Study in France


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Study in France

  1. 1. 2012 Choose
  2. 2. CHOOSE FRANCE France, the world’s p. 4 Introduction fourth-largest destination p. 8 Degrees p. 10 Vocational education for international students p. 12 Doctoral programs p. 14 Universities p. 16 The Grandes Écoles and Ecoles Supérieures programs in engineering UNITED KINGDOM THE NEDERLANDS programs in business and management p. 18 Schools of architecture BELGIUM GERMANY Schools of art, specialized schools LUXEMBOURG STUDYING IN FRANCE p. 20 Introduction p. 22 Choosing a program p. 24 Enrolling in a French institution p. 26 Grants and financial aid SWITZERLAND p. 28 Applying for a visa LIVING IN FRANCE ITALY p. 30 IntroductionPORTUGAL p. 32 Housing p. 34 Work, insurance SPAIN p. 36 Prices p. 38 ABOUT CampusFrance p. 40 ON THE WEB 3
  3. 3. Choose France for your higher education Millions have already made that choice. Right now, more than 280,000 international students—12% of the nation’s postsecondary enrollment— attend universities and other institutions of higher education in France. In fact, France hosts more international students than any except the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Reap the benefit of France’s long tradition of scientific research and technological innovation France owes its economic success to its research capacity and to its achievements in the fields of space, transportation, electronics, telecom- munications, physics, biotechnology, health, and mathematics. The establishment of a new network of research and higher education clusters reaffirms the physical education, fashion, and design. Many country’s determination to maintain its high secondary schools (lycées) offer postsecondary profile as a knowledge economy. Known as PRES programs that prepare students for the entrance France is (for pôles de recherche et d’enseignement examinations for the Grandes écoles (CPGE) or that the world’s supérieur), the clusters represent a new way for lead to a BTS (brevet de technicien spécialisé), a France’s academic and scientific communities to 2-year technical certificate. fifth-largest cooperate and share knowledge. France has the fifth-largest economy in the world Count on a quality education economy, thanks and welcomes foreign investment. In 2010, 1.4% of France’s GDP was devoted to higher to the quality of its education and research. The magnitude of the nation’s Be a part of one of the world’s most commitment to sound education is your guarantee of educational system effective educational systems the value and integrity of the degree you will earn. and the national Imbued with the tradition of a thousand years of France’s central government defrays a very large share scholarship, France’s diversified network of more of the true cost of education at public institutions capacity than 3,500 institutions of higher learning, both —between €10,000 and €14,000 per student per public and private, and its internationally renowned year—thereby reducing the student’s tuition burden. for research and research centers deliver top-notch educational In fact, tuition levels at France’s public institutions innovation. programs. The network comprises 83 universities, are among the lowest in the world—making their high- more than 200 engineering schools, 200 schools of quality degrees a remarkable value. business and management, 120 public art schools, and 20 schools of architecture. In addition, more than France’s universities and other educational insti- 3,000 specialized schools and institutes provide tutions do not distinguish between international instruction in specific sectors, such as social work, students and French students. Both groups face paramedical occupations, tourism, sports and identical admission and tuition requirements; both receive the same degrees.4 5
  4. 4. Thoroughly European, distinctively French Quality of life Students enjoy lower prices and special assistance in many aspects of daily life—advantages that can markedly improve their quality of life. The national health-care system is modern and accessible; public transportation is efficient and affordable; rent subsidies are widely available. In addition to access to low-cost restaurants, students pay discounted prices at museums and athletic events. Outside France’s vibrant cities, a wide variety of landscapes, from sparkling seacoasts to majestic mountain ranges, offer an intriguing palette of recreational possibilities. Talk to the world Unrivaled cultural dynamism French is spoken by 220 A national agency that helps Literature, films, museums, theaters, opera, cafés, million people around the international students achieve and the national flair for food and fashion are world. It is the official their educational goals in Did you know that a part of everyday life, evidence of the French language of 32 countries France France is the world’s emphasis on culture. Throughout the year, but on 5 continents. The three CampusFrance’s emphasis on most-visited country? especially in summer, the nation celebrates its capitals of the European providing a quality experience for international students is found in own culture and those of other nations in a parade Union—Brussels, Luxembourg, France Guide every aspect of its work—from of local and international events. and Strasbourg—are French- The national tourism site promotion and information to speaking cities. online admissions, travel planning, In EU institutions, French, and orientation upon arrival. The Web portal At the crossroads of Europe German, and English are The agency’s Web site and its many of France’s national Bordered by nine