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C01 silvia schenkolewski_retention_disposition


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Research of retention and disposition processes in an internet website of the government of Israel: The Ministry of Foreign Affairs as a case study (He) Interpares
Dr. Silvia Schenkolewski-Kroll, Senior Lecturer, Department of Information Science, Bar-Ilan University
Dr. Assaf Tractinsky, Israel State Archives, Manager of Information and Description Department

Published in: Internet
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C01 silvia schenkolewski_retention_disposition

  1. 1. Research of retention and disposition processes in an internet website of the government of Israel: The Ministry of Foreign Affairs as a case study Silvia Schenkolewski-Kroll, PhD, Department of Information Science, Bar Ilan University & Assaf Tractinsky PhD Israel State Archives Eva/ Minerva Jerusalem, 8th November 2015
  2. 2. InterPARES Trust – 2013-2018 • Founding – Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada Partnership Grant – University of British Columbia's Vice President Research, the Dean of Arts, and the School of Library, Archival and Information Studies – Partners • Partners: 50+ universities and organizations, national and international, public and private • From various continents: from North America, Latin America, Europe, Africa, Australasia and Asia Prof. Luciana Duranti, British Colombia University, Canada
  3. 3. The International Research on Permanent Authentic Records in Electronic Systems (InterPARES) • Luciana Duranti, Diplomatics: New Uses for an Old Science, Part 1 -6, Archivaria (1989 – 1992) • The Preservation of the Integrity of Electronic Records (UBC Project) 1994-1997 • InterPARES 1 - The Long-term Preservation of Authentic Electronic Records • InterPARES 2 -Experiential, Interactive, Dynamic Records • InterPARES 3 - Theoretical Elaborations into Archival Management (TEAM): Implementing the theory of preservation of authentic records in digital systems in small and medium-sized archival organizations
  4. 4. WORK ENVIRONMENT OF THE InterPARES TRUST • Storage and Accessibility in the Internet and Cloud Environments ‒ Creation and access to records by people and organizations ‒ Storing enormous amounts of data ‒ In an environment that is not very secure • Questions: ‒ Can the information be trusted? ‒ How and where is it stored? ‒ Who has legal control and authority over it? ‒ Who has access to it, and until when? ‒ How secure is the information? ‒ Is its privacy guaranteed?
  5. 5. InterPARES Trust (2013-2018) Purpose: To create theories and methodologies in order to develop international and local policy, procedures, regulations, standards and laws, with the purpose of ensuring public confidence in the digital records found on the internet.
  6. 6. Five Research Domains • Infrastructure: Considers issues relating to system architecture and related infrastructure as they affect records held in online environments. • Security: Considers records issues relating to online data security, including: security methods, data breaches, cybercrime, risks associated with shared servers, information assurance, governance, audits and auditability, forensic readiness, risk assessment, and backup. • Control: Focuses on the management of digital material in online environments. It addresses such issues as: authenticity, reliability, and accuracy of data; integrity metadata; chain of custody; retention and disposition; transfer and acquisition; intellectual control, and access controls. • Access: Researches open access/open data; the right to know/duty to remember/right to be forgotten; privacy; accountability; and transparency. • Legal: Considers issues such as the application of legal privilege (including the issue of extraterritoriality);legal hold; chain of evidence; authentication of evidence offered at trial; certification; and soft laws (in particular UN standard-setting instruments).
  7. 7. Five Research Cross Domains • Terminology: The ongoing production of a multilingual glossary; a multilingual dictionary with sources;ontologies; and background papers explaining the use of terms and concepts within the project. • Resources: Ongoing production of annotated bibliographies, identifying relevant published articles, books, etc., case law, policies, statutes, standards, blogs and similar grey literature. • Policy: Considers policy-related issues emerging from the five research domains; in general, it addresses recordkeeping issues associated with the development and implementation of policies having an impact on the management of records in an online environment. • Social/Societal Issues: Concerned with the analysis of social change consequent to the use of theInternet, including but not limited to use/misuse of social media of all types, trustworthiness of news,data leaks (intentional or accidental/force majeure) consequences, development issues (power balance in a global perspective), organizational culture issues, and individual behaviour issues. • Education: Develops different models of curricula for transmitting the new knowledge produced by the project.
