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G3 stoeck and_hayim_lapin_nextgenerationculturalheritage

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Daniel Stoeckl ben Ezra, EPHE, Sorbonne, France
Hayim Lapin, University of Maryland, US
Building the Next Generation of Resources for Cultural Heritage Digital Texts: Mishna and Tosefta
2016 EVA/Minerva Jerusalem International Conference on Digitisation of Cultural Heritage
http://2016.minervaisrael.org.il
http://www.digital-heritage.org.il

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G3 stoeck and_hayim_lapin_nextgenerationculturalheritage

  1. 1. Building the Next Generation of Resources for Cultural Heritage Digital Texts: <MISHNAH AND TOSEFTA/> Four Inter-related Projects DIGITAL MISHNAH CT-MISHNAH MISHNAH TOSEFTA SYNOPSIS MODEL EDITION—BAVOT NextGen Resources: Desiderata and working principles EVA/Minerva Jerualem 10 November 2016 Daniel Stoekl ben Ezra (EPHE), France Hayim Lapin (University of Maryland), USA
  2. 2. FOUR PROJECTS Digital Mishnah CT-Mishnah Mishnah Tosefta Synopsis Model Edition—Bavot
  3. 3. Introducing Mishnah and Tosefta Mishnah  A legal compendium composed ca 200 CE  Serves as the foundation of two Talmudim  As an object of study and memorization till today, a central cultural heritage text  Clearly both drawing on sources and editorial reworking Tosefta (“the Supplement”)  A legal compendium perhaps two generations later than the Mishnah  Parallels to it are widely cited in Talmuds  As a completed work, the Tosefta expands upon and comments or supplements the Mishnah  Many scholars argue that Tosefta often contains versions that predate the Mishnah.
  4. 4. Digital Mishnah Current DEMO site: http://mishnah.mith.us/exist/ apps/digitalmishnah All significant witnesses Incorporate fragmentary material from Cairo Genizah TEI compliant XML Automated Collation Functions • Text browse • Variants  Current witnesses • Extensive coverage of Bavot • To be implemented: all Yerushalmi witnesses (Schaefer) • In process: Cambridge, Parma Kaufmann
  5. 5. Digital Mishnah Current DEMO site: http://mishnah.mith.us/exist/ apps/digitalmishnah All significant witnesses Incorporate fragmentary material from Cairo Genizah TEI compliant XML Automated Collation Functions • Text browse • Variants  Current witnesses • Extensive coverage of Bavot • To be implemented: all Yerushalmi witnesses (Schaefer) • In process: Cambridge, Parma Kaufmann
  6. 6. Digital Mishnah Current DEMO site: http://mishnah.mith.us/exist/ apps/digitalmishnah All significant witnesses Incorporate fragmentary material from Cairo Genizah TEI compliant XML Automated Collation Functions • Text browse • Variants  Current witnesses • Extensive coverage of Bavot • To be implemented: all Yerushalmi witnesses (Schaefer) • In process: Cambridge, Parma Kaufmann
  7. 7. CT-Mishnah “Editio Minor” of the Mishnah (4 major witnesses) http://mishna.huma-num.fr  Texts and variants  First modern translation into French  Commentary in French