different countries, France is the working languages. local offices are the engines of its the ideal place from which to discover Europe. The institute of geography French is also one of the six student-service mission. proximity of Amsterdam, London, Berlin, Brussels, working languages of the Barcelona, Munich, Milan, and other great cities • Tourism offices and local means many opportunities to explore Europe—on United Nations, one of the Get information, search development boards weekends or during longer breaks in the academic two official languages of programs from the licence to calendar. the International Olympic the doctoral level, apply for Because France is an integral part of economic, Committee, and one of the admission, look for financial aid, social, and political Europe, many of the country’s official languages of the and prepare for your trip. educational institutions have included a European African Union. • CampusFrance local offices: perspective in their programs. A course on Europe More than 130 offices in more than or an internship with a European firm is a great way 100 countries support students to broaden your French experience and embrace with information and guidance. Europe. >CampusFrance offices around me6 7
  5. 5. ChooseFrance Degrees The degrees conferred in French universities and other institutions YEARS OF STUDY of higher education are certified by the French government. LEVELS THE LMD SYSTEM The degrees awarded in French higher education reflect a Universities common European architecture. The LMD system—for licence 18 semesters • State diploma of doctor of (bachelor), master, and doctorate—is based on the number of 9 (+ 9 years) medicine semesters completed after leaving secondary school and their D octoral D epartments equivalent in European credits under the European Credit DOCTORATE • Doctorate / PhD Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS)*: 8 16 semesters Schools of art (+ 8 years) Grandes Écoles Schools of architecture • Licence = 6 semesters = 180 ECTS (baccalauréat or equivalent + 3 years) 7 Schools of business Schools of engineering Other institutions (lycées, specialized schools) • State diploma of doctor of • Master = 10 semesters = 300 ECTS (baccalauréat or equivalent + 5 years) 12 semesters dental surgery • Mastère spécialisé (MS) • HMONP (professional credential 6 (+ 6 years) • State diploma of doctor of • Master of business for independent practice of • Doctorate = 16 semesters (baccalauréat or equivalent + 8 years) pharmacy administration (MBA) architecture) MASTER • Research master • Engineering degree • Art school diploma (DNSEP) 5 10 semesters (+ 5 years) • Professional master • Master of Science - MSc • State architect’s diploma 300 ECTS • Engineering degree • Business school diplomas • Diplomas of specialized schools • The universities confer “national diplomas,” • A similar accreditation procedure exists for • Degrees of the Grandes Ecoles (health, social work, tourism, etc.) 4 which have the same weight regardless of the government-recognized schools of business and institution that confers them. management, the diplomas of which are approved • Art school diplomas LICENCE • Licence (bachelor) by the Ministry of National Education and, in many 3 (DNAT - DNAP) • The diplôme d’ingénieur is a national diploma. 6 semesters (+ 3 years) • Licence professionnelle • Architecture diploma cases, have obtained international recognition or 180 ECTS (professional bachelor) The schools that award it are accredited by CTI, accreditation. 4 semesters • University technology • Admission to the first year of a • Art school diploma(DMA) the French national commission on engineering degrees. • France’s schools of art and specialized schools 2 (+ 2 years) diploma (DUT) Grande École program • Postsecondary technical • Preparation for admission to certificate (BTS) also undergo national certification. Grandes Écoles (CPGE) 1 Completion of secondary school + baccalauréat or equivalent (eligibility to enter higher education in home country) = access to French higher education Did you know? • Any student presently enrolled in *ECTS credits: Credits earned under the European Credit Transfer and higher education in his or her home Accumulation System are recognized throughout Europe. A full year of country may apply for admission to a academic work represents 60 ECTS credits. French university or other institution of higher education, provided he or she meets certain criteria.8 9
  6. 6. Choose France Vocational education: The online catalog of professionally oriented national postsecondary vocational/ professional programs diplomas at the L2 and L3 levels Diplôme Universitaire de Technologie (DUT, university technical diploma) in France The DUT is a national vocational/professional qualification representing 120 ECTS credits (2 years of study). It is conferred by > Find your program France’s university-based institutes of technology, or IUTs. DUT >Licence programs are offered in 24 specialty areas, 15 of which are related The evolution of the global economy has placed a high premium Listings of all BTS, DUT, and to production (materials science and engineering, mechanical professional licence programs, on skills, advanced technical knowledge, and operational engineering, computer-assisted manufacturing, etc.) and 9 to with Web sites and contact know-how as the keys to career advancement. To meet these services (administration, communication, management, information, information. demands, France’s system of higher education has created etc.). Programs prepare graduates to begin a career immediately after undergraduate programs that combine theory