SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING & DESIGN
Bachelor of Science (Hons) in Architecture [B. Sc. (Hons) Arc.]
March Intake - Semester 2, 2015
Architectural Culture & History 2 (ARC60303)
Project 2 - Building Analysis Report
Group members : Philia Chua Yi Sian 
: Ryan Kerry Jee Jin Yiing 
: Tan Sheau Hui 
: Ong Euxuan 
Lecturer : Ms. Siti Balkish Roslan
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 2 | P a g e
Table of Contents
No. Component Main topics Pages
1 Group Introduction 2 - 5
2 Individual -
Philia Chua Yi Sian
Site Context Analysis 6 - 18
3 Individual -
Ryan Kerry Jee Jin Yiing
Architectural Layout Analysis 19 - 42
4 Individual -
Tan Sheau Hui
Architectural Style 43 - 46
5 Individual -
Architectural Elements 47 - 63
6 Group Building Construction &
64 - 83
7 Group Conclusion 84
8 - Reference List 85 - 87
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 3 | P a g e
1.0 INRODUCTION Group Component
This final project for Architecture Culture & History 2 (ARC 60203) requires as a group of 4 -
5 to select a building situated around the Klang Valley which celebrates modernism. These
findings and architectural study and analysis are to be documented in the form of a report.
The building that we have chosen is Menara Maybank, Kuala Lumpur.
1.1 Brief Description of the Building (GmbH, 2015)
Building name : Menara Maybank/Maybank Tower
Alternative name : Malayan Bank Headquarters
Location : 100 Jalan Tun Perak, Pudu, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Architect : Hijjas Kasturi Associates
Taisei Construction Co. Ltd.
Function : Banking office
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 4 | P a g e
1.2 Brief History of the Building
Completed in 1987, this 50-storey building serves as the headquarters of Malayan Banking
Berhad (or Maybank). It is the largest bank and financial group in Malaysia (as of 2010) with
more than 400 domestic branches and 90 international branches and offices. Before the
construction of the Petronas Twin Towers in 1995, Menara Maybank was the tallest building
in Kuala Lumpur, nearly half the height of Petronas Twin Towers. Even though this is no
longer the tallest building in the city, it still remains a prominent part of the city's skyline.
1.3 General Layout of the Building
Ground floor plan layout and spatial distribution.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 5 | P a g e
Typical floor plan layout and spatial distribution for the floors above Menara Maybank
Spatial distribution and layout of Menara Maybank as seen from elevation & cross section
view of the building.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 6 | P a g e
2.0 SITE CONTEXT ANALYSIS By: Philia Chua Yi Sian (0318936)
2.1 BUILDING ACCESSIBILITY
2.1.1 Surrounding Road Conditions
Map above identifies the location of Menara Maybank & surrounding roads.
The surrounding roads of the building are all well paved. The three main roads
surrounding the building include Jalan Raja Chulan, Jalan Pudu Lama and Jalan Tun Perak.
The roads are often busy hence, widths of the roads are moderate and consist of 2-3 lanes
each, with a clear 2-way traffic.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 7 | P a g e
The streetscape around Menara Maybank includes greenery, acting as a divider
between the vehicle lanes and pedestrian walkways. Ample streetlamps are provided.
2.1.2 Modes of Transportation
According to on-site observations, there are various modes of transportation
available for the people (mainly workers) in order to reach Menara Maybank, mainly by cars,
motorcycles and even bicycles.
Other than that, workers/visitors can also reach the tower via public transportations
which includes busses such as Rapid KL or GO KL (free bus service), LRT or taxi.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 8 | P a g e
For starters, a bridge connecting to the Urban Transformation Centre (UTC), by
which the well-known Pudu Sentral is located can be conveniently found right opposite
Menara Maybank, which caters for scheduled bus rides across the peninsular.
Red line in the map indicates the railway line while the yellow box shows the pickup/drop-
off points for public transportations.
According to on-site observations and experiences, the walkability rate of Menara
Maybank is very high and efficient. Indirectly due to public transportations hence form the
factor of immense pedestrians being around the building.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 9 | P a g e
With that said, pedestrian pavements are provided along the surrounding roads of
Menara Maybank, all well-maintained.
Other than that, pedestrian crossings and bridges are also provided to increase the
walkability and safety of the surrounding area. The building is accessible within walking
distance north of Plaza Rakyat Station of Rapid Rail. (Wikipedia, 2015)
2.1.4 Entry Points of Building
Site plan of Menara Maybank which indicates the entry points of the building.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 10 | P a g e
Entry points 1 and 2 are from Jalan Tun Perak, Entry points 3 and 4 are from Jalan
Raja Chulan and Entry point 5 is from Jalan Pudu Lama.
Entries leading from Jalan Tun Perak into the buildings.
The entry points from Jalan Tun Perak are the main entry points of the building.
Comparatively, the other 3 entry points are tucked away which are commonly serves as the
2 entries from Jalan Tun Perak which diverges into 2 locations around the building.
The main entry points from Jalan Tun Perak splits from one road into 2 entry points.
Entry Point 2 is designated for season whereas Entry Point 1 will lead straight towards the
main reception area with security guards on standby.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 11 | P a g e
Entry Point 3 & 4 located at the sides and the rear of the building.
Entry Point 3 allows vehicles to enter from Jalan Raja Chulan which only permits to
season parking. Entry Point 4 which also connects to Jalan Raja Chulan serves as an entry
point designated as a loading/unloading bay. Parking spots for bikes are also designated
next to this entry point.
Entry Point 5 which is located at the east side of the building.
Entry Point 5 which is connected to Jalan Pudu Lama, a guard house is placed right at
the border of the compound leading towards Entry Point 5 for safety and traffic purposes.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 12 | P a g e
2.2 RELATIONSHIP OF BUILDING TOWARDS SURROUNDING
2.2.1 Surrounding Buildings
Major buildings surrounding Menara Maybank.
