Caribbean Maritime

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Presented at the Eastern Caribbean Islands Conference in the Island of St. Vincent.

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Caribbean Maritime

  1. 1. Caribbean Maritime Linguistic Voyage Ninth Annual Eastern Caribbean Island Cultures Conference The Islands in Between: Language, Literature and Culture of the Eastern Caribbean November 2 – 4, 2006, St. Vincent Presented by: Eva de Lourdes Edwards, PhD College of General Studies University of Puerto Rico at R ío Piedras
  2. 2. Sailing
  3. 3. The Text <ul><li>1678 </li></ul><ul><li>1679 </li></ul><ul><li>1681 </li></ul><ul><li>1684 </li></ul><ul><li>1684 </li></ul><ul><li>1686 </li></ul><ul><li>1969 </li></ul><ul><li>De Americaensche Zee-Roovers (Dutch, original) Author: Alexander O. Exquemelin </li></ul><ul><li>Americaensche Seeraüber (German) Translator: </li></ul><ul><li>Piratas de la América (Spanish) Translator: Dr. Alonso de Buena-Maison </li></ul><ul><li>Bucaniers of America (English) Translator: W. Crook </li></ul><ul><li>The History of the Bucaniers (English) Translator: Thomas Malthus </li></ul><ul><li>Histoire des Aventuriers (French) Translator: Sieur de Frontigni ères </li></ul><ul><li>The Buccaneers of America (English) Translator: Alexis Brown </li></ul>
  4. 4. Third edition in Spanish, 1853
  5. 5. Route of the St. John May 2,1666. The St. John leaves Havre de Grace in France, under the direction of the West India Company—a fleet of about 30 ships. July 7, 1666. The St. John arrives at Tortuga. Trade Winds <ul><li>Chapter One </li></ul><ul><li>Barbados </li></ul><ul><li>Martinique </li></ul><ul><li>Guadeloupe </li></ul><ul><li>Puerto Rico </li></ul><ul><li>Hispaniola </li></ul><ul><li>Tortuga </li></ul>
  6. 6. Excerpts from Chapter One <ul><li>About the latitude of Barbados , we caught sight of an English naval vessel, which gave chase, but seeing he had no advantage on us, he drew of. </li></ul><ul><li>We then resumed our course, and the island of Martinique came in sight. We did all we could to reach the roadstead of St. Peter, but were prevented by a strong current. </li></ul><ul><li>We then made for Guadeloupe , but neither could we reach this shore on account of the current, so we carried on towards the island of Tortuga, which was our destination. </li></ul><ul><li>We passed along the coast of Puerto Rico , an extremely lovely and pleasant island, covered with beautiful trees up to the tops of the mountains. </li></ul><ul><li>The island of Hipaniola , which we shall describe later on, then came in view. We sailed long the coast until at last we arrived at Tortuga … </li></ul>
  7. 7. Definitions, from the OED <ul><li>generation – the whole body of individuals born about the same period; also the time covered by the lives of these. </li></ul><ul><li>creolization – the production of a creole language. 1969 Language, 659. A creolized language provides scholars with a unique opportunity to observe the dynamics of linguistic change. </li></ul><ul><li>creolized language – a language which has developed from that of a dominant group, first being used as a second language, then becoming the usual language of a subject group, its sounds , grammar , and vocabulary being modified in the process . 1932 W.L. Graff, Lang. P. xxxiv. creolized language, a language of civilized people, especially European, mixed with that of one or more savage tribes. </li></ul><ul><li>2006 E.L. Edwards. creolized language, Amerindian languages of ancient America, especially Caribbean, mixed with that of one or more European savage groups. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Atlas.ti Codes
  9. 9. Buccaneer <ul><li>Allspice - smells like a combination of spices, especially cinnamon, cloves, ginger and nutmeg. </li></ul><ul><li>Natives used allspice to help cure and preserve meats, sometimes animals, sometimes their enemies. The allspice cured meat was known in Arawak as boucan and so later Europeans who cured meat this way came to be known as boucaniers, which ultimately became ‘buccaneers’. </li></ul><ul><li>Encyclopaedia of spices - http://www.theepicentre.com/Spices/allspice.html </li></ul>Vocabulary Sounds Grammar
  10. 10. My research voyage <ul><li>Yale University stacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>January 20, 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Dutch Club of Puerto Rico www.dutchclubpr.info/index2.php </li></ul><ul><li>British Commonwealth Society of Puerto Rico </li></ul><ul><li>University of Puerto Rico reserved collection </li></ul>

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