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K2 elhanan adler_israelbibliographicdata

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2014 EVA/Minerva Jerusalem International Conference on Digitisation of Cultural Heritage
http://2014.minervaisrael.org.il
http://www.digital-heritage.org.il

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K2 elhanan adler_israelbibliographicdata

  1. 1. Israeli Bibliographic Data and the International Scene Elhanan Adler National Library of Israel and David Yellin Academic College of Education
  2. 2. Background • Digital preservation and access to national cultural heritage materials is (or should be) an important activity of all countries. • Local and national efforts need to be made international in order to reach the greatest possible audience. • Cultural heritage materials from various countries often overlap. • Jewish cultural heritage materials are an extreme example of this overlap. • The National Library of Israel (NLI) is actively working to make its metadata acceptable to international projects
  3. 3. Metadata issues • Merging metadata from various countries creates challenges related to – Standards – Terminology – Languages – Scripts • Israeli metadata needs to be adaptable to international standards while continuing to meet local needs
  4. 4. Israeli bibliographic metadata • Generally follows international standards (AACR, RDA) but data is recorded in four vernacular scripts – Latin – Hebrew – Arabic – Cyrillic
  5. 5. US-style cataloging • All entry points in Latin alphabet • In recent years, option to enrich the record with parallel vernacular 880 fields • Major advantage: works in all languages and alphabets are retrieved by a single search • Major disadvantage: Latin alphabet heading is not always obvious – particularly for Hebrew names (various romanization schemes) • This approach is now known as MARC Model A
  6. 6. Israeli style cataloging • Works in Latin, Hebrew, Arabic and Cyrillic scripts are cataloged in the original script • Major advantage: headings are searched in the native language of the work (no romanization) • Major disadvantage: Multiple searches necessary to retrieve material in more than one script • This approach is now known as MARC Model B
  7. 7. Example –Headings for Benjamin Netanyahu • Netanyahu, Binyamin • Нетаниягу, Биньямин נתניהו, בנימין • نتنياهو، بنيامين •
  8. 8. The solution: retain separate alphabets but enable cross-alphabet searching • NLI Name headings: currently 4 scripts • NLI subjects: English only (LCSH) with Hebrew translations • The goal: searching any of the scripts will retrieve headings using all of them
  9. 9. How? • Create single authority record for each heading with multiple 1xx fields (one for each script), e.g. – 1001 $aNetanyahu, Binyamin,$9eng – 1001 $aНетаниягу, Биньямин, $9rus – 1001 $a $$9 ,נתניהו, בנימין heb • Each can have its own cross references – 4001 $aNetanyahu, Benjamin,$9eng – 4001 $a $$9 ,נתניהו, ביבי heb • Bibliographic record contains only one form (in alphabet of cataloging) but can be retrieved by all.
  10. 10. Software support • This solution is non-standard (MARC field 1xx is non-repeatable) • It is supported by ALEPH 500 software • It is used by other ALEPH libraries (e.g. Swiss for French/German/Italian headings) • It is acceptable to the VIAF project
  11. 11. Example of name cluster
  12. 12. Four separate authority records before merge
  13. 13. After merge
  14. 14. Browse index – before merge (10+11+2+11 records)
  15. 15. Browse index – after merge Same records under each heading
  16. 16. VIAF project (Virtual International Authority File) • Authority records are loaded to the international VIAF project where they are further clustered with other name headings from other countries • Bibliographic projects using VIAF data will be able to locate material related to all forms
  17. 17. The Virtual International Authority File (VIAF) is an international service designed to provide convenient access to the world's major name authority files. Its creators envision the VIAF as a building block for the Semantic Web to enable switching of the displayed form of names for persons to the preferred language and script of the Web user. VIAF began as a joint project with the Library of Congress (LC), the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek (DNB), the Bibliothèque nationale de France (BNF) and OCLC. It has, over the past decade, become a cooperative effort involving an expanding number of other national libraries and other agencies. At the beginning of 2012, contributors include 20 agencies from 16 countries. [2014: 34 agencies in 29 countries ]