Various types of buildings can be found around surrounding this area including shop
houses, education buildings, transportation hubs, hotels, entertainment buildings, religious
buildings and museums. 2 noted buildings are chosen to be further presented in this report.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 13 | P a g e
2.2.1 (a) Pudu Sentral cum UTC (Urban Transformation Centre)
Year built : 1980s (Wonderful Malaysia, 2007-2015)
Building type : Transportation hub & public services & amenities
Address : Hentian Puduraya, Puduraya, 53100, Kuala Lumpur.
Description : Pudu Sentral (formerly known as Puduraya) is the biggest and most centrally
located bus station of Kuala Lumpur. On 23 September 2012,
a portion of Pudu Sentral has been renovated and the Urban
Transformation Centre was implemented for the city of Kuala Lumpur.
2.2.1 (b) Muzium Telekom
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 14 | P a g e
Year built : 1994 (Telekomuzium Malaysia, 2014)
Building type : Museum
Address : Jalan Raja Chulan, 50200 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Description : On 3rd June 1994, Muzium Telekom was officially opened to public, both
local and international tourists. (Telekomuzium Malaysia, 2014) The
museum (also known variously as Muzium Telekom, Telekomuzium and
Muzium Telekomunikasi Negara) traces the history of telecommunications
in Malaysia from 1870s up to the present times.
The landscaping approach towards Menara Maybank blends well with the
surrounding as the slopes slanting towards the main building are covered with greenery.
Trees and bushes are also planted around the open public areas next to the building itself,
responding to the landscaping seen along the surrounding roads of the building.
Due to the topography of the actual site (Bukit Mahkamah), Menara Maybank is
seen to be built on top of a hill, a raised wall with fencing is which segregates the compound
area from the pedestrian pavements.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 15 | P a g e
According to on-site observations, trees are planted in front of the building to
provide shade for passengers while waiting for public transports. Tiled steps which are also
part of the building extends out and acts as seating terraces.
Towards the south of the building, an entrance is seen leading up (due to the
presence of slope) to an open area planted with trees and bushes. From the pathway
towards the east, they are greeted with a beautiful sculpture by Latiff Mohidin named
“Keris”. The sculpture is situated among a water feature, which flows from the garden to the
hawker center called ‘Laman’.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 16 | P a g e
Another sculpture can be seen at the south end of the building named ‘Segerak -
One Movement, 1 Malaysia’ which is sculpted by the famous artist, Yusof Ghani.
Landscaping surrounding the main entrances of the building.
Other landscaping efforts can be also spotted from the main entrance. A strip of
shrubs are planted along the middle section of the escalators leading towards the main
entrance. Other than that, well-trimmed bushes can be seen surrounding the building.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 17 | P a g e
The image above sees the overall greeneries available surrounding the building. The blue
shaded area indicates the hawker centre ‘Laman’ whilst the two red dots indicates the 2
2.4 RESPONSE TO CLIMATE
2.4.1 Climatic Conditions
Menara Maybank is located in Jalan Tun Perak, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur.
It adopts the same climatic conditions as Kuala Lumpur in general, as it is situated among
Kuala Lumpur only has 2 seasons - wet or dry, with most downpours and
thunderstorms occurring in the morning. (World Weather Online, 2015) Kuala Lumpur
experiences two monsoon periods, from March to April and from October to November,
with the latter being the worst of the two. (World Weather Online, 2015)
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 18 | P a g e
2.4.2 Design of Building to Suit the Climate
Hijjas Kasturi’s design which responds to the climate includes the iconic roofing at its
main entrance. The multi-layered roofing design is used to maximize the ventilation
circulation through the building (Kijewski-Correa, 2012).
Besides, the Maybank building is shrouded by native palms, trees and shrubbery,
enhancing the cooling effects of the building through the use of natural elements and
Interior design in regards to suit climatic conditions.
The interior of the building is fully air-conditioned. Despite having stripped windows
running down the full length of the building, the windows are shaded with the usage of
sheer curtains to minimize the heating within the building. Furthermore, materials used to
counteract with tropical heat includes the building’s marble flooring and travertine slabs.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 19 | P a g e
3.0 ARCHITECTURAL LAYOUT ANALYSIS By: Ryan Kerry Jee Jin Yiing (0318715)
3.1 CIRCULATION TO USE
3.1.1 Free Plan
Ground floor plan which sees minimal obstruction to retain a free flowing plan.
Menara Maybank retains itself as one of the country’s modern building. The ground
floor plan identifies the minimal usage of obstructing structures along the plan. The
partitions, walls and other seemingly circulatory-obstructing elements are either designed
kept within the centre of the entire floor or towards the sides of the building.
Circulation flow within the Menara Maybank’s ground floor.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 20 | P a g e
This free plan design implemented benefits the circulation flow within the building.
Without obstructing partitions and walls allow mass mobility which permits occupants to
revolve the entire floor easily.
A typical floor plan of the tower block which signifies a free plan.
The structures and layout for the floors above are similar. The implementation of
free flowing plan is retained through implying it onto the floors above. An entire floor of
roughly 75% is usable and accessible to the occupants, forming a modern-trait building.
3.1.2 Points of accessibility
Circulation is crucial to provide multiple access points to a large number of
occupants and thus easing the heavy circulation within the building for each and every floor.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 21 | P a g e
Main entrances leading to the main lobby and banking booths (left) and event hall (right).
Speed gates restrict the accessibility of public towards the vertical central core which leads
to the floors above.
Diagram indicating ground floor access points.
The abundant access points ease convenience of occupants throughout the building.
Certain access points are restricted to the public and only permitted for authorized
personnel. The red lines from the diagram indicate the accessible points for the public.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 22 | P a g e
These points grant access to the main banking hall, main lobby, event hall, numismatic
museum and also banking offices.
The blue lines indicate points of restriction to the public, which lead towards
personnel offices, departmental offices and the central core.
Main banking hall of Menara Maybank.
A non-obstructed space echoes the characteristic of modern building, enhancing free
circulation of space.
Main banking halls where 2 main flights of stairs are located strategically flanking both
The circulation to use space is enriched through implying various means of
accessibilities. As indicated in the diagram, two main flights of stairs are implemented,
hence increases points of accessibility and prevents congestion to access the elevated
banking offices on the floors above.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 23 | P a g e
Typical floor plan (i)
Diagram (ii) with segregation of space.