  8. 8. Mishnah Tosefta Synopsis  Two closely related corpora; complex relationship  Collaborative Project, NEH (US)/DFG (Germany) • Hayim Lapin • Tal Ilan (FUB) • Shamma Friedman (Bar Ilan/JTS) • Daniel Stoekl ben Ezra  Alignment of four major Mishnah witnesses  Alignment of Mishnah to Tosefta: • Hand Alignment based on scholarly work, independent examination • Computational alignment Thanks to: DICTA (Moshe Koppel, Avi Shmidman); Nachum Dershowitz Independent units of tradition? Mishnah Tosefta T supplements M T preserves sources of M? Witnesses: Mishnah, Palestinian Talmud, Babylonian Talmud Tosefta Witnesses copyists know Talmud copyists know Mishnah, Talmud
  9. 9. Mishnah Tosefta Synopsis  Two closely related corpora; complex relationship  Collaborative Project, NEH (US)/DFG (Germany) • Hayim Lapin • Tal Ilan (FUB) • Shamma Friedman (Bar Ilan/JTS) • Daniel Stoekl  Alignment of four major Mishnah witnesses  Alignment of Mishnah to Tosefta: • Hand Alignment based on scholarly work, independent examination • Computational alignment Thanks to: DICTA (Moshe Koppel, Avi Shmidman); Nachum Dershowitz
  10. 10. Model Edition  FMSH Joint US/EU grant: • Daniel Stoekl ben Ezra • Hayim Lapin  Features • Modular, customizable screen (see Mirador, by Biblissima: http://demos.biblissima-condorcet.fr) • Text and witnesses • Translation (German, French, English) • Commentary (French …) • Grammatical (morphological) tagging • Lexicon, thesaurus  Some “wishful” visualizations:
  11. 11. ➤Choose view ➤standard ➤text criticism ➤paleography ➤history ➤linguistics ➤intertextuality -------------------- ➤layout options ➤Select passage ➤Select and/or order witnesses Panel (expandable) ➤ variants ... ➤ lexical data ➤ concordance ➤ named entities Commentary Controls for transcription viewControls for Translation view “Study” view ‫ארבעה‬‫אבות‬‫נזיקים‬‫השור‬‫והבור‬ ‫והמבעה‬‫וההבער‬‫לא‬‫השור‬‫כהרי‬/‫המ׳‬/ 5‫המבעה‬‫ולא‬‫המבעה‬‫כהרי‬‫השור‬‫לא‬ ‫זה‬‫וזה‬‫שיש‬‫בהן‬‫רוח‬‫חיים‬(‫ו‬)[‫כ‬]‫הרי‬‫האש‬ ‫שאין‬‫בה‬‫רוח‬‫חיים‬‫לא‬‫זה‬‫וזה‬‫שהדרכן‬ ‫לילך‬‫ולהזיק‬(‫ו‬)[‫כ‬]‫הרי‬‫הבור‬‫שאין‬‫דרכו‬‫לילך‬ ‫ולהזיק‬‫הצד‬‫השווה‬‫שבהן‬‫שדרכן‬/‫ל׳‬/ 10‫להזיק‬‫ושמירתן‬‫עליך‬‫וכשהזיק‬‫חב‬
  12. 12. ➤Choose view ➤standard ➤text criticism ➤paleography ➤history ➤linguistics ➤intertextuality -------------------- ➤layout options ➤Select passage ➤Select and/or order witnesses Panel (expandable) ➤ variants Mary] K Margaret, G2, G17 Nancy ➤ lexical data ➤ concordance ➤ named entities Dictionary + Concordance ‫→המבעה‬ .e ‫(מבעה‬root ‫)3בעי‬ link to maagarim, CAL, LSJ, BDB, Jastrowpdf 1. Burn ○ (Collapsible reference to passages) 2. ○ (Collapsible reference to passages) ‫בשם‬‫א׳‬‫מביט‬‫עמקים‬ ‫נתחיל‬‫סדר‬‫נזיקים׳‬ ‫ארבעה‬‫אבות‬‫נזיקים‬‫השור‬‫והבור‬ ‫והמבעה‬‫וההבער‬‫לא‬‫השור‬‫כהרי‬/‫המ׳‬/ 5‫המבעה‬‫ולא‬‫המבעה‬‫כהרי‬‫השור‬‫לא‬ ‫זה‬‫וזה‬‫שיש‬‫בהן‬‫רוח‬‫חיים‬(‫ו‬)[‫כ‬]‫הרי‬‫האש‬ Lexical analyses: ☑ 1. Participle ... ❑ 2. Noun …. Controls for transcription viewControls for Lex Data view Language, grammar views ‫בעי‬(burn) Hif. Part. m. sg. def.
