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Computer Architecture: 
Core Hardware 
Chapter 1-2 
Eric Vanderburg
Hardware 
• Hardware & Software are soulmates 
• Device Drivers 
– 16 bit real mode (DOS, 9x) 
– 32 bit protected mode (9x...
Our toolkit so far 
• What is in it?
Toolkit 
• Crossover cable 
• Boot CD 
• Password recovery CD 
• Screwdriver & other basic tools 
• Flashlight 
• Portable...
Resources 
• IRQ (Interrupt Request) – ask for 
attention 
• I/O Address – where a device listens 
• Memory Address 
• DMA...
IRQs 
IRQ Device IRQ Device 
0 System Timer 8 Real Time Clock 
1 Keyboard 9 Available 
2 IRQ Cascade 10 Available 
3 COM2/...
DMA Channels 
• 0-3 8-bit 
• 4 is cascade 
• 5-7 is 16-bit
POST 
• Power On Self Test 
• The computer will beep if errors are 
encountered here 
• Beep code meanings are determined ...
Loading the OS 
• Seeks out devices in the order BIOS 
specifies 
• Locates the MBR (Master Boot 
Record) on the device 
•...
Loading the OS 
• Seeks out devices in the order BIOS 
specifies 
• Locates the MBR (Master Boot 
Record) on the device 
•...
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Computer Architecture - Hardware - Lessons 1-2 - Eric Vanderburg

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Computer Architecture - Hardware - Lessons 1-2 - Eric Vanderburg

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Computer Architecture - Hardware - Lessons 1-2 - Eric Vanderburg

  1. 1. Computer Architecture: Core Hardware Chapter 1-2 Eric Vanderburg
  2. 2. Hardware • Hardware & Software are soulmates • Device Drivers – 16 bit real mode (DOS, 9x) – 32 bit protected mode (9x, Me, NT, 2000, XP) – 64 bit • BIOS (Basic Input Output System) – System BIOS – Controls basic devices (FDD/Keyboard/Ports) – Startup BIOS – Boots the computer – CMOS setup – Allows changes to be made to the startup BIOS.
  3. 3. Our toolkit so far • What is in it?
  4. 4. Toolkit • Crossover cable • Boot CD • Password recovery CD • Screwdriver & other basic tools • Flashlight • Portable hard drive unit • USB Flash drive
  5. 5. Resources • IRQ (Interrupt Request) – ask for attention • I/O Address – where a device listens • Memory Address • DMA (Direct Memory Access) channel
  6. 6. IRQs IRQ Device IRQ Device 0 System Timer 8 Real Time Clock 1 Keyboard 9 Available 2 IRQ Cascade 10 Available 3 COM2/COM4 11 SCSI 4 COM1/COM3 12 Mouse 5 LPT2 / Audio 13 Math Coprocessor 6 FDD 14 Primary IDE 7 LPT1 15 Secondary IDE
  7. 7. DMA Channels • 0-3 8-bit • 4 is cascade • 5-7 is 16-bit
  8. 8. POST • Power On Self Test • The computer will beep if errors are encountered here • Beep code meanings are determined based on the BIOS type – Phoenix – AMI – Award
  9. 9. Loading the OS • Seeks out devices in the order BIOS specifies • Locates the MBR (Master Boot Record) on the device • MBR specifies where the OS is located on the device
  10. 10. Loading the OS • Seeks out devices in the order BIOS specifies • Locates the MBR (Master Boot Record) on the device • MBR specifies where the OS is located on the device

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