Typical floor plan (i) shows the central core which accommodates the elevator access
towards the upper floors. Diagram (ii) further shows the convenience of the articulation
within the space (intersecting passages) internally, minimizing the usage of additional
corridors and maximizing connectivity. This conjoins 2 of the main squares of the floor plate
internally, eases circulation from within.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 24 | P a g e
3.1.3 Positioning priority of key access points
2 main flights of stairs located inside the vertical core while another placed at the main
entrance. (Stairs are marked in red)
Stairs are incorporated within the vertical core, creating paths for occupants during
peak working hours and not only restricted to the usage of elevators, and conveniently
placing stairs at the two corners of the vertical core, flanking the elevators. The stairs also
serves as fire escape routes.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 25 | P a g e
Fire escape stairs are constructed at the main entrance, a more visible location.
Width and dimensions of the stairs are taken into consideration to allow more occupants to
circulate around easily.
2 main flights of stairs located inside the vertical core, with 2 additional fire escape stairs
which concealed the corner walls.
An exterior view of (a).
The additional 2 flights of fire escape stairs are implemented onto the corner walls to
enhance the efficiency of the circulation, as they maximize the circulation between different
parts of the building.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 26 | P a g e
3.2 ORGANIZATION ANALYSIS
2.2.1 Spatial Organization (a) Spatial planning
(b) Private & public
(c) Repetition of geometry
2.2.2 Building Massing Analysis - Additive & subtractive forms
2.2.3 Spatial Function & Purpose (a) Spatial usage
(b) Person-container relationship
Breakdown of subcategories to be explained further in detail.
3.2.1 Spatial Organization
The basic layout of the tower is 2 intersecting squares, with the overlapped portion
directly and conveniently serving as the vertical central lift core. (McGillick, 2006).
3.2.1 (a) Spatial Planning
The original form of Bukit Mahkamah, was retained with 3 basement levels
excavated to mass accommodate parking bays. (McGillick, 2006).
Site plan which shows how the structure is incorporated to the sloppy site while
minimizing its visual and structural impact toward the existing site.
Half of the site was dedicated to public usage, accommodating gardens and a hawker
centre. The structure occupies less than half of the site; the rest are landscaped for public
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 27 | P a g e
use. (McGillick, 2006). A single tower configuration is visually less impactful while retaining
more of the existing landscape on site.
Surrounding landscape is retained and enhance with greater variety of new landscaping.
A simple diagram indicating how the structure sits atop on a sloped site visually.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 28 | P a g e
An elevation showing the utilization of site character which is incorporated onto the
design of the building.
The slope area is being utilized by constructing the main access way - the escalator
passageway which leads occupants onto the ground floor, located on top of the hill-slope
3.2.1 (b) Private & Public
Private & public spaces are important in any buildings so as to create clear and
distinctive transitions between different spaces while retaining the internal privacy of the
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 29 | P a g e
Analytical diagram which identifies different spaces which are equally distributed
according to public, private along with transitional spaces within the ground floor & the
(i) Ground floor of Menara Maybank
Main implementations seen are the vertical core and a portion of the banking hall
which are segregated from the public.
These private spaces are designed to be either concealed within the inner parts of
the building (central vertical core) or at the sides of the building which are less accessible for
public. (departmental offices)
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 30 | P a g e
Left: Main lobby with departmental offices (Semi-public); Center: Main lobby with banking
booths - (Public); Right: Event hall (Semi-public)
Semi-public spaces such as departmental offices and event hall open limited access
to the public. Despite that, these are also offices for certain personnel and hence restricting
certain parts of it from public access, thus making it a semi-public space.
Main banking hall - Ground floor (Public); 1st floor (Private)
Departmental offices (Private) on the 1st floor of the banking hall.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 31 | P a g e
The main banking hall is segregated to public and private spaces. The departmental
banking offices on the 1st floor restricts access to only authorized personnel as it is a private
workspace for personnel, while the rest of the area remains public.
Main lobby strip (Public) which is flanked by the banking booths and the departmental
offices on both sides.
Main lobby strip, a public area designed spaciously to accommodate mass public and
serves as a waiting area.
(ii) Floors above within Menara Maybank
Floors above also reflect the segregation of space according to semi-public and
private spaces. As seen from (ii), the green zone indicates semi private space, accessible for
all personnel but access is restricted from public. The vertical central core is a more private
zone as it only permits access to certain executive personnel.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 32 | P a g e
The diagram shows the distribution of floors according to public and private spaces.
It is distinctive that the privacy of spaces increases as it ascends.
3.2.1 (c) Repetition of geometry
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 33 | P a g e
The tower emerges from intersecting squares which tapers upwards. This
implementation onto the floor plan is practical as it allows simplified planning of the interior
office space where the overlapped zone of the 2 main squares conveniently occupies the
central lift core. The 2 overlapping squares are said to increase the number of elevations,
further reducing the visual impact of the tower’s size. (Correa, 2002).
Due to the simple geometric shape and form, the interior is rather simplified and
wastage of space are kept to the minimal. Almost all tenanted areas are free from
obstructions, making Menara Maybank efficient for a large building. (McGillick, 2006).
The vertical core, further segregated into 4 quarters of squares.
The façade also implements geometric forms - stripped mullions, zig-zag patterns of
the horizontal structural transfer girders, geometric shapes and patterns.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 34 | P a g e
Geometry as seen from the interior which is affected by the exterior façade.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 35 | P a g e
Structural details also implements geometry onto metal trusses for roofing.
It comprises of multiple intersecting squares, arranged alternately.
The implementations of geometry reflects repetition through the roof plan. Indicated
in yellow are the main building block formed via combination of repeated sizing of 2 squares.
This overlay forms the square indicated in green which accommodates the vertical central
lift core. The blue squares sit over the main entrance (staggered and layered) and the main
banking hall (North Side).
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 36 | P a g e
Ground floor plan (left) which affects the roof plan & the typical floor plans (right) for the
floors above shows the same coherence of repetition modularity of geometric square
Repetition of vertical strips which fabricates itself onto the façade of the building.