and practice, graduation. Most require an internship. Graduates may also elect to Subject-area profiles enabling students to gain up-to-date skills, learn the latest continue their education by applying for admission to a school of methods, and use professional tools in real-world settings. engineering or management. >Resource Center The 115 IUTs located throughout France offer 658 different DUT >Educational and research degrees: programs Brevet de Technicien Supérieur >Subject-area profiles (BTS, postsecondary technical certificate) Licence Professionnelle (professional licence) Each profile outlines degree The BTS is a national vocational/professional After successfully completing 2 years of postsecondary study, programs and other aspects qualification representing 120 ECTS credits students may apply to enter a 1-year program that allows them to of a particular field, such as (2  years of postsecondary study). It is offered earn a licence professionnelle, a national professional diploma aeronautics, banking, retail, signifying the accumulation of 180 ECTS credits. Programs are offered culinary arts and restaurant in 87 different areas spanning manufacturing, management, hotel management, production, services, and the plastic arts. Most in universities and IUTs. More than 2,000 licences professionnelles nursing, nuclear engineering, BTS programs are offered in the postsecondary are offered in 46 broad areas that include the agricultural and water resource management, technical sections of secondary schools. Graduates manufacturing sectors (agriculture, fisheries, forests and natural tourism, and many more. are equipped to perform specialized technical areas; civil engineering, construction, woodworking; mechanics, functions in a professional environment. electricity, electronics; production and transformation) as well as Degree descriptions List of BTS specialties: services (management and trade; communication and information; local government services; personal services). Opportunities for professional internships and the participation of >Resource Center practicing professionals in the delivery of instruction make the licence >Educational and research professionnelle a very effective way to start a career. Across France, programs more than 40,000 students are enrolled in licence professionnelle >Degree descriptions programs. The BTS, DUT, Licence professionnelle, and mastère spécialisé are National registry of professional certifications (RNCP): presented in detail, including>Licence professionnelle information on prerequisites and the possibilities for further study.10 11
  7. 7. Choose France Doctoral 41% of France’s doctoral candidates come from outside France. programs Financing doctoral study Demonstrating the ability to pay for doctoral study is very often a prerequisite for admission to Erasmus Mundus Joint Doctorates – EMJDS Full-time grants are offered to students who have been selected to participate in a doctoral program that has Any student holding a European master or the equivalent may a doctoral program. been granted the Erasmus Mundus label. The amount of apply for admission to a doctoral program in France. Programs the doctoral grants varies from program to program and • Doctoral contracts are a public mechanism for generally last 3 years. Candidates who prepare and successfully financing doctoral education that emphasizes includes tuition, travel expenses, living expenses, and defend a thesis or dissertation receive the doctorate. professional research experience, an essential part certain other costs. of doctoral education. Anyone holding a master’s To be considered for an Erasmus Mundus grant, Scientific research is candidates must: degree or equivalent, regardless of age, may apply. a top priority in France • Identify an Erasmus Mundus program appropriate for Contracts are for 3 years and offer all of the benefits France devotes 2.11% of its GDP to research and recherche avancée), thematic centers for research of a formal employment agreement. Contract terms their intended research. development. That effort has put France in fourth and care (CTRS, centres thématiques de recherche are identical at all French institutions of higher • Submit an application for place among all nations in the European patent et de soins), and competitiveness clusters. education and research. The minimum guaranteed admission to the university system and eighth worldwide in the U.S. patent • Public support for corporate research and gross monthly compensation ranges from about that coordinates the system. The CNRS (France’s national center development has been increased. > Find your course €1,300 to €1,700. Doctoral departments are consortium. Applications for scientific research) has once again been > level Doctoral responsible for recruiting candidates. are generally due between ranked second in the world in output of scientific Doctoral programs October and December. CampusFrance’s online catalog • Research training agreements with industry publications (Scimago 2011 ranking). Doctoral training takes place within research teams includes every French doctoral CIFREs (conventions industrielles de formation Applicants are allowed Several initiatives to advance the dissemination, or units affiliated with a doctoral department. program and the research par la recherche) enable young researchers to to submit applications to financing, and evaluation of research demonstrate Candidates work under the supervision of a units with which it is affiliated. complete their dissertation while working for a no more than 3 different the vitality and future-oriented outlook of the dissertation adviser. Most doctoral programs are The database is accessible firm. Participants agree on a research and dev- consortia in a given year. French research enterprise: found in the universities. through a bilingual (French elopment program that is pursued in cooperation http://eacea. • A new national research agency (ANR) manages About 300 university doctoral departments orga- and English) search engine with a research team based outside the firm.