Leveraging Learning for Development Action Participatory Extension in South Vietnam Evan Forward November 13, 2008 Mekong ...
U.S. Fulbright Fellowship Program <ul><li>10 month fellowship for independent research </li></ul><ul><li>Mekong Delta Deve...
Presentation overview <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal background </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Case study: Pa...
Introduction
Personal background <ul><ul><ul><li>I grew up on a farm in a rural area of Vermont, U.S.A. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul...
Education <ul><ul><li>B.A. University of Vermont, U.S.A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree in Economics and Land Use and Re...
Case study: Participatory extension in South Vietnam
Why I chose this case <ul><li>The case chosen is used to look at two elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory agriculture...
Introduction
Introduction <ul><li>Traditional extension: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation: National policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Traditional extension structure  Adapted from MDI/VVOB project documents
Participatory extension structure  ? ?
Participatory Technology Development (PTD) introduction <ul><ul><li>Participatory Technology Development (PTD) in South Vi...
Problem identification <ul><ul><li>Collaborative process: extension workers working with farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Problem identification
Solution finding <ul><ul><li>Builds on the problem tree  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem broken down into manageabl...
Solution finding
Experimenting <ul><li>Collaborative endeavor: extension workers and farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Community activity    farme...
Experimenting
Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation <ul><li>Monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is working? Why? </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation
VVOB Introduction <ul><li>Flemish Office for Development Cooperation and Technical Assistance (VVOB) </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Participatory extension projects in South Vietnam: Timeline
VVOB vision in South Vietnam participatory extension  <ul><li>Vision: Participatory extension  skills  promote developmen...
VVOB strategy for involvement in South Vietnam  <ul><li>VVOB involvement strategy in South Vietnam:  </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
A focus on equitable involvement <ul><li>Criteria for farmer club involvement in participatory extension pilot projects </...
Provinces Source:  Vromant et al.  MDAEP and PAEP – a retrospective  (2007)
Districts Source:  Vromant et al.  MDAEP and PAEP – a retrospective  (2007)
Farmer Clubs Source:  Vromant et al.  MDAEP and PAEP – a retrospective  (2007)
Field methodology
Preliminary note <ul><ul><li>Note: Field work conducted thus far has looked at the first element of the case: participator...
Primary research question <ul><ul><li>The impacts of a methodology: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How has the introduction of...
Source: Davies, Rick and Jessica Dart.  Most Significant Change (MSC): A Guide to Its Use
Significant Change (SC) story-telling <ul><ul><li>Most Significant Change (MSC) methodology overview </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Semi-structured interview <ul><ul><li>Semi structured interview questionnaire  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preliminary ques...
Interviewee profiles 3 1 1 1 0 Ba Ria/ Vung Tau 7 2 1 1 1 1 AEC leadership 9 6 3 3+ 5 Total 1 1 0 Vinh Long 3 1 3 Hau Gian...
Field work challenges and advantages <ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I had at least two deg...
Analytical methodology
<ul><ul><ul><li>Grounded theory is,  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ . . . theory that was derived from data systema...
Grounded Theory <ul><ul><li>Inductive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fitting theory to reality  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><u...
A look into the Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA) process [Ongoing]
QDA overview  Figure adapted from: Seidel, John V.  Qualitative Data Analysis.  Qualis Research: www. qualisresearch.com....
QDA first steps <ul><li>Translation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distilled dialogue into clusters of meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><...
QDA first steps Field note checking
QDA: Next steps <ul><li>Building and refining a codebook </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for trends in the data </li></ul></ul>...
Building and refining the codebook Working codebook Screen capture from NVivo 8 QDA software (www.qsrinternational.com
QDA: Next steps <ul><ul><li>Coding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assign “atoms” of evidence from interviews to categories...
Coding: Assigning atoms Screen capture from NVivo 8 QDA software (www.qsrinternational.com
Coding: Noticing and examining Example of analysis process
Do not forget to look at yourself <ul><ul><li>Reflexivity is key at all stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>QDA is a ver...
Preliminary conclusions
Why I chose this case [Recap] <ul><li>The case chosen is used to look at two elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory agr...
A working theory Part 1: The learning organization in  participatory extension?