The repetition of vertical strips fabricates all facets of the building. The repetitive
elements are broken by the horizontal structural transfer girders which implements another
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 37 | P a g e
side of repetition by repeating elements such as geometric triangular patterns to fabricate
3.2.2 Building Massing Analysis
Masses of blocks which forms the main form of the building as viewed from different
Menara Maybank’s design, inspired by the sheath of a ‘Keris’, the main form
comprises of combination of cuboids with sloped roofing above and slope walls at the base
of the building.
Combination of 2 main masses which forms the main building as a whole.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 38 | P a g e
The main access points of the tower are at the two corners of the structure that
feature a space formed from the combination of the structure's two blocks, covered by
tiered triangular roofs. (Wikipedia, 2015).
A simple diagram showing the implementation of additive and subtractive forms which
forms the main form of the building - a sheath-like form.
Combination of form - the addition of a triangular prism creates a flat rooftop (helipad).
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 39 | P a g e
Subtractive formcan be also identified through the plan view of the building as large
masses of forms are subtracted from the main building block.
Additive forms as seen from ground floor plan view that fabricates the façade.
Additive forms are also implemented onto the façade. Repetitive vertical masses of
forms (vertical mullions) fabricates the façade, retaining natural lighting while provide
shades to the interior.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 40 | P a g e
3.2.3 Spatial Function & Purpose
3.2.3 (a) Spatial Usage
As indicated in the ground floor plan (left) and the typical floor plan (right) shows the
spatial area which are designed according to each individual purpose and function. The
spatial area is designed larger for public area as compared to a private area to cater mass
amount of occupants.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 41 | P a g e
Spatial functions are also being emphasized throughout the entire tower of the
building. As indicated in the cross section of the building, the size of floor area decreases as
it ascends to the floors above. These are indirectly affected by the interior function and
purpose of the space.
3.2.3 (b) Person-container relationship
A more publicspace withinthe bankisdesignedwithadouble volumeheight, astovisually
make it more spacious.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 42 | P a g e
Axonometric view identifying the different volumetric spaces as implemented onto the
Single volume person-container relationship which indicates a more private space.
Double volume person-container relationship which indicates a more public space.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 43 | P a g e
4.0 ARCHITECTURE STYLE ANALYSIS By: Tan Sheau Hui (0319235)
4.1 Influences of Modernism towards Both Buildings
During the post-colonial period when Malaysia gained independence, quite a
number of colonial architecture buildings founded by the British (mixture of Mughal and
British style incorporated in Sultan Abdul Samad Building during the colonial period) were
not favoured by local architects. On the contrary, the combination of both Islamic and
Malay culture elements appeared to be an ideal design with the aim to articulate national
identity. (Ho, Asst Prof Dr. Hasan, Dr. Noordin, 2005) Some of the local architects started
making effort to convey Malaysian identity into architecture by using structures and
elements of traditional buildings. These approaches influenced the architectural style and
design of Menara Maybank, including its massing, which are inspired by local elements.
Menara Maybank adopted several similarities in terms of architectural style
compared to the pure modern architecture in the west. Nineteenth-century architects
attempted to disguise its purpose, diminish its height and decrease its aesthetic presence,
creating early characteristics of International Style. On the other hand, the Daily News
Building in New York by architects Raymond Hood and John Mead Howells was among the
early western skyscrapers which Menara Maybank shared similar components with.
Menara Maybank (left) alongside New York Daily News Building (right).
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 44 | P a g e
4.2 Architectural Design of Building Massing
With Daily News Building and Menara Maybank being tall towers, planning was
critical as space wastage multiples with every floor. (McGillick, 2006) Initially the building
forms were planned as simple, rectilinear forms with absence of ornamentations to allow
maximum functionality and space efficiency.
Hood experimented the massing by cutting and adding sections to the building in the
schematic process resulted in zig-zag pattern of setback on its façade (Zay, 2009); while
Hijjas made possible almost all the tenanted areas column-free allowing 75 percent of
usable gross area and massing was shaped to ensure varied perspectives from different
angles, giving it a sculptural quality. (McGillick, 2006) Both architects portrayed their final
concept with utmost efficiency and dimensionality.
Exterior Menara Maybank (left) & Daily News Building (right)
4.3 Architectural Design of Façade
On the exterior, Daily News Building and Menara Maybank both applied vertical
stripped windows to emphasize verticality and provide ornamentations, of which Hood used
double-hung windows made of painted steel (Zay, 2009); Menara Maybank with vertical
glass mullions ingeniously crafted with zigzag transfer girders to repetitive themes which at
the same time perform as a structural role. (McGillick, 2006) These elements portray strong
influences in regards to modernistic building characteristics.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 45 | P a g e
Verticality enhanced through the façade of both buildings which shows strong modernism
4.4 Local and Cultural Influences
Hijjas Kasturi deliberately developed design in relation to the form and images of the
past for Menara Maybank. Approaching the use of metaphor, the building form of Menara
Maybank was designed to resemble the image of a sheath of a Keris of Hang Tuah, the
traditional Malay dagger of the legendary Malay hero. Keris is a symbol of Malay heritage
and a myth of Malay uniqueness and magical power. (Wan, 2002) The double-edged tip of
the dagger was applied in Menara Maybank, made visible from many points around the city.
Building form inspired by Keris of Hang Tuah
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 46 | P a g e
Different elevations from different angles
The design of Menara Maybank was much influenced by the themes of traditional
local housing adapting to tropical climate. The high peaked roof of traditional Malay houses
was designed to provide shade and protection from heat and rain, as well as to provide
ventilation. (Lim, 2011) These housing were elevated on stilts and their walls were
incorporated with vertical detailing. (McGillick, 2006)
Roof design of the entrance
Theme adopted from Malay traditional housing.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 47 | P a g e
5.0 ARCHITECTURE ELEMENTS ANALYSIS By: Ong Euxuan (0319050)
5.1.1 Building Roof (Flat Roof, Slanted/Angled Roof)
Slanted roof of Menara Maybank as identified in the images above.