  8. 8. ARCHIVAL TERMINOLOGY • Appraisal – This is the process by which the value of archival records and their disposition - whether for short-term retention or permanent retention – are decided. – In electronic records this process also combines the technological knowledge required to appraise the possibility of preserving the record; and whether changes have occurred in the record over time, which can harm its authenticity and preservation. – This is a dynamic process.
  10. 10. RETENTION AND DISPOSITION PROCESSES ON A GOVERNMENT WEBSITE – THE CASE OF THE MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS Purposes of the Research • To examine the archival procedure of appraising records on the website ‒ Retention schedule of records ‒ Removal of records (transfer to the appropriate place of storage or archives, or destruction) • Creation of processes and instruction manuals ‒ The Ministry will be able to appraise its records according to retention schedules ‒ For disposition or permanent retention
  11. 11. PROCESSES OF RETENTION AND DISPOSITION ON A GOVERNMENRT WEBSITE – THE CASE OF THE MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS • Why the Ministry of Foreign Affairs: − It is conducted in English − It contains public relations material that changes at internals − Old pages and contents are saved − It receives responses from the public − It is being used to develop consular services
  12. 12. RESEARCH QUESTIONS  Is there any method for determining retention periods for the records on the site?  Is there a method for the disposition of records, by disposal of the material or by transferring it to another repository?  What are the links between the organization and the internet provider (Tehila), regarding the retention and disposition of records?  What is the role of other elements (the Ministry units, the Israel State Archives) in relation to retention and disposition?  To what degree do the existing procedures for electronic and traditional records influence the content and functions of records on the internet?  Do records found only on the site require special treatment? • What is the most suitable method for determining retention schedules and disposition on the website?
  13. 13. RESEARCH STAGES AND METHODS Research Processes a) Examination of the types of records, examination of the policy and work procedures on the ministry website, and examination of the retention and disposition processes b) A comparison with the appraisal and retention process of the InterPARES research c) A comparative study of procedures and standards in Israel and abroad Research Methods • Observations of the site and their analysis (for example, perusal of pages and understanding the type of document, procedures of preparing metadata) • Interviews with workers who operate the site, from the content aspect and the technological aspect • Interviews with workers who provide the site with material • Reading and appraising procedures, standards and professional literature in Israel and abroad
  14. 14. Steps and Findings • Intensive examination of the website front-end • Interviews with persons in the Ministry • MFA website has implemented Gov-‐X Standard, SharePoint 2010 - Used as content management system, Governmental Cloud • MFA has clear records management policy in general, but not concerning the website • MFA does not have a clear policy about website content which is determined exclusively by the website content managers (Except for Consular Department) • The know-how on the part of the Ministry vis-à-vis server operation is limited • Literature review
  15. 15. APPRAISAL OF ARCHIVAL MATERIAL IN THE RESEARCH  An attempt to adopt the existing model in the Ministry to the website – it became apparent that a complete adoption was not possible  The characteristics of records on the website are different from those of classic records (transaction material as opposed to material of a publication nature)  Today’s retention schedules are based on Ministry units, subjects and functions, which are difficult to adapt to the subjects and the diplomatic forms of the records on the website  A method of appraising records of an organizational system at the level of files, and not individual documents  Links between the sections of the website  The same records appear in several sections (where are they to be appraised?)
  16. 16. Additional Issues • Website harvesting – The entire website – Parts of the website • The user issue - ways in which the website is used  User segmentation  Website sections and the way they are divided internally  Does the number of visits to a specific website section or page point to their importance in the eyes of the users?