<ul><li>Learning organizations are . . . </li></ul><ul><li>“ . . .organizations where people continually expand their capa...
Building on the Learning Organization <ul><li>Learning Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normative theory: It is theory t...
The Learning Organization in participatory extension <ul><li>Systems Thinking:  Systems based problem solving </li></ul><u...
The Learning Organization in participatory extension <ul><li>Personal Mastery:  Individuals that are meaningfully engaged ...
The Learning Organization in participatory extension <ul><li>Team learning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Counter example: Farm...
The Learning Organization in participatory extension <ul><li>Mental models:  Individuals, groups and institutions that are...
The Learning Organization in participatory extension <ul><li>Building shared vision </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Counter exam...
A working theory Part 2:  Leverage in development action
Leverage <ul><li>“ Give me a lever long enough and I can move the world single-handedly.” </li></ul><ul><li>-Greek mathema...
What is leverage? <ul><li>“Killing two birds with one stone.” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-American proverb </li></ul></...
VVOB Leverage Objective:  Institutionalizing participatory  methodology in Vietnam  agricultural extension practice VVOB ?
VVOB leverage in South Vietnam <ul><li>Leverage sources to examine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meso-level development strategy <...
What leverage has VVOB achieved? <ul><li>Working research question: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How is the relationship between ...
Applications to Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM)
Exploring applications to IWRM <ul><li>Can a grounded theory for development action built from the case of participatory e...
What is IWRM? <ul><li>IWRM is a process that, “. . . promotes the coordinated development and management of water and rela...
Leveraging learning for IWRM? <ul><li>Policy coordination  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VVOB: Meso-level development strategy, st...
Applications to Basin development <ul><li>Bringing grounded theory built on participatory extension in South Vietnam to th...
Questions or comments? <ul><li>Contact: </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Leveraging Learning For Development Action

1,181 views

Published on

Presentation given at the Mekong Delta Development Research institute as the culminating progress report of a 2008 Fulbright Fellowship research project.

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,181
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
12
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
50
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Leveraging Learning For Development Action

  1. 1. Leveraging Learning for Development Action Participatory Extension in South Vietnam Evan Forward November 13, 2008 Mekong Delta Development Research Institute (MDI)
  2. 2. U.S. Fulbright Fellowship Program <ul><li>10 month fellowship for independent research </li></ul><ul><li>Mekong Delta Development Research Institute (MDI)  Host institute </li></ul><ul><li>Project title: Integrated Water Resource Management in the Mekong River Basin </li></ul><ul><li>Key project assets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated/interdisciplinary perspective at host institute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fellowship adaptability/flexibility </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Presentation overview <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal background </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Case study: Participatory extension in South Vietnam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field methodology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analytical methodology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A look into the Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA) process [Ongoing] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preliminary conclusions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A working theory part 1: Leverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A working theory part 2: The learning organization in participatory extension </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Applications to Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee discussion </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction
  5. 5. Personal background <ul><ul><ul><li>I grew up on a farm in a rural area of Vermont, U.S.A. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I am 24 years old </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>11 months in Vietnam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have taken Vietnamese classes and can speak a LITTLE  will continue in the U.S. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Education <ul><ul><li>B.A. University of Vermont, U.S.A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree in Economics and Land Use and Resource Conflict Studies (LURCS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LURCS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methodology focus: Assembling a versatile methodological tool box </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All quantitative (e.g. GIS, spatial statistics, econometrics, dynamic systems modeling) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No qualitative </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Case study: Participatory extension in South Vietnam
  8. 8. Why I chose this case <ul><li>The case chosen is used to look at two elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory agriculture extension methodology </li></ul><ul><li>An approach to international development action </li></ul>
  9. 9. Introduction
  10. 10. Introduction <ul><li>Traditional extension: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation: National policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning: Research institutions and top-levels of extension institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Participatory extension in South Vietnam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation: Farmer’s needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning: All levels but primarily farmer level </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Traditional extension structure Adapted from MDI/VVOB project documents
  12. 12. Participatory extension structure ? ?