The Maybank Tower has a roof plan that consists of two overlapping squares which
interlocks one another at one of each corners. Each of the two blocks features a roof and a
lower base that slant at a direction opposite its other block, while the midsection stands in a
perpendicular angle. (Emerson, 2010)
Roof plan of Menara Maybank which indicates the 2 main squares overlapping each other.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 48 | P a g e
Diagrams indicating the built form of roofing of Menara Maybank.
5.1.2 Front Entrance Roof
The front entrance provide climatic protection to the escalators that lead up to the
main foyer. The form of these roofs follow Malay vernacular forms. (Yat, 2013)
These gabled roof stack upon one another and its repetitive roofing has strong
aesthetic accents that represent our country’s architectural style.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 49 | P a g e
Mentioned roofing as seen from elevation view and from the sketch of a plan view.
This roof used a lightweight material and were supported by steel trusses to allow
ventilation and sunlight, the entrance roofs of Menara Maybank were erected and
supported by sturdy posts by both sides, allowing pedestrians to walk through the middle.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 50 | P a g e
These implementations are seen implied onto the canopy roofing (left) and roofing leading
to the main entrance.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 51 | P a g e
5.2 Comparative Case Studies (Roofing)
The Daily News Building has a flat roof deck, which was uncommon for skyscrapers
during that era. The building started a trend for flat roof, and it was then copied by several
other skyscrapers built after it. (“New York Attractions”).
Its razed roof concept adopted by the architect of the building, Richard Hood has
produced many ‘sub-roofs’ on different directions of the building. The floor plans of the
floors vary, with roof decks on certain floors.
5.2.1 Roof Comparisons:
The Daily News Building and Menara Maybank have several similarities in terms of their
form and roofs.
Both buildings were roofed on the sides of the building: Menara Maybank has a sloped roof
base, while The Daily News Building has a short flat roof. Both have a wide base, to
accommodate press and customers.
The Daily News Building was one of the first in modern architecture to have a flat roof, and
Menara Maybank had adopted the same element to add an extended flat roof over the
combined sloping roofs for a helipad.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 52 | P a g e
The four sides of the building have vertical strips of dark glass. (Damien, 1999). Strip
windows are used widely during modernism. (Ford, 2003). Rows of neatly aligned metal
framed windows of equal height and spacing are used. The windows are narrow, and are
separated by pillars that restricts the view on each side.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 53 | P a g e
Diagonal transfer girders can be seen one third and two thirds up the building, and
are designed with zig-zag motif as a structural solution, that coincidentally recalls the
frequent triangular motif of batik. The Maybank Tower is located near low-rise buildings,
thus, these elements help to reduce the visual bulk of the tower. (Damien, 1999).
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 54 | P a g e
5.4 Comparative Case Studies (Façade)
The façade of the Daily News Building in New York is made up of modern
architectural style, with a hint of Art Deco style. The long columns of windows is one of the
most important elements defining the tower, giving it its verticality. (Landmarks
Preservation Commission, 1981).
5.4.1 Front Entrance Comparisons:
Both buildings are of modern style, but the front entrance of the Maybank Tower
has a distinctive Malay vernacular style, while the Daily News Building has an Art Deco style.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 55 | P a g e
5.4.2 Fenestration Comparisons:
The façade of both the Maybank Tower and the Daily News Building are
characterized by their bold verticality and repetitive vertical strip windows. Both built in the
modernism period of each country, they both own a flat, bare façade. (Fletcher, 2009.)
The window stripes the Daily News Building are decorated with ornamented
spandrels. It also emphasizes on their irregularly placed masses of wall. It has a zig-zag
pattern of setbacks and massing, making its all four sides different with different number of
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 56 | P a g e
storeys. Menara Maybank has diagonal transfer girders with zig-zag motif that are frequent
triangular motif of batik. (Damien, 1999).
5.5 Doors and Windows
126.96.36.199 Entry points
Most of the entrances of the Maybank Tower are made up of clear glass that allows
people and visitors to be able to look into the building. The sliding doors used for most of
the entrances are linear sliding doors. The sliding door located at the main entrance are
automatic, sensor-operated sliding doors. They are located at areas with high traffic (main
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 57 | P a g e
Other less-frequently used entrances (back entrance), use glass swing doors. These doors
are sturdy and strong with thick black frames, located at low-traffic areas.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 58 | P a g e
188.8.131.52 Balai Seni
Swing doors are installed for the entrance into Balai Seni. The doors are of four
wooden panels, with geometric motifs. The two doors in the middle swings open inwards to
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 59 | P a g e
184.108.40.206 Exterior Windows
Maybank Tower features narrow, vertical strips of strip windows on the outside,
with narrow windows, and these windows are separated by pillars between them.
The building has a slanted base, giving the first few floors of the building slanted
walls and windows. From the inside, the slanted windows form a beautiful geometry with
the floors inside.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 60 | P a g e
220.127.116.11 Interior Windows: Offices
Horizontal, ribbon windows are also used on the interior of the Maybank Tower.
Ribbon windows are commonly seen in modern buildings. Menara Maybank is one of
Malaysia’s earliest building that adopted modernism. These windows are placed by the
offices of the building to allow great lighting while still maintaining privacy of these office
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 61 | P a g e
5.6.1 Exterior (Double-stepped staircase)
The staircase used outside are wide with different heights of steps. These staircase
are designed to double as seating. High riser steps are used, and are incorporated into
traditional staircase to one side of the thoroughfare, allowing convenient climbing of stairs.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 62 | P a g e
Aspects like the intensity of usage and location for staircase constructions are
believed to be taken into account when the types of staircase are being designed. The form
and location of these staircase have a direct impact on convenience and functional usage of
In the main banking hall, straight staircases with intermediate landing was used. The
staircase lead up to a second floor, and comes down from another identical staircase from
across the hall.
The second floor that these staircases in Menara Maybank led to is a low-ceiling
floor. These straight stairs are only feasible only in low ceiling floors due to its limit in height
of flight. Despite its high comfortability, these straight flights takes up a lot of space during
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 63 | P a g e
A curved, large radius spiral staircase that resembles a P shape.
This staircase is located beside a disabled access elevator.