>Erasmus financing for research projects. nize research teams around scientific and scholarly that employs 20,000 keywords in CIFRE-funded candidates must hold a master or an Mundus>Selected • New tools for cooperation in research include themes. They coordinate doctoral programs and 80 disciplines. engineering degree. projects>Joint doctorates research and higher education clusters, known as ensure the coherence and efficiency of scientific A profile of each doctoral PRES (for pôles de recherche et d’enseignement and scholarly projects. • International joint doctoral programs Contact in France : program is also provided. supérieur), thematic networks for advanced Prospective doctoral candidates must apply directly Governed by an agreement between a French Agence 2E2F : research (RTRA, réseaux thématiques de to a specific doctoral program. institution of higher education and a partner www.europe-education- institution outside France, joint doctoral programs >Resource center>educational allow candidates to work on their dissertation in two mundus-cours-masters.php and research programs>Degree countries according to defined conditions (time spent descriptions in each country, dissertation defense, financing, etc.). Most joint degree programs are accompanied by dedicated financial aid, the main purpose of which Finance your program is to defray the candidate’s travel costs. Find financial assistance online using the CampusBourse grant search engine!12 13
  8. 8. Choose France Universities France’s system of higher education enrolls 2.4 million students, 60% of whom attend the country’s 83 public universities. Unlike in the major English-speaking countries, private institutions Deeply committed to their corporate, academic, and research partners in France and abroad, the nation’s universities daily demonstrate their dynamism and their ability to respond to change. account for a relatively small share of postsecondary enrollments in In parallel with the traditional academic degree ladder, the universities have accommodated new educational needs: France (less than 15%). France’s 83 publicly financed universities are • University-based engineering programs now confer 30% of the engineering degrees awarded in France each year. • More than 2,000 career-oriented licence degrees, known as licences professionnelles, are available. well distributed around the nation. They award national diplomas, • Technical programs are offered in 24 specialty areas in university-based institutes of technology (IUTs, instituts which provide the assurance of a uniformly high level of educational universitaires de technologie). quality regardless of where they are earned—from the famous • Management programs are available in university-based institutes of business administration (IAE, instituts d’administration des entreprises). Sorbonne to the alpine campuses of the universities of Grenoble and • Programs in political science and economics are found in university-based institutes of politics (IEP, instituts d’études Chambéry and the island campus of the University of Corsica. politiques) and Sciences Po Paris. • Journalism and communication are taught in specialized institutes in several universities. Examples include CELSA at the The universities offer programs in all dis- University of Paris-Sorbonne and the Centre Universitaire d’Enseignement du Journalisme at the University of Strasbourg. ciplines, including the sciences (mathematics, Research, a key function of the universities>Resource Center>Educational and research programs>Degree descriptions chemistry, physics, biology), technology (computer>Resource Center>Practical and institutional guides As the primary locus of research and training in the science, engineering, electrotechnics, materials), li- >Institutions profiles>Universities basic sciences, the universities ensure that their terature, languages, the arts, the social sciences, law, degree programs stay abreast of progress in basic Medical education economics, business, health and medicine, and knowledge and technology. Within the European LMD system, medical studies in France are divided into 3 stages physical education. All of the nation’s universi- Higher education and research clusters The international recognition accorded French of 3 years or more. The universities deliver medical education in cooperation with ties are public. The universities offer programs at The system of research and higher researchers attests to the universities’ devotion France’s 32 CHUs, or university hospital centers. every level; their graduates receive nationally re- education clusters, known as PRES, to knowledge: Fields medals awarded to scholars The first year of medical education is the same for all four basic medical tracks: (i) me- gulated degrees known as national diplomas: the was created to bring together the at French universities include the 2010 medal dicine (including physical therapy), (ii) dental surgery, (iii) pharmacy, and (iv) mid- licence (3 years), master (5 years), and doctorate (8 universities, Grandes Écoles, and to Cédric Villani, professor at Université Claude wifery. Those who complete that year are eligible to sit for one of four examinations years). research organizations