  13. 13. Participatory Technology Development (PTD) introduction <ul><ul><li>Participatory Technology Development (PTD) in South Vietnam: 4 step methodology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem identification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solution finding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experimenting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring and Evaluation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Problem identification <ul><ul><li>Collaborative process: extension workers working with farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem-tree methodology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combines individual thinking with group learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Systems thinking” approach identifies: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A host of problems on a specific area of agricultural interest </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The relationships between problems (cause and effect network) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The root problem </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Problem identification
  16. 16. Solution finding <ul><ul><li>Builds on the problem tree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem broken down into manageable pieces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Root problem (s) clearly understood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem tree process facilitates common understanding/vision of the problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common vision allows targeted knowledge sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tacit (working) knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common vision targets further learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Study tours </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer research </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extension worker research  liaise with research institutes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Solution finding
  18. 18. Experimenting <ul><li>Collaborative endeavor: extension workers and farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Community activity  farmers in the community can observe the experiments and learn </li></ul>
  19. 19. Experimenting
  20. 20. Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation <ul><li>Monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is working? Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What isn’t working? Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What worked? Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What didn’t work? Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Participatory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers and extension workers ask and answer these questions together </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation
  22. 22. VVOB Introduction <ul><li>Flemish Office for Development Cooperation and Technical Assistance (VVOB) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belgian development assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education/capacity building focus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>VVOB involvement in South Vietnam: Participatory Extension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mekong Delta Agriculture Extension Project (MDAEP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MDI and VVOB partnership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participatory Agriculture Extension for the Poor (PAEP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ba Ria/Vung Tau AEC, Institute for Agricultural Sciences in South Vietnam (IAS), and VVOB partnership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participatory Extension (PAEX) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MDI, IAS, VVOB partnership </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Participatory extension projects in South Vietnam: Timeline
  24. 24. VVOB vision in South Vietnam participatory extension  <ul><li>Vision: Participatory extension skills promote development from the bottom-up: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empower/build capacity in farmers groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspire/enable marginalized farmers to be pro-active in their own development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable strong relationships to be built between extension workers and farmers </li></ul></ul> Source: Vromant et al. MDAEP and PAEP – a retrospective (2007)
  25. 25. VVOB strategy for involvement in South Vietnam  <ul><li>VVOB involvement strategy in South Vietnam: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meso-level: Agricultural Extension Centers (AEC) main target </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand led </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MDAEP, PAEP and PAEX: Operational partners and provinces requested to participate </li></ul></ul></ul> Source: Vromant et al. MDAEP and PAEP – a retrospective (2007)
  26. 26. A focus on equitable involvement <ul><li>Criteria for farmer club involvement in participatory extension pilot projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criteria development facilitated by VVOB and operational partners but determined by provincial level leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criteria different for each province but common elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer club must be interested in participating </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer club must be already established </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer club must have a strong representation of marginalized farmers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor farmers (all provinces) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women (all provinces) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme example: All woman farmer club in Long An </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic minority (some provinces) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme example: All Khmer ethnic group farmer club in Soc Trang </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Provinces Source: Vromant et al. MDAEP and PAEP – a retrospective (2007)
  28. 28. Districts Source: Vromant et al. MDAEP and PAEP – a retrospective (2007)
  29. 29. Farmer Clubs Source: Vromant et al. MDAEP and PAEP – a retrospective (2007)
  30. 30. Field methodology
  31. 31. Preliminary note <ul><ul><li>Note: Field work conducted thus far has looked at the first element of the case: participatory extension methodology. Further fieldwork (interviews with key VVOB and operational partner staff) will be needed to build understanding of the approach used by VVOB for international development action. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Primary research question <ul><ul><li>The impacts of a methodology: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How has the introduction of PTD impacted farmers, extension workers, and provincial level leadership in the agricultural extension system of South Vietnam? </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Source: Davies, Rick and Jessica Dart. Most Significant Change (MSC): A Guide to Its Use
