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  • Jeonghee

    1. 1. Digital Textbook Development Projects in Korea “ Its Concept and Impacts” Jeong-Hee Seo, Ph.D. ( Principal Researcher, Primary & Secondary Education Information Center, KERIS ICT in Education Networks International Symposium 11-12 June 2009, Rome, Italy
    2. 2. <ul><li>Project Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of Digital Textbooks </li></ul><ul><li>Related Projects and Researches </li></ul><ul><li>Issues and Challenges </li></ul>Contents
    3. 3. Digital Natives <ul><li>Highly familiar with the digital environment </li></ul><ul><li>Familiar to computers rather than textbooks </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled at multitasking </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks swift responses & immediate interaction </li></ul><ul><li>through the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Active, Participatory, Prosumer, DIY </li></ul>Rapid Development of Technology : Ubiquitous Society <ul><li>Convergence of Internet, Broadcasting, telecommunication </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 : Wikipedia, YouTube, Flickr… </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Cosmopolitan </li></ul>Need for Change Project Backgrounds Need for Change in Education
    4. 4. Vision and objectives of DT Project <ul><li>Development of new human </li></ul><ul><li>resources to lead Korea’s </li></ul><ul><li>future </li></ul><ul><li>Need for a learning </li></ul><ul><li>environment for cultivating </li></ul><ul><li>the creative minds </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage cooperation from </li></ul><ul><li>related ministries and add </li></ul><ul><li>value </li></ul><ul><li>Take the initiative in </li></ul><ul><li>establishing the standards for </li></ul><ul><li>technology of digital textbook </li></ul><ul><li>Futuristic materials over the </li></ul><ul><li>limitation of paper textbooks </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement of the textbook </li></ul><ul><li>system and introduction of </li></ul><ul><li>the digital textbook </li></ul>Participatory learning Active classrooms Equal Rights to Education The cultivation of the talented leaders of the future Need for cultivating the future human resources Need for developing future-oriented learning materials Basis for future-oriented, advanced education system
    5. 5. Implementation Structure of DT Project <ul><li>Director-General of </li></ul><ul><li>Information Policy Bureau </li></ul><ul><li>e-Learning Supporting Division </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Textbook Team </li></ul>Digital Textbook Team Advisory Board Head : Vice Minister Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST) KERIS Digital Textbook Task Force
    6. 6. Master Plan of DT Project First stage (2002-2006) Basic studies of digital textbooks Third stage (2013~ ) Dissemination of digital textbooks Second stage (2007-2011) Development of digital textbooks (25 kinds) Management of pilot schools (100 schools) Analysis of effectiveness & side effects Preparation for distribution & system improvement
    7. 7. Development Of Digital Textbooks 2007 2008 2009 2008~ 2007 2009 2010~ 2010~ 6 Kinds 19 Kinds 8 shools 112 shools 20 shools Master Plan of DT Project(2) Development of digital textbooks and expansion of pilot tests Running Pilot-test Schools ※ some of the national textbooks for elementary school, some of the authorized textbooks for middle schools ※ including schools testing the digital textbooks and other selected schools to research on u-learning
    8. 8. Project Main activities 16 Tasks in 6 Areas Development of Digital textbook Teacher training Implementing the learning environment Distribution and quality management Improving and publicizing legal Impact and effectiveness analysis
    9. 9. Concept of Digital Textbooks
    10. 10. Concept of Digital Textbooks Conceptual Diagram of Digital Textbooks Links to national knowledge DB Links to contents owned by many institutions Evaluation Function Learning management function Authoring Tool Function Paper-based Textbook Plan links to HW/SW viewer Plan for Deployment/manintenance & Repair/Quality management Design methods for interactions among students/teachers/computers Develop & secure content/DB design Link of learning management/evaluation/authoring tools Digitalization