  13. 13. Text/Image views ➤Choose view ➤standard ➤text criticism ➤paleography ➤history ➤linguistics ➤intertextuality -------------------- ➤Layout options [mirador] ➤Select options ➤By text ➤By witness ‫עמקים‬ ‫מביט‬ ‫א׳‬ ‫בשם‬ ‫נזיקים׳‬ ‫סדר‬ ‫נתחיל‬ ‫והבור‬ ‫השור‬ ‫נזיקים‬ ‫אבות‬ ‫ארבעה‬ ‫כהרי‬ ‫השור‬ ‫לא‬ ‫וההבער‬ ‫והמבעה‬/‫המ׳‬/ 5‫לא‬ ‫השור‬ ‫כהרי‬ ‫המבעה‬ ‫ולא‬ ‫המבעה‬ ‫חיים‬ ‫רוח‬ ‫בהן‬ ‫שיש‬ ‫וזה‬ ‫זה‬(‫ו‬[)‫כ‬]‫האש‬ ‫הרי‬ ‫שהדרכן‬ ‫וזה‬ ‫זה‬ ‫לא‬ ‫חיים‬ ‫רוח‬ ‫בה‬ ‫שאין‬ ‫ולהזיק‬ ‫לילך‬(‫ו‬[)‫כ‬]‫לילך‬ ‫דרכו‬ ‫שאין‬ ‫הבור‬ ‫הרי‬ ‫שדרכן‬ ‫שבהן‬ ‫השווה‬ ‫הצד‬ ‫ולהזיק‬/‫ל׳‬/ 10‫חב‬ ‫וכשהזיק‬ ‫עליך‬ ‫ושמירתן‬ ‫להזיק‬ ‫הארץ‬ ‫במיטב‬ ‫נזק‬ ‫תשלומי‬ ‫משלם‬ ‫המזיק‬ ‫ב׳‬‫הכשרתי‬ ‫בשמירתו‬ ‫שחבתי‬ ‫כל‬/‫א׳‬/ ‫חבתי‬ ‫נזקו‬ ‫במקצת‬ ‫היכשרתי‬ ‫נזקו‬ ‫את‬ ‫נכסים‬ ‫נזקו‬ ‫כל‬ ‫כהכשר‬ ‫נזקו‬ ‫בתשלומי‬ 15‫שלבני‬ ‫שהן‬ ‫ונכסים‬ ‫מעילה‬ ‫בהן‬ ‫שאין‬ ‫מרשות‬ ‫חוץ‬ ‫מיוחדים‬ ‫ונכסים‬ ‫ברית‬ ‫והמזיק‬ ‫הניזק‬ ‫ורשות‬ ‫למזיק‬ ‫המיוחדת‬ ‫תשלומי‬ ‫משלם‬ ‫המזיק‬ ‫חב‬ ‫וכשהיזיק‬ ‫הארץ‬ ‫במיטב‬ ‫נזק‬:‫ג׳‬‫בשווה‬ ‫כסף‬ ‫שום‬ Controls (Kauf, diplomatic layout) Controls (Kauf, ms image) [1:1] c83b‫ארבעה‬‫אבות‬‫נזיקים‬‫השור‬‫והבור‬ ‫והמבעה‬‫וההבער‬‫לא‬‫השור‬‫כהרי‬‫המבעה‬‫לא‬‫המבעה‬ ‫כהרי‬‫השור‬‫לא‬‫זה‬‫וזה‬‫שישבהם‬‫רוח‬‫חיים‬‫כהרי‬‫האש‬ ‫שאין‬‫בה‬‫רוח‬‫חיים‬‫לא‬‫זה‬‫וזה‬‫שדרכן‬‫לילך‬‫ולהזיק‬ ‫כהרי‬‫הבור‬‫שאין‬‫דרכו‬‫לילך‬‫ולהזיק‬‫הצד‬‫השווה‬‫שבהן‬ ‫שדרכן‬‫להזיק‬‫ושמירתן‬‫עליך‬‫וכשהיזיק‬‫חב‬‫המזיק‬ ‫לשלם‬‫תשלומי‬‫נזק‬‫במיטב‬‫הארץ‬: [1:2]‫ב׳‬‫כל‬‫שחבתי‬‫בשמירתו‬‫היכשרתיאת‬‫נזקו‬ ‫היכשרתי‬‫במקצת‬‫נזקו‬‫חבתי‬‫בתשלומי‬‫נזקו‬‫בהכשר‬ ‫כל‬‫ניזקו‬‫נכסים‬‫שאין‬‫בהן‬‫מעילה‬‫ונכסים‬‫שהן‬‫שלבני‬ ‫ברית‬‫ונכסים‬‫המיוחדים‬‫חוץ‬‫מרשותהמיוחדת‬‫למזיק‬ ‫ורשות‬‫הניזק‬‫והמזיק‬‫וכשהיזיק‬‫חב‬‫המזיק‬‫לשלם‬ ‫תשלומי‬‫נזק‬‫במיטב‬‫הארץ‬: [1:3]‫ג׳‬‫שום‬‫כסף‬f84/c84a‫שווה‬‫כסף‬‫בפני‬‫בית‬‫דין‬ ‫ועל‬‫פי‬‫עדים‬‫בניחורים‬‫ובני‬‫ברית‬‫והנשים‬‫בכלל‬‫הנזק‬ ‫והניזק‬‫והמזיק‬‫בתשלומים‬‫לשלם‬‫תשלומי‬‫נזק‬‫במיטב‬ ‫הארץ‬: [1:4]‫ד׳‬‫חמשה‬‫תמים‬‫וחמשה‬‫מועדים‬‫הבהמה‬‫אינה‬ ‫מועדת‬‫לא‬‫ליגח‬‫ולא‬‫ליגוף‬‫ולא‬‫לישוך‬‫ולא‬‫לירבוץ‬‫ולא‬ ‫לבעוט‬‫השן‬‫מועדת‬‫לוכל‬‫את‬‫הראוי‬‫לההרגל‬‫מועדת‬ ‫לשבר‬‫כדרך‬‫הילוכה‬‫ושור‬‫המועד‬‫ושור‬‫המזיק‬ ‫ברשותהניזק‬‫והאדם‬:‫ה׳‬‫הזאב‬‫והארי‬‫והדוב‬‫והנמר‬ ... Controls (Parma, compact view)