  18. 18. Merging/clustering headings • Initial clustering based on VIAF merging • Ongoing clustering in current cataloging • Retrospective clustering based on likelihood that name appears in more than one alphabet (major authors, historical figures, translations, etc.) • Currently over 57,000 names have multi-script clusters
  19. 19. Further Authority record enhancement • Import biographical data (formatted and unformatted) • Import alternate name forms • Export the enhanced records to the Virtual International Authority File (VIAF) 24
  20. 20. Bibliography of the Hebrew Book data  BHB authority records (about 20,000) are rich in biographical information (narrative format)  But - very different forms of headings  Stage 1 – Match 95% of the BHB authority records to NLI authority records - done  Stage 2 – transfer narrative biographical data and alternate heading forms from BHB to NLI – done  Stage 3a – mine biographical data to create RDA coded data fields – done  Stage 3b – Use BHB forms/references in NLI authority records to expedite single search of both databases – in process 25
  21. 21. NLI authority record enhanced with BHB data 26
  22. 22. 27
  23. 23. Israel Museum database 28
  24. 24. Artist data transferred as Excel file 29
  25. 25. 30
  26. 26. NLI enhanced record 31
  27. 27. Link to Israel Museum site 32
  28. 28. Israel Museum data in VIAF 33
  29. 29. ACUM אקו"ם )אגודת קומפוזיטורים מחברים ומו"לים למוסיקה בישראל( 34
  30. 30. ID numbers of creators and performers 35
  31. 31. 36
  32. 32. ACUM data in authority record 37
  33. 33. Hierarchical geographic data • Organize data on place names in hierarchical form (English and Hebrew) in order to use it in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) • Enrich records with geographical coordinates (field 034) 38
  34. 34. Example: Authority record for Białystok (Poland) 39
  35. 35. 40
  36. 36. 41
  37. 37. 42
  38. 38. 43
  39. 39. Subject headings • In 2010-2011 The NLI converted its classified catalog (modified Dewey Decimal Classification with added descriptors) to Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) • In parallel the NLI began a project to translate all relevant LCSH headings to Hebrew • English forms are used in the bibliographic records. Searching can be either on English or Hebrew terms.
  40. 40. NLI subject thesaurus • 990,000 subjects: base and compound • Not all in use (includes entire LCSH file) • Of those in use > 95% have Hebrew translations • Unique subfield dictionary contains 104,000 translations • Most new subject headings are compound of subfields with existing translations (automatic translation) • New subfields are translated and added to the dictionary (ongoing)
  41. 41. NLI subject thesaurus – in house • NLI general catalog • NLI special collections (maps, music, [mss.]) • Index to articles in Jewish studies (Rambi)
  42. 42. Creating a national Israeli authority file • The NLI has invested much effort in clustering names in different scripts (ongoing) • The NLI has invested much effort in translating subject headings to Hebrew (ongoing) • Other Israeli libraries wish to make use of this data for their own catalogs • Additional partners will make the authority work, clustering and translation more effective and efficient 47
  43. 43. Beta site: University of Haifa • A copy of the NLI’s authority file is part of the Haifa ALEPH installation • It is automatically synchronized every evening • Headings can link to either the NLI authorities or the local Haifa ones – priority to NLI • U. of Haifa catalogers have authorization to add and update original NLI authority records • Requires coordination of cataloging practices! 48
  44. 44. Use of NLI authority data by other Israeli libraries • 2014 – University of Haifa • 2015 – Some members of the College Libraries consortium
  45. 45. Future development plans • Partnership with other institutions in developing and expanding the NLI authority date (NACO/SACO model) • Maintain and expand Latin script forms of all possible headings for international compatibility • Make data available to international metadata and cultural heritage projects

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