This area has a low traffic and is not convenient for frequent use, generally unfit for fast
climbing. Located at such a confined area, it is believed to have been built for easy access in
a limited space.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 64 | P a g e
6.0 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Group component
6.1.1 Menara Maybank: Front Entrance Roof
The roofs used are gable roofs, and they are being supported by steel trusses that are
composed of ball-and-socket joints. Unlike vernacular Malay houses, these roofs are mainly
made up of zinc cladding for its roof, and steel for its structural post.
Its form and structural details are somewhat similar to the vernacular Malay roofs. Both
supported by strong posts on both sides.
Steel trusses are used. These are complex space frame trusses, supported using the
ball-and-socket joints. These trusses are used without the need for internal load bearing
support. They can also be used as design elements or artistic accents.
These trusses, along with the tiered gable triangular roofs then supported their
weight onto steel posts on both sides of the walkway.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 65 | P a g e
These trusses are known as space trusses. They are 3D trusses with a form.
Connected with ball-and-socket joints, these trusses used to support the entrance roof were
obtained by adding steel bars to existing joints and joining all members to a point.
These space trusses contribute to load carrying capacity and are also believed to be
prefabricated, can be easily transported and assembled on site.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 66 | P a g e
These space trusses have a regular grid pattern which contrasts with the color of the
dark brown cladding.
The load is then distributed evenly onto the steel posts that are located at both sides
of the roof. Glass panels were lined at the sides to accommodate pedestrian space in
between that leads right up to the foyer entrance of the building.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 67 | P a g e
6.1.2 Menara Maybank: Roof
The roof was structured using steel frame and reinforced concreted. The sloped
roofs are casted along with the walls and slabs to form its structure. This concrete is
embedded with steel reinforcement bars to strengthen the structure.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 68 | P a g e
6.1.3 Case Study: Daily News Building, New York City
The roof plan of The Daily News Building shows the topmost rooftop, as well as the
other sub roof decks. In red, the exposed roofs (rooftop and roof decks) are shown.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 69 | P a g e
Unlike Menara Maybank, The Daily News Building in NYC was built out of a steel
structure. Most of the façade was built and enhanced aesthetically with the usage of sturdy
spandrels that helped support the structure.
The roof structure was believed to have been built out of steel as well, by connecting
a steel girder to the column of the structure. Reinforced concrete was then poured onto the
steel roof structure on top of the steel beams and girders. Concrete tiles are then added for
The columns for the front of building, were joint with the girders for the top of the
building with end plate connections.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 70 | P a g e
6.2.1 Construction Technology - Menara Maybank
Superstructure that are included in the building technology implemented onto
Menara Maybank are perimeter columns incorporated with spandrel (a), horizontal
structural transfer girders (b) and also tube in tube technology (c).
6.2.1 (a) Perimeter Columns
The perimeter column concept is based on the idea that a building can be designed
to resist lateral loads by designing it as a hollow cantilever perpendicular to the ground. In
the simplest incarnation of the tube, the perimeter of the exterior consists of closely spaced
columns that are tied together with deep spandrel beams through moment connections.
This assembly of columns and beams forms a rigid frame that amounts to a dense and
strong structural wall along the exterior of the building. (Wikipedia, 2015)
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 71 | P a g e
A close up portion of the perimeter columns in detail.
A close up installation of a portion of the perimeter columns along with slab flooring.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 72 | P a g e
Detailed drawing indicating the installation of (a) which shows the joineries.
The perimeter columns are different as it is only installed internally which in this case
suspended onto the vertical core. The external portion I further reinforce using vertical
Detailed drawing indicating the installation of perimeter columns onto the vertical core
and supported by the outer vertical structure as a whole.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 73 | P a g e
This framing is designed sufficiently strong to resist lateral load, thereby allowing the
interior of the building to be simply framed for gravity loads. Interior columns are
comparatively few and located at the core. The distance between the exterior and the core
frames is spanned with beams or trusses and intentionally left column-free. This maximizes
the effectiveness of the perimeter tube by transferring some of the gravity loads within the
structure to it and increases its ability to resist overturning due to lateral loads. (Wikipedia,
6.2.1 (b) Horizontal Structural Transfer Girders
A transfer girder is a beam which carries a heavy load, typically a column. It is used
to transfer the load of a column above to two separate columns below. This is often needed
in cases where different or larger column spacing is needed (Quora, 2014).
The 2 floors (horizontal girders) housing structural and mechanical works allow wind
to seep through partially, reducing wind load.
6.2.1 (c) Tube in Tube Construction
This technology is also known as hull and core, these structures have a core tube
inside the structure, holding the elevator and other services, and another tube around the
exterior. The majority of the gravity and lateral loads are normally taken by the outer tube
because of its greater strength. (Wikipedia, 2015)
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 74 | P a g e
The slip-formed core shows the usage of tube in tube technology in the sense that
the slant walls, forming the exterior tube lean against the interior tube which houses the
vertical central lift core.
Overall construction technology
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 75 | P a g e
6.2.2 Construction Technology - New York Daily News Building
The main superstructure construction technology that are included in this particular
building are curtain walls fabricated onto the facade (a), columns cover over spandrel
system (b) and also lateral bracing of masonry to spandrel beams system(c).
6.2.2 (a) Curtain Walls
A curtain wall is the façade element that forms the weather barrier for the building
without supporting the structure. It can have many different aesthetical appearances, but
typically has narrowly spaced vertical and horizontal mullions with glass, stone, metal, or
composite panels. When designed properly, it is beautiful and highly functional in keeping
the elements exteriorly and the temperate environment interiorly.
Implemented during the mid-1930s, new technology such as metal and glass curtain
wall paneling system became the norm in public building in the US. Different types of
curtain wall include the stick system, unit panel system, unit mullion system, column cover
and spandrel systems, and point-loaded structural glazing systems. (Buildings.com, 2015)
The significance of the curtain walls implemented onto this particular building are glass with
insulated glazing, interior air-conditioning, and insulation technology which helped solve the
heating and cooling issues interiorly that accompanied large areas of vision glass.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 76 | P a g e
6.2.2 (b) Column Cover and Spandrel System
The Daily News Building implements the column cover and spandrel system as its
main structural and support system which emphasizes the structural module of the building.