    11. 11. Concept of Digital Textbooks Comparison of paper-based and digital textbooks Category   Digital Textbooks   Paper-based Textbooks Data Type   <ul><li>In addition to the text and images provided in paper-based textbooks, digital textbooks offer multimedia materials. </li></ul>  <ul><li>Two-dimensional, linear learning materials composed of text and images </li></ul>Data Update   <ul><li>Can swiftly reflect new facts and knowledge </li></ul>  <ul><li>Data is fixed, and thus is difficult to change </li></ul>Data Collection   <ul><li>Can be connected to diverse education materials or public databases </li></ul>  <ul><li>Substantial time and expense required to search for materials outside of the textbook </li></ul>Media   <ul><li>IT devices (Tablet PC/Desktop PC) </li></ul>  <ul><li>Printed media </li></ul>Relations with other subjects   <ul><li>Can link subjects of different grades, or link with different subjects </li></ul>  <ul><li>Specialized textbook in which subjects are disconnected </li></ul>Method   <ul><li>Interactive learning can be facilitated by connecting teachers, students, and computers </li></ul>  <ul><li>One-way learning that focuses on delivering knowledge </li></ul>Effect on Class   <ul><li>Enable student-centered class activities and self-directed learning </li></ul>  <ul><li>Unilateral classes, impossible to have education tailored to learners’ level </li></ul>
    12. 12. Concept of Digital Textbooks Definition of Digital Textbook by Korean MEST(2007) Can be looked up whether at schools or homes regardless of time and space Integrates all the contents from pre-existing textbooks, references, workbooks, dictionaries and provides a multimedia learning environment including videos, animations and virtual reality. A student-centered textbook which is designed to promote various types of interaction and allows students to work according to their needs and levels
    13. 13. <ul><li>Writing, Underlining, Making note, Moving pages etc. </li></ul>Function of Digital Textbooks 1. Paper-based Textbooks
    14. 14. <ul><li>Provide various multimedia contents and learning materials </li></ul>2. Abundant Learning Materials Function of Digital Textbooks Role-play Video Clip: Let’s Meet the writer VR Content Animation & Simulation
    15. 15. 3D figure & Planar figure Composition <ul><li>Tool for mapping(Social science), Drawing figures(Math), Practicing Speaking (Eng), Composing music(Music), etc. </li></ul>Function of Digital Textbooks 3. Support Tools for Learning Evaluation Voice Recognition
    16. 16. <ul><li>Classcare, e-Portpolio of Learners, Evaluation etc. </li></ul>Function of Digital Textbooks 4. Learning Management
    17. 17. <ul><li>Lesson plans, Guidebooks for teachers, task management system </li></ul>Lesson plans Guidebook for teachers HW or task managing system Function of Digital Textbooks 5. Support for Teachers
    18. 18. Projects and Researches
    19. 19. Projects & Researches on Digital Textbooks Projects related to digital textbook
    20. 20. <ul><li>2004. A prototype on social science, science was developed </li></ul><ul><li>and put into experimental use </li></ul><ul><li>2005. Research on standardization </li></ul><ul><li>2005~’06 Develop math digital textbook prototype and put into practice </li></ul><ul><li>2006. Research on Future classroom/New devices </li></ul><ul><li>and content for future </li></ul><ul><li>2006~’07 . Research on digital textbook for the disabled </li></ul>Basic Studies: 2002~2006(7) Projects & Researches on Digital Textbooks <ul><li>2002. 4. 23 . A mid-term project to develop and distribute </li></ul><ul><li>digital textbooks was established </li></ul>※ KERIS nominated as the organization in full charge of the project
    21. 21. Pilot development and application : 2007~2008 <ul><li>Researches on </li></ul><ul><li>- The standard system for DT </li></ul><ul><li>- Ways of teaching and learning with DT </li></ul><ul><li>- Analysis of Interaction in DT use context </li></ul><ul><li>- Effectiveness of DT </li></ul>※ 9 subjects for 5 th graders <ul><li>2008~’09. 2 nd Pilot production of digital textbooks </li></ul><ul><li>2007. 1 st Pilot production of digital textbooks </li></ul>※ 6 subjects for 6 th graders <ul><li>2007~2008. Development of DT platform </li></ul>※ Window-based DT platform/Open-software-based DT platform Projects & Researches on Digital Textbooks
    22. 22. Research on the Effectiveness of Digital Textbook(e.g.) Projects & Researches on Digital Textbooks <ul><li>Period : 2008. 4 ~ 2009. 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Participants : 24 schools(18 DT pilot schools + 6control schools), 2,193 students(5 th graders) </li></ul><ul><li>Variables & Instrument </li></ul><ul><li>- Academic achievement scores for 5 subjects(Korean, Math, Science, Social studies, English) : Develop test items and a test sheets in each subject </li></ul><ul><li>- Self-directed learning skills, Problem-solving skills, Learning attitude : Reliable and verified questionnaire(5-likert scale) </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure & Method </li></ul><ul><li>- Measure student’ achievement 3 times(1 st Final test, 2 nd mid-term test, 2 nd final test), conduct MANCOVA </li></ul><ul><li>- Measure perceived students’ self-directed learning skills, problem-solving skills, learning attitude, compare mean of both groups(t-test) </li></ul>