  14. 14. Variants View ➤Choose view ➤standard ➤text criticism ➤paleography ➤history ➤linguistics ➤intertextuality -------------------- ➤Layout options [mirador] ➤Select options ➤By text ➤By witness [1:2]‫ב׳‬‫כל‬‫שחבתי‬‫בשמירתו‬‫היכשרתי‬‫את‬‫נזקו‬ ‫היכשרתי‬‫במקצת‬‫נזקו‬‫חבתי‬‫בתשלומי‬‫נזקו‬‫בהכשר‬ ‫כל‬‫ניזקו‬‫נכסים‬‫שאין‬‫בהן‬‫מעילה‬‫ונכסים‬‫שהן‬‫שלבני‬ ‫ברית‬‫ונכסים‬‫המיוחדים‬‫חוץ‬‫מרשותהמיוחדת‬‫למזיק‬ ‫ורשות‬‫הניזק‬‫והמזיק‬‫וכשהיזיק‬‫חב‬‫המזיק‬‫לשלם‬ ‫תשלומי‬‫נזק‬‫במיטב‬‫הארץ‬: [1:3]‫ג׳‬‫שום‬‫כסף‬f84/c84a‫שווה‬‫כסף‬‫בפני‬‫בית‬‫דין‬ ‫ועל‬‫פי‬‫עדים‬‫בניחורים‬‫ובני‬‫ברית‬‫והנשים‬‫בכלל‬‫הנזק‬ ‫והניזק‬‫והמזיק‬‫בתשלומים‬‫לשלם‬‫תשלומי‬‫נזק‬‫במיטב‬ ‫הארץ‬: [1:4]‫ד׳‬‫חמשה‬‫תמים‬‫וחמשה‬‫מועדים‬‫הבהמה‬‫אינה‬ ‫מועדת‬‫לא‬‫ליגח‬‫ולא‬‫ליגוף‬‫ולא‬‫לישוך‬‫ולא‬‫לירבוץ‬‫ולא‬ ‫לבעוט‬‫השן‬‫מועדת‬‫לוכל‬‫את‬‫הראוי‬‫לההרגל‬‫מועדת‬ ... Controls (Kauf, diplomatic layout) Controls (Kauf, ms image)Controls (apparatus view)
  15. 15. Transcription, translation alignment ➤Choose view ➤standard ➤text criticism ➤paleography ➤history ➤linguistics ➤intertextuality -------------------- ➤Layout options [mirador] ➤Select options ➤By text ➤By witness ‫בשם‬‫א׳‬‫מביט‬‫עמקים‬ ‫נתחיל‬‫סדר‬‫נזיקים׳‬ ‫ארבעה‬‫אבות‬‫נזיקים‬‫השור‬‫והבור‬ ‫והמבעה‬‫וההבער‬‫לא‬‫השור‬‫כהרי‬/‫המ׳‬/ 5‫המבעה‬‫ולא‬‫המבעה‬‫כהרי‬‫השור‬‫לא‬ ‫זה‬‫וזה‬‫שיש‬‫בהן‬‫רוח‬‫חיים‬(‫ו‬)[‫כ‬]‫הרי‬‫האש‬ ‫שאין‬‫בה‬‫רוח‬‫חיים‬‫לא‬‫זה‬‫וזה‬‫שהדרכן‬ ‫לילך‬‫ולהזיק‬(‫ו‬)[‫כ‬]‫הרי‬‫הבור‬‫שאין‬‫דרכו‬‫לילך‬ ‫ולהזיק‬‫הצד‬‫השווה‬‫שבהן‬‫שדרכן‬/‫ל׳‬/ 10‫להזיק‬‫ושמירתן‬‫עליך‬‫וכשהזיק‬‫חב‬ ‫המזיק‬‫משלם‬‫תשלומי‬‫נזק‬‫במיטב‬‫הארץ‬ ‫ב׳‬‫כל‬‫שחבתי‬‫בשמירתו‬‫הכשרתי‬/‫א׳‬/ ‫את‬‫נזקו‬‫היכשרתי‬‫במקצת‬‫נזקו‬‫חבתי‬ ‫בתשלומי‬‫נזקו‬‫כהכשר‬‫כל‬‫נזקו‬‫נכסים‬ 15‫שאין‬‫בהן‬‫מעילה‬‫ונכסים‬‫שהן‬‫שלבני‬ ‫ברית‬‫ונכסים‬‫מיוחדים‬‫חוץ‬‫מרשות‬ ‫המיוחדת‬‫למזיק‬‫ורשות‬‫הניזק‬‫והמזיק‬ ‫וכשהיזיק‬‫חב‬‫המזיק‬‫משלם‬‫תשלומי‬ ‫נזק‬‫במיטב‬‫הארץ‬:‫ג׳‬‫שום‬‫כסף‬‫בשווה‬ Controls (Kauf, diplomatic layout) Controls (Kauf, ms image) In the name of God who looks into the depths we begin with the order of Damages 1. There are four primary classes of damages: (1) the ox, (2) the pit, (3) the animal that eats crops, and (4) the fire. The ox is not like the animal eating crops; the animal eating crops is not like the ox; and none of the preceding, where the agent of damage is alive, is like the flame, where the agent of damage is not alive; and none of these preceding, which typically causes damage as it moves along, is like the pit, which does not typically cause damage as it moves along. The common feature to all of them: that they typically cause damage, and watching over them is upon you, and when they cause damage the one who caused damage is obligated to pay damage payments from the best land. …. Controls (Kaufmann, transl)