in a given Bernard-Lyon 1 and the 2006 medal to Wendelin that result in a ranking of places available, as determined each year. Students’ ability Note: What is a diplôme d’université (DU)? Werner, professor of mathematics at Université to continue their medical education depends on the rank they obtain on the exam. region in order to rally their intellectual In parallel with the system of national diplomas, Paris-Sud 11. International students and medical education in France and physical assets behind the goals individual universities offer programs that reflect 285 doctoral departments staffed by 100,000 Unless they have already obtained a medical degree in their home country, interna- of better education and greater their academic orientations or respond to regional scholars and researchers provide research training tional students must enroll in the first year of the first cycle of medical education and international visibility. The PRES are: economic imperatives. Those diplomas have a in close cooperation with more than 2,500 research must pass the end-of-year examination. Students who pass that examination may then • Thematic centers of excellence variety of names, the most common of which is laboratories. The departments confer more than jump to the level they had reached in their home country, subject to an assessment by • A single point of contact for foreign diplôme d’université (DU). Another is diplôme 11,000 doctorates each year. the program’s administrators of the equivalence of their prior preparation. researchers and doctoral candidates inter-universitaire (DIU). They are not national French doctoral departments have always been • To begin the third stage of medical education, foreign students must undergo a • A resource for doctoral departments open to the world. Of 70,000 doctoral candidates special medical residency competition organized by the culture and cooperation • A one-stop shop for international diplomas, but they offer international students service of France’s embassies and consulates. In 2010, 20 places were offered in 11 student services opportunities to gain university-level knowledge enrolled in 2011, 41% are from outside France. medical specialties. • Responsible for the publication of and experience in very specific areas. • Two degree programs—the DFMS and the DFMSA—provide specialty education for academic and scientific work. foreign general practitioners and for foreign physicians. The DFMS (diploma of spe- The 21 PRES are located throughout cialized medical training) requires 1 to 2 years, and the DFMSA (diploma of advanced France. specialized medical training) requires 6 months to 1 year. Information may be obtai- ned from the culture and cooperation service of the French embassy. All these programs require a good knowledge of French, evidence of which may be >Resource center >Practical and required (at least level B2 of CERL) institutional guides >Resource Center>Educational and research >Profiles of France’s higher educa- programs>Subject area profiles>Medicine tion and research clusters14 15
  9. 9. Choose France The Grandes Écoles The Financial Times ranked 6 French schools among the world’s top 10 master in management programs (2011). The Economist included and the Écoles supérieures 6 French MBA programs among its top 100 (2011). Unique to France, the system of Grandes Écoles was set up in parallel with the Engineering and management university system at the beginning of the 19th century. The Grandes Écoles offer dominate the offerings of the top-quality education oriented toward practical problems. The system includes Grandes Écoles, but one also finds schools of engineering and business, the Écoles Normales Supérieures (ENS), and programs in public administration the national schools of veterinary medicine. The Grandes Écoles are highly selec- (the specialty of the prestigious tive; their degrees signify the completion of a a rigorous program. Ecole Nationale d’Administration - ENA), military sciences, higher education and research, agronomy, All Grandes Écoles offer five-year and veterinary sciences. diplomas recognized by the government Engineering Business and management to be equivalent to the European master More than 200 schools of engineering, public and The Grandes Écoles of business and management enjoy special forms of The Écoles They may also offer intermediate degrees and private, run the gamut of engineering sciences. Normales Supérieures official recognition: specialized diplomas, among them the bachelor But they also have some common characteristics, France’s three Écoles Normales • certification by the Ministry of National Education, indicated by a stamp (in 3 or 4 years), the master of science (MSc) emblematic of the solid quality of the diplôme Supérieures —located in central on the graduate’s diploma (in 4 or 5 years), the master of business d’ingénieur, a venerable French degree that Paris, Cachan (a Paris suburb), and is fully equivalent to the European master. • listing in the registry of Grandes Écoles published by the Conférence des Lyon—prepare students for careers administration (MBA), and the mastère spécialisé (MS) (1 year after the master). The diplôme d’ingénieur is a national diploma Grandes Ecoles, which regulates all of France’s Grandes Écoles in university teaching and research The traditional path into the Grandes Écoles was that entitles its holder to apply to a doctoral • official recognition of certain diplomas as equivalent to a master. in both the arts and sciences. by examination following 2 years of preparatory program. Depending on the school in which it Each ENS has its own procedure for Operating at a