  34. 34. Significant Change (SC) story-telling <ul><ul><li>Most Significant Change (MSC) methodology overview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participatory monitoring and evaluation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assess alignment of project goals and impacts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify areas of change interest </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collect significant change stories from the field </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determine most significant change through consensus based dialogue with key project stakeholders </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods used in this project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inspired by MSC  Data collection methods identical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Key differences: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determine most significant change  examine the interplay of change processes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assess alignment of project goals and impacts  Examine an organization’s strategy for development and the impacts that have resulted to explore broader applications and theoretical implications </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Semi-structured interview <ul><ul><li>Semi structured interview questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preliminary questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contextualize the interviewee </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare the interviewee’s mind for the core questions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Think about goals and tools </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritize </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core questions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major changes observed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal level of the interviewee </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer club level </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Community level </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extension institution level </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overall largest change observed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Optional question: changes observed in outside organizations the interview participates in </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Interviewee profiles 3 1 1 1 0 Ba Ria/ Vung Tau 7 2 1 1 1 1 AEC leadership 9 6 3 3+ 5 Total 1 1 0 Vinh Long 3 1 3 Hau Giang 8+ 6 8 Total 2 1 2 Soc Trang Partial 1 1 Can Tho 1 1 2 Ca Mau Leader Member only Extension worker Farmers Clubs Province
  37. 37. Field work challenges and advantages <ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I had at least two degrees of separation from interviewees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different cultural background </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different occupation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VVOB’s strong relationships with stakeholders </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vietnamese project ambassadors  smoothed separation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experienced MDI/VVOB team to work with helped fill gaps in understanding to make for a richer field experience </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Analytical methodology
  39. 39. <ul><ul><ul><li>Grounded theory is, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ . . . theory that was derived from data systematically gathered and analyzed through the research process. In this method . . . a researcher does not begin a project with a preconceived theory in mind (unless his or her purpose is to elaborate and extend existing theory). Rather, the researcher begins with an area of study and allows theory to emerge from the data. Theory derived from data is more likely to resemble the “reality” than is theory derived by putting together a series of concepts based on experience or solely through speculation (how one thinks things ought to work).” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>— Strauss, Anselm and Juliet Corbin. Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory(2 nd edition). Sage Publications: London, 1998. p 11. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Grounded Theory <ul><ul><li>Inductive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fitting theory to reality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Listening to the demands of the data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Science: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis grounded in data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Art </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building theory from conversations and stories and unorganized raw data: creating order in chaos </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. A look into the Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA) process [Ongoing]
  42. 42. QDA overview  Figure adapted from: Seidel, John V. Qualitative Data Analysis. Qualis Research: www. qualisresearch.com. 1998. QDA Heuristic 
  43. 43. QDA first steps <ul><li>Translation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distilled dialogue into clusters of meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow up questions were very important: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize loss of conversational nuances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maximize understanding </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. QDA first steps Field note checking
  45. 45. QDA: Next steps <ul><li>Building and refining a codebook </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for trends in the data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Categorize and characterize the trends </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refine throughout the coding process </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Building and refining the codebook Working codebook Screen capture from NVivo 8 QDA software (www.qsrinternational.com
  47. 47. QDA: Next steps <ul><ul><li>Coding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assign “atoms” of evidence from interviews to categories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Noticing and examining trends and relationships in the data </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Coding: Assigning atoms Screen capture from NVivo 8 QDA software (www.qsrinternational.com
  49. 49. Coding: Noticing and examining Example of analysis process
  50. 50. Do not forget to look at yourself <ul><ul><li>Reflexivity is key at all stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>QDA is a very interpretive process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DO NOT forget the influence of your ingrained perspectives on the process </li></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Preliminary conclusions
  52. 52. Why I chose this case [Recap] <ul><li>The case chosen is used to look at two elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory agriculture extension methodology </li></ul><ul><li>An approach to international development action </li></ul>
  53. 53. A working theory Part 1: The learning organization in participatory extension?
  54. 54. <ul><li>Learning organizations are . . . </li></ul><ul><li>“ . . .organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning how to learn together.” </li></ul><ul><li>-Senge, Peter. The Fifth Discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. Random House: London. 1990. P. 3. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Building on the Learning Organization <ul><li>Learning Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normative theory: It is theory that offers guidelines to inform practice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peter Senge’s five disciplines of an organization that learns  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal mastery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building shared vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team learning </li></ul></ul> Senge, Peter. The Fifth Discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. Random House: London. 1990.