  16. 16. DESIDERATA AND WORKING PRINCIPLES Interoperability and extensibility Linked corpus of Rabbinic (and other) Texts Tools for Scholars, Teaching, and Lay users
  17. 17. Interoperability and extensibility  Common, open standards (e.g., TEI/IIIF/linked open data)  For our projects: incorporate: • New witnesses • Links, interoperability with other projects (Scripta Qumranica Electronica; Akademia le-lashon; Comprehensive Aramaic lexicon; Pelagios project) • Can in turn be used for codicology, linguistics, history of the book …  More generally: • Do not design project interface with limited use case in view • Keep the data open to new uses
  18. 18. Linked corpus of Rabbinic (and other) Texts  A Perseus for classical Hebrew  Sefaria is an excellent model and deserves a lot of credit  Linked parallels, text reuse, citation  Interoperability ensures that if new generations or users want to use in new ways, do not need to reinvent the wheel
  19. 19. Tools for Scholars, Teaching, and Lay users  Lay users • Searching • Reference and metadata • Translation, commentary  Teaching • Dynamic creation of maps, network analyses • Grammar, lexicon  Scholars • Text-critical tools (Variant and alignment editing; visualization) • Statistical Tools • Text mining tools • Text-Image alignment
  20. 20. Statistical Tools for Evaluating Variation Distinguishing types of variation Principle component analysis Component 1, and to a lesser degree component 3 mark out the expected groupings Multi-dimensional scaling Hand separating “orthographic” from “substantive” variation Phylo tree (Phylip) Hand corrected substantive variation (different sample than above
  21. 21. Tools for Scholars, Teaching, and Lay users  Lay users • Searching • Reference and metadata • Translation, commentary  Teaching • Dynamic creation of maps, network analyses • Grammar, lexicon  Scholars • Text-critical tools (Variant and alignment editing; visualization) • Text mining tools • Text-Image alignment

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