The few main components included in this system are column covers, spandrel panels and
glazing units. The mode of assembly are mostly on-site installation.
A close up view of the column over spandrel system as seen from the façade of the
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 77 | P a g e
6.2.2 (c) Lateral Bracing of Masonry to Spandrel Beams
Isometric detail of the mentioned technology.
The walls of Daily News Building are typically supported at each floor line and at the
roof line, whereby if the walls are independent of the steel structure and are designed to
span vertically masonry must be anchored to the spandrel beam.
This mean of construction technology also emphasizes wind load acting on the
masonry wall. Joint reinforcement bonds the brick Wythe to the concrete masonry Wythe,
which creates a positive bond. Wind loads are transferred from the brick Wythe to the
concrete masonry Wythe and through the anchor to the steel beam. This connection
laterally braces the masonry wall to the spandrel beam. Anchorage to the steel columns is
not required for this type of design. (Masonry Construction, 2007)
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 78 | P a g e
Plan and sectional details of the mentioned construction technology extracted from the
case study building.
6.3 Building Materials - Menara Maybank
The main materials implemented in Menara Maybank are steel and concrete (a)
mainly for structural support, glass for mullioned windows (b) which fabricates the façade
and stone or masonry (c) .
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 79 | P a g e
6.3.1 (a) Steel and Concrete
The main building materials used for structural support were steel and concrete both
interior and exteriorly. Reinforced concrete has high compressive strength, long service life
with low maintenance cost which can be casted to take the shape required; making it widely
used in structural components in most modern buildings. (Advantages and Disadvantages of
Reinforced Concrete, 2014) Steel framings are easy to install and is cost effective, durable
and corrosion resistance.(CSB, 2010) Concrete was applied in exterior flooring, walls and
vehicles pathways while steel are also used for fences and gates apart from structural
6.3.1 (c) Stone & Masonry
Stone and masonry walls (left) and floorings (right) implemented throughout Menara
The interior walls are fabricated with travertine tiles which are visually appealing,
easily installed, (Crystalrlombardo, 2015) while cooling the interior. Marble has a smoother
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 80 | P a g e
surface compared to unmanufactured travertine thus is suitable for flooring which is easily
6.3.1 (b) Glass
Glass panels implemented onto the façade of Menara Maybank.
The inter-layer lamination consists of a resin that provides substantial strength
against brittle fractures of the glass plates. (Gaetz, 2012) For a skyscraper, applying glass
materials on the exterior allow natural lightings to enter the interior thus creating
spaciousness, forming a reflective stunning external view.
6.3.2 Materials used for interior
Focusing on the interior of Menara Maybank, asbestos sheets are used for ceilings
interiorly. It is fire resistant with good thermal insulation which are suitable for the tropics
despite its durability and cost.
Materials for staircases varied in the buildings depending on the usage and
placement; some were marble tiles similar to the floorings with aluminium railing while
several other stairs were mild steel flooring covered with rubber sheet.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 81 | P a g e
Marble tiles furnished stairs (left); mild steel furnished stairs (right).
6.3.3 Materials used for parking bays
Outdoor and basement parking bays are paved with tiles and mosaics which requires
low maintenance and hence allowing the design of the floorings’ design to be assorted.
Executive parking bays cladded with patterned mosaic in front of the drop off zone.
Parking bays for motorcycles are paved with concrete floorings with painted metal
railing installation for safety measure purposes.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 82 | P a g e
The color composition in modern architecture are often characterized in a simplistic
manner. Almost all of the surfaces of Menara Maybank are coated in white paint. Modern
architects considered white as refined taste, as the approach during the period only focused
mainly on functionality with minimal ornamentation.
6.4.1 New York Daily News Building, United States of America, Building Materials
The main materials implemented in the New York Daily News Building, US are steel
(a) mainly for structural support as well and masonry (b) mainly for aesthetics and solidity.
Besides, masonry are the norm of modernistic building in the US back in those days
6.4.1 (a) Steel
Example of image using steel and building’s main structural support.
From the exterior, steel framing were used for structural support, similar to Menara
Maybank. Steel framing forms the main skeletal structure of the building as mentioned in
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 83 | P a g e
6.2.2 (b). Steel framing are implemented also with the reason being that steel are sturdy
and tough being structural reinforcement which can withstand great tensile strength and
6.4.1 (b) Masonry
Types of masonry implemented onto the façade and interior furnishing of the mentioned
building, granite stones and faced bricks.
The components of façade of the Daily News Building was made using granite blocks
(Robins, 1989) as it is easily available and strong. Other usage could be found on the main
entrance on the north front, where a three-story high, five-bay-wide polished granite block
with a large inscription at the top was placed.
The western front too has a large polished granite slab as it showed an antique
appearance which was suitable for decorating the entrance of a tall building while most of
the exterior are composed with tall slender bands of white brick alternating with window
bays in which the windows are separated by patterned panels of reddish-brown black brick.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 84 | P a g e
In conclusion, this report has provided a vivid insight to us in terms of the principle,
ideas and contributing factors of Modern Architecture in the Klang Valley, particularly in
relation to our building of choice, Menara Maybank. Through on-site experience and
extensive research, our understanding of the influence of Modernism towards the buildings
in Malaysia has deepened substantially.
Various learning outcomes have also been successfully achieved through the process
of preparing this report, including allowing us to be able to document architectural heritage
in the form of writings, descriptive diagrams and photography. Through the effort of all the
members in our team, a cohesive portrayal of information is achieved with the use of clear
and concise methods stated previously.
Last but not least, we have learned to appreciate the beauty of architecture and how
Modernism has set a new course in redefining the skyline of our beloved country. Having
the chance to document one of the key buildings which has become the stepping stone to
how Malaysian architecture is today has truly been an experience worth recording.
