, receiver QUICKFIT ® q With side socket inclined at an angle of 15° Catalogue Socket Cone Approx overall number size size height mm RA4/11 14/23 14/23 120 RA4/22 19/26 19/26 120 RA4/23 19/26 24/29 120 21
  26. 26. Adapters Adapters, receiver QUICKFIT ® q Plain bend Catalogue Socket Cone Approx overall number size size height mm RA9/11 14/23 14/23 90 RA9/22 19/26 19/26 100 RA9/23 19/26 24/29 110 RA9/33 24/29 24/29 125 RA9/44 29/32 29/32 140 RA9/55 34/35 34/35 155 Adapters, receiver QUICKFIT ® q Bend with vent q With side-arm to provide vent to atmosphere q Avoids the problems of ‘closed systems’ Catalogue Socket Cone Approx overall number size size height mm RA2/00 10/19 10/19 75 RA2/11 14/23 14/23 80 RA2/22 19/26 19/26 106 RA2/23 19/26 24/29 120 The side-arm is for venting purposes and not for connection to a vacuum source. For adapters with vacuum connectors, see RA3: and RA13: series. Adapters, receiver, vacuum QUICKFIT ® q With side-arm for connection to a vacuum supply q Easy connection to flexible tubing via detachable plastic screwthread connector Catalogue Socket Cone Approx overall number size size height mm RA3/11/SC 14/23 14/23 110 RA3/22/SC 19/26 19/26 140 RA3/23/SC 19/26 24/29 140 RA3/33/SC 24/29 24/29 150 RA3/44/SC 29/32 29/32 165 22
  27. 27. Adapters Adapter, receiver, vacuum QUICKFIT ® q With side-arm for connection to a vacuum supply q Easy connection to flexible tubing via detachable plastic screwthread connector Catalogue Socket Cone Approx overall number size size height mm RA13/33/SC 24/29 24/29 140 Spare plastic screwthread connectors are detailed on page 77. Adapters, receiver, pig QUICKFIT ® q Allows up to three flasks* to be connected to a condenser outlet q Useful for collecting distillate fractions q By slightly rotating the adapter a new flask is presented to the distillate q With side-arm for connection to a vacuum supply Catalogue Socket Cone Approx overall number size size height mm RA5/00/SC 10/19 10/13 65 RA5/11/SC 14/23 14/23 110 RA5/21/SC 19/26 14/23 110 * Flasks and retaining clips are detailed on pages 128 and 187 - 188. It is not dimensionally possible to fit large capacity flasks to these receivers. Maximum flask capacity is: RA5/00/SC 10ml flask RA5/11/SC 50ml flask RA5/21/SC 100ml flask 23
  28. 28. Adapters Adapters, receiver, vacuum QUICKFIT ® RA12/2 q Allows four flasks to be connected to a condenser outlet q Useful for collecting fractions when distilling under vacuum q Each flask can be progressively filled by rotating the adapter q Avoids problems of disturbing vacuum conditions when changing flasks q Choice of two delivery adapters – Sloping – Vertical RA11/SC q Choice of collection flasks RA11/2 Catalogue Socket Cone number Description size size RA11/SC Screwthread vacuum 19/26 14/23 receiver adapter to take four flasks RA11/2 Vertical delivery 19/26 19/26 adapter RA12/2 Sloping delivery 19/26 19/26 adapter FR25/1S 25ml flask 14/23 — FR50/1S 50ml flask 14/23 — FR100/1S 100ml flask 14/23 — A choice of retaining clips to hold the flasks are detailed on pages 187 and 188. Adapters, receiver, Perkin QUICKFIT ® q For vacuum distillation work q Allows receiver flasks to be changed without disturbing the vacuum within the system q Fitted with 3 x GP Rotaflo stopcocks with PTFE keys: – No lubrication required – No contaminating greases – No chemical corrosion q With screwcap system for gentle release of vacuum at conclusion of work Catalogue Socket Cone Capacity number size size ml RA6/11/SC 14/23 14/23 10 RA6/22/SC 19/26 19/26 30 RA6/23/SC 19/26 24/29 30 RA6/33/SC 24/29 24/29 30 Spare Rotaflo® keys are listed on page 235. 24
  29. 29. Adapters Adapters, screwthread QUICKFIT ® q Double-ended screwthread joints q Useful for connecting to glass tubing etc. q Supplied complete with caps, rings and washers Approx Acceptable Catalogue Thread length of limbs diameter through number size mm screwcap mm SQ4/13 13 85 6.0 – 7.0 SQ4/18 18 85 7.0 – 8.5 SQ4/24 24 100 10.5 – 11.5 GS6/24 24 230 6.0 – 7.0 SQ4/28 28 120 18.0 – 19.0 Spare caps etc. detailed on page 194. Adapters, screwthread QUICKFIT ® q ‘T’ shaped connector with screwthread joints q Supplied complete with caps, rings and washers Approx Acceptable Catalogue Thread length of limbs diameter through number size mm screwcap mm SQ1/13 13 35 6.0 – 7.0 SQ1/18 18 35 7.0 – 8.5 SQ1/24 24 40 10.5 – 11.5 SQ1/28 28 50 18.0 – 19.0 Spare caps etc. detailed on page 194. Adapter, splash head, vertical QUICKFIT ® q Usually inserted between a flask and condenser to prevent ‘carry-over’ of liquid splashes Catalogue number Socket size Cone size SH17/23 19/26 24/29 25