variety of levels, France’s many schools of business and classes. Students then earned their degree in is offered, the degree may indicate general international admissions. management offer programs geared to economic requirements and new 3 more years of increasingly specialized study. expertise in engineering or more specialized management practices. Internships and international exchanges play a large Schools of veterinary medicine However many schools offer admission to a 5-year study—in agronomy, chemistry, biology, or role in many programs. The great majority of schools have come together to France has four national schools curriculum directly from secondary school. information science, for example. Public schools offer common entrance exams. About 190 schools admit students directly of veterinary medicine—in Paris To accommodate international students, many of engineering charge tuition of approximately (Maisons-Alfort), Lyon, Nantes, Grandes Écoles offer admission on the strength of €584 per year. from secondary school. and Toulouse. They admit students the applicant’s academic record. The degree may be Most of France’s business schools are private; many are affiliated with local>Resource center at various levels using a common earned in 2 to 5 years, depending on the amount >Educational and research programs>Degree chambers of commerce and industry. examination administered of credit the applicant receives for his or her prior descriptions>Mastère spécialisé The annual tuition varies widely but is generally between €2,000 and independently by each of the four academic work. €30,000. schools. Admission decisions are made on the basis of examination results or academic records, Note plus application and interview. Many of France’s business schools have attained international recognition Programs in the 4 veterinary by meeting the standards of various accrediting bodies, among them CGE, schools lead to the degree of EQUIS, AACSB, and AMBA. Some forms of recognition apply to the school doctor of veterinary medicine, itself, others to the degree conferred. All signify international recognition. a government-sanctioned diploma required for practice as a veterinarian.16 17
  10. 10. Choose France Schools of architecture Schools of art Almost 60 écoles supérieures (higher schools) of art and 4 of applied arts are pu- blic institutions of high quality that grant national CampusArt diplomas accredited by the French government: diplôme national d’arts plastiques (DNAP, 3 years), Postsecondary programs in architecture Apply online to the 60 member equivalent to a licence) and diplôme national su- in France follow the harmonized institutions of the CampusArt périeur d’expression plastique (DNSEP, 5 years, To learn more European system of degrees based on the equivalent to a master). The four schools of applied network of French schools of art bachelor (licence in France), master, and art (Boulle, Duperré, Estienne, Olivier de Serres) >Resource Center The CampusArt network offers doctorate. grant the diplôme des métiers d’art (DMA, 2 years) >Educational and research applicants a choice of some • The first cycle of postsecondary study lasts three and diplôme supérieur d’arts appliqués (DSAA, programs 200 different art programs years and is capped by the diplôme d’études en The nation’s 20 schools of architecture, 4 years). >Subject area profiles at the licence and master architecture, equivalent to a licence. all overseen by the French Ministry of After an initial phase devoted to a core curricu- Directory of schools of art: levels. By completing a • The second cycle lasts two years and leads to Culture, confer national diplomas. lum, the higher schools of art allow students to single online form, students the diplôme d’état d’architecte, equivalent to a specialize in one of 3 areas: art, design, or visual communication. who have completed 3 years master. of art education may apply • The HMONP (habilitation à la maîtrise d’oeuvre Two other schools deliver degrees that are Private schools of art and those affiliated with chambers of commerce for admission to the entire en nom propre) is the sole professional credential considered equivalent:  and industry (the latter are known as écoles consulaires) confer certificates or professional titles. Those that have earned accreditation are listed in the Réper- network of schools and that entitles an architect to apply for a building • The public Institut National des Sciences Appli- toire National de Certification Professionnelle (national registry of occupational track the progress of their permit. It requires a sixth year of study and an quées (INSA) in Strasbourg. certification, and classified according to the level of employ- application through to the internship. ment for which they prepare their students. offer of admission. • The third cycle offer a variety of specializations • The private École Spéciale d’Architecture (ESA). All such institutions admit students selectively by exam or interview. to award a master’s degree, as well as doctoral Specialized schools programs in architecture in a number of universi- ty-affiliated research laboratories. More than 3,000 schools and institutes, public and private, are categorized as “specialized schools.” They offer degree programs in very specific areas—among them social work, paramedical fields, tourism, culinary arts, and hotel management, among others. These institutions offer government-accredited degrees as well as other credentials specific to the institution that confers them. Programs demand from 2 to 5 years of study. Admission is by examination or on the basis of the applicant’s academic record.18 19