    23. 23. Results of the Effectiveness of DT Projects & Researches on Digital Textbooks (p< .05). DT using students in the urban area had significantly higher mean scores in Science, Social Science, and Korean compared to that of the PT students. The DT groups in the rural area scored significantly higher scores in all 5 subjects. <ul><li>Achievement </li></ul>  Urban Area Rural Area Korean - DT Math DT DT English - DT Science DT DT Social Studies DT DT
    24. 24. Results of the Effectiveness of DT(rural area) Projects & Researches on Digital Textbooks <ul><li>Achievement </li></ul>Korean Math English Science Social Studies Math
    25. 25. Results of the Effectiveness of DT Projects & Researches on Digital Textbooks <ul><li>Self-directed learning skills </li></ul>In the rural area, mean score of the DT group was significantly high as well as ownership, meta-cognition, information exploration and problem-solving, and internal motivation and self-reflection(p<.05). But, there was no significant difference between the DT and the PT groups in the urban area.
    26. 26. Results of the Effectiveness of DT Projects & Researches on Digital Textbooks <ul><li>Learning attitude to subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-solving Skills </li></ul><ul><li>there were no significant differences in both the rural and the urban students in problem recognition, dispersed thinking, and planning ability factors. </li></ul><ul><li>In-depth research was also conducted in problem-solving skills </li></ul><ul><li>In 5 schools, Develop lesson plans to raise student’s problem-solving skills, applied for 1~2 month </li></ul><ul><li>Develop performance-based questionnaires(open-ended) and applied for research </li></ul><ul><li> Significant difference in the use of digital textbooks, as well as lesson treatment effects( DT > PT). Researchers also agreed that lesson treatment effects were much bigger than the media effects. </li></ul>In the urban area, there were no differences between the DT and the PT group’s learning attitude scores In the rural area, mean scores for learning attitude to English and Social Science of the DT group were significantly higher than that of the PT group.
    27. 27. Issues and Challenges
    28. 28. Issues and Challenges Practical Problems Regarding Tablet PC Costs The price of Tablet PC is in decline thanks to advances in technology High cost indicates difficulty in distribution to schools Is it possible to develop learning devices around 100 USD? Cooperation with technology-related institutions to develop Tablet PCs at the lowest price with the highest quality
    29. 29. Issues and Challenges Effectiveness of Digital Textbooks The result of 2008 studies told us that DT was more helpful to the students living in rural area. But it’s not clear the reason and which factors of DT bring about the result. Continued research is needed. Consistent study is needed to prove the effectiveness of digital textbooks in the long-term. The impact of digital textbook has to be expanded to and clarified in 21 st century skills like creativity, problem solving skills, collaboration skills etc.
    30. 30. Issues and Challenges Students' Health and Socialization Until now, the result of related studies is showing us green light about DT, but efforts should be made to minimize the side effects and we have to keep an eye on this issues through researches. Will there be any health problems such as VDT syndrome resulting from long-term influence of electronic boards and TPC lessons? Are there any chances of decreasing interaction between teachers and students and among students in DT class? Is there any problem raised by using DT in terms of student’s socialization ?
    31. 31. Issues and Challenges Developing Teaching/Learning Models ※ Teaching support system like LMS or LCMS helps teachers facilitate and manage students' learning more effectively and efficiently Students take part in class as active learners, owners of their learning, collaborative learning partners and studnets can direct their own lessons appropriate to their levels Teachers are to take the role of advisors and learning facilitators to guide the students There is a need to develop various teaching/learning models suitable for digital textbooks using learning environment.
    32. 32. Dr. Jeong-Hee Seo ( Best e-Learning Partner, KERIS