  17. 17. Harvesting • Software that makes it possible to locate the site or sections of it – “To harvest" is to create copies in the computer on a specific date, and at intervals of time that have been determined by those responsible for this process – Adapting to the structure of the site , its content, the time and a specific situation
  18. 18. Users Behavior • The issue of the quantity of users and its influence on the appraisal has not yet been raised in the literature. • Only a systematic study during a specific period of time, of the quantity of users compared with the material presented on various parts of the site, can provide an answer about this criterion
  19. 19. Analysis of sections • MASHAV (1957) - Israel's Agency for International Development and Cooperation (Certain amount of autonomy) – Presenting courses – four continents – The information of this sub-site is partly informative and partly fulfilling administrative functions • Foreign Policy – present through information from the past and current news, the policy and activities of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs .The format of the material is similar to traditional publications in the written and electronic media
  20. 20. MASHAV Structure
  21. 21. Foreign Relation Structure
  22. 22. Attempts to determine retention periods for the two sections above • MASHAV – The parallels exist because the section represents a defined administrative unit – sections 1, 2, 5, 6 and 9 of the Archives Law guidelines for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs • Foreign Policy • Publicist nature - has no parallel to the retention periods • Harvesting periods in accordance with the pace of events and/or the number of users
  23. 23. Attempts to determine retention periods for the two sections above (Cont.) Foreign Policy (Cont.) • The webmaster made an advance selection of the material • The criteria for her choices are unclear. Therefore, it appears that there is no point to recommending setting retention periods for the 'Foreign Relations' section • Each of the sections will require a process of study and analysis of each section, – Internal organization and – Content and diplomatic form of the records
  24. 24. A Comparison of Users' Data • The purpose - to integrate users' behavior on the website in the process of its appraisal • The goal - to present trends and estimates in the field, rather than results • Reasons: – The material on the website is mostly different than that of the internal organizational systems and – The material on the site is accessible to the public at all times. – An external element may be required to assist in the site's appraisal, in addition to, or instead of, the criteria usually used in a standard appraisal, such as administrative use; or legal, sociological and research value
  25. 25. Summary of 2014 Number of Pageviews in the Sections
  26. 26. Summary of 2014 Periods of Time Spent
  27. 27. Trends/Conclusions 1. This type of system makes it possible to observe sections and sub-sections throughout various periods of time. 1.1 Criteria that influence the appraisal and the determination of retention periods. 2. The sections most viewed are 'About Israel' and 'Foreign Policy'. The section with the fewest pageviews is MASHAV. However, in MASHAV, users spent the most time on pages, in accordance with the nature of the sub site and its operational nature. 3. According to the experience of the director of the website, the minimal significant amount of time spent on a page is at least 60 seconds. This datum requires additional study.
  28. 28. Summary and Conclusions • Literature on the subject (mainly instructions for retention of websites) • The Archives Law of Israel • Analysis of : – the structure and content of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs website in English, focusing in-depth on sections of MASHAV and Foreign Policy – To demonstrate two different types of records and information included in each one of them, – Assumption that they can constitute a basis for appraisal of additional sections.
  29. 29. Summary and Conclusions  We did not find in the regulations for the retention of government websites any special appraisal instructions; only general instructions on procedures according to the law.  The Archives Law of the State of Israel does not mention the subject.  There are no practical instructions on this topic.
  30. 30. Summary and Conclusions (Cont.)  Appraisal of the entire website or operating a harvest program which is programmed to act on fixed dates, or adapted to the contents of each section.  Its not seem feasible to operate a harvest program at lower levels  Whether from the aspect of the content or the technical difficulty.
  31. 31. Summary and Conclusions (Cont.) • MASHAV • Close adherence to the MASHAV administrative unit • Operational nature • Archives Law • Foreign Policy • Informative - almost journalistic –nature • Statistical data – quantity of users, and the time they spend in the section. • No possibility of relying on a previous appraisal, because it does not exist
  32. 32. Summary and Conclusions -Topics that Need to be Studied and Discussed  Transferring the entire website, or parts of it, to be permanently stored in the Israel State Archives, has not yet been dealt with.  An appraisal according to sections, and to determine retention periods for each one of them, the technological aspect of its implementation will need to be studied.  There is a need to define the meta-data required to preserve the authenticity of the stored records and to prevent changes to them.
  33. 33. Summary and Conclusions -Topics that Need to be Studied and Discussed (Cont.) • A study of the entry points of the users and their geographical origins may constitute parameters of significance in the evaluation. • Using statistical methods on sample records for purposes of choosing material for preservation. • The quality of the website, from the aspect of its accessibility and links.
  34. 34. Thank you