  56. 56. The Learning Organization in participatory extension <ul><li>Systems Thinking: Systems based problem solving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counter example: Plants are dying  farmer applies more pesticides or fertilizer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Plants are dying  PTD process (farmers and extension workers) addresses these questions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What are all of the factors that could be causing the plants to be dying, how are they related and what is the root problem? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How can I most efficiently (leverage) use my resources to solve this problem sustainably? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning how to learn holistically </li></ul>
  57. 57. The Learning Organization in participatory extension <ul><li>Personal Mastery: Individuals that are meaningfully engaged in learning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Counter example: Extension workers receive information from provincial level AEC and deliver it to farmers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Extension workers conduct independent research to respond to farmers needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning to learn independently </li></ul>
  58. 58. The Learning Organization in participatory extension <ul><li>Team learning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Counter example: Farmers confront problems alone using only their own base of knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Farmer clubs and extension workers combine their knowledge and confront problems together </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning how to share knowledge and learn in a group </li></ul>
  59. 59. The Learning Organization in participatory extension <ul><li>Mental models: Individuals, groups and institutions that are continually scrutinizing their own ingrained mental models </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Counter example: Ingrained mental model: “Farmers cannot contribute to the technological knowledge base” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Scrutinizing ingrained mental models “Why have I always thought that farmers cannot contribute to the technological knowledge base?” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning how to dissolve barriers to learning </li></ul>
  60. 60. The Learning Organization in participatory extension <ul><li>Building shared vision </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Counter example: Annual plans are based on director’s ideas alone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Annual plans based on a dialogue process that includes farmers, extension workers and provincial level leadership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning how to integrate collective learning and act with a common purpose </li></ul>
  61. 61. A working theory Part 2: Leverage in development action
  62. 62. Leverage <ul><li>“ Give me a lever long enough and I can move the world single-handedly.” </li></ul><ul><li>-Greek mathematician Archimedes </li></ul><ul><li>287-212 B.C. </li></ul>
  63. 63. What is leverage? <ul><li>“Killing two birds with one stone.” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-American proverb </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Its about </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The relation between one’s force and one’s impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximizing resources </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. VVOB Leverage Objective: Institutionalizing participatory methodology in Vietnam agricultural extension practice VVOB ?
  65. 65. VVOB leverage in South Vietnam <ul><li>Leverage sources to examine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meso-level development strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lobby work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand-led involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic information dissemination/networking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Study tours, newsletters, mixed province workshops </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building enduring partnerships within the host country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitalizing on operational partner’s (e.g. MDI, IAS, and AECs) base of rapport and experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others? </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. What leverage has VVOB achieved? <ul><li>Working research question: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How is the relationship between VVOB’s force and its impact in South Vietnam characterized? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Next steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Field work: Interview members of VVOB and VVOB’s operational partner organizations in South Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary literature review: Examine VVOB project documents </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. Applications to Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM)
  68. 68. Exploring applications to IWRM <ul><li>Can a grounded theory for development action built from the case of participatory extension in South Vietnam offer guidance to Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) based policy agenda in the Mekong River Basin? </li></ul>
  69. 69. What is IWRM? <ul><li>IWRM is a process that, “. . . promotes the coordinated development and management of water and related resources, in order to maximize economic and social welfare in a balanced way without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems .  </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Mekong River Commission, 2005. http:// www.mrcmekong.org/programmes/bdp.htm . Accessed 16 May 2008. </li></ul></ul>
  70. 70. Leveraging learning for IWRM? <ul><li>Policy coordination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VVOB: Meso-level development strategy, strategic information dissemination, lobby work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PTD: problem-tree generates solutions that maximize knowledge and capitals (natural, social, physical, financial, human) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VVOB and PTD based extension: Strengthening channels for feedback between stakeholders and policy makers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Equity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VVOB and PTD based extension: Building learning capacities that enable marginalized stakeholders to drive their own development </li></ul></ul>
  71. 71. Applications to Basin development <ul><li>Bringing grounded theory built on participatory extension in South Vietnam to the IWRM table </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participatory extension model: (PTD: building key learning capacities) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitation strategy (leverage) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lessons for the Mekong River Commission? </li></ul>
  72. 72. Questions or comments? <ul><li>Contact: </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>

×