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 85 | P a g e
- Asian Architecture Info,. (2015). Menara Maybank,Kuala Lumpur. Retrieved 12 November 2015, from
- Batumalai, K., profile, V., & Batumalai, K. (2009). Mystical Temples of Malaysia: Sri Ganesar Court Hill
Pudu (Kuala Lumpur). Mysticaltemplesofmalaysia.blogspot.in.Retrieved 12 November 2015, from
- Book.readyotels.com,. (2015). The Marque Hotel | Kuala Lumpur. Retrieved 12 November 2015, from
- Confucian.edu.my,. (2015). 尊孔校史. Retrieved 12 November 2015, from
- Ganapati.perso.neuf.fr,. (2015). temples, abodes of Ganesh, hindu god, worldwide.Retrieved 12 November
2015, from http://ganapati.perso.neuf.fr/anglais/tslesganesheng.html
- Kijewski-Correa, T. (2015). Retrieved 12 November 2015, from
- Malaysia-traveller.com,. (2015). Telekom Museum, Kuala Lumpur - Muzium Telekom. Retrieved 12 November
2015, from http://www.malaysia-traveller.com/telekom-museum.html
- Muziumtelekom.com.my,. (2015). TelekomMuseum Malaysia.Retrieved 12 November 2015, from
- Mydin.com.my,. (2015). About Mydin - Mydin.Retrieved 12 November 2015, from
- Segi.edu.my,. (2015). SEGi College Kuala Lumpur | SEGi University Group. Retrieved 12 November 2015,
- Wikipedia,. (2015). Chinese independent high school.Retrieved 12 November 2015, from
- Wikipedia,. (2015). Kris. Retrieved 12 November 2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kris
- Wikipedia,. (2015). Maybank Tower(Kuala Lumpur). Retrieved 12 November 2015, from
- Wikipedia,. (2015). Pudu Sentral.Retrieved 12 November 2015, from
- Wonderfulmalaysia.com,. (2015). Pudu Sentral (Puduraya) central bus station in Kuala Lumpur | Wonderful
Malaysia.Retrieved 12 November 2015, from
- Worldweatheronline.com,. (2015). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Weather Averages | Monthly Average High and
Low Temperature | Average Precipitation and Rainfall days | World Weather Online. Retrieved 12
November 2015, from http://www.worldweatheronline.com/Kuala-Lumpur-weather-averages/Kuala-
- Buildings.com,.(2015). Curtainwall: Not Just Another Pretty Façade. Retrieved 13 November 2015, from
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 86 | P a g e
- Commons.wikimedia.org,. (2015). Category:Daily News Building - Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved 13
November 2015, from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Daily_News_Building
- Docomomo-us.org,. (2015). Daily News Building | docomomo united states. Retrieved 13 November 2015,
- M. Ali,M., & Sun Moon, K. (2015). Structural Developments in Tall Buildings: Current Trends and Future
Prospects. Retrieved 13 November 2015,from
- MasonryConstruction,.(2007). Lateral Bracing of Masonry to Spandrel Beams. Retrieved 13 November 2015,
- Mishra,G. (2012). High Rise Structures. The Constructor. Retrieved 13 November 2015, from
- Skyscraper.org,. (2015). The Daily News Building. Retrieved 13 November 2015, from
- 6 MAJOR PROS AND CONS OF TRAVERTINE FLOORING. (2015,March 13). Retrieved November 12, 2015,
- 10 Advantages of Metal CeilingTiles Over Traditional Materials.(2015).Retrieved November 12, 2015,from
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Reinforced Concrete. (2014,November 1). Retrieved November 13, 2015,
- Advantages of Glass in Modern Architecture. (2012, April 30).Retrieved November 13, 2015,from
- ASBESTOS: FRIEND OR FOE? (2013,October 17). Retrieved November 12, 2015,from
- Color composition features in modern architecture. (2012). Color Research & Application,37(2),126 -133.
Retrieved November 12, 2015,from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/col.20657/abstract
- Gaetz, I.(2012, March 3). What material is used for the glass in a skyscraper? Retri eved November 13, 2015,
- High RiseStructures. (2015, November 5). Retrieved November 12, 2015,from
- New York Architecture. Retrieved November 12, 2015,from
- Top 5 Advantages of Steel Frame Buildings.(2010,September 23). Retrieved November 12, 2015, from
- WHY CONCRETE PARKING LOTS MAKE SENSE. (2015). Retrieved November 12, 2015, from
ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 (ARC60303) PROJECT 2 87 | P a g e
- Zay, B. (2011,October 14). Daily News Building.Retrieved November 12, 2015,from
- 230f2. (1999).Retrieved November 11, 2015,from http://reach-for-the-sky.50megs.com/230f2.htm
- Menara Maybank.(n.d.). Retrieved November 11, 2015,from
- King, R. (2008). Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya:Negotiatingurban spacein Malaysia.Honolulu:Asian Studies
Association of Australiain association with University of Hawaii Press.
- Daily News Building,New York City. (n.d.). Retrieved November 11, 2015,from
- Bzay. (2011, October 14). Daily News Building.Retrieved November 12, 2015,from
- Pelli,C. (1982).Skyscrapers.Massachusetts:The MIT Press.
- Sahabhudi,F. (2012,October 18). Firrbudi aka Lensahijau:TheEstablishmentof 'Air House' Standard in
Tropical Countries :Part 2. Retrieved November 12, 2015, from
- Simple connections.(n.d.). Retrieved November 14, 2015,from
- Davison,B. (2012). Steel designers' manual (7th ed.). Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
- Bzay. (2011, October 14). Daily News Building.Retrieved November 12, 2015,from
- 230f2. (1999).Retrieved November 11, 2015,from http://reach-for-the-sky.50megs.com/230f2.htm
- Daily News Building,New York City. (n.d.). Retrieved November 11, 2015,from
- Korom, J. (2008). The American Skyscraper,1850-1940:A Celebration of Height (p. 399).Wellesley,
- Dyesol.com,. (2015).Retrieved 16 November 2015, from
- Img.archiexpo.com,. (2015). Retrieved 16 November 2015,from
- Img.sc.chinaz.com,. (2015).Retrieved 16 November 2015, from
- Intmarble.com,. (2015).Retrieved 16 November 2015, from
- Mailbricks.com,.(2015).Retrieved 16 November 2015,from
- Oldenewenglandgranite.com,. (2015). Retrieved 16 November 2015,from