P p re fo theInte tio l Ed a n Ne o
 re a d r        rna na uc tio       tw rk
                           Sym o ium2 0
   ...
Our Background: GeSCI’s Foundation
                          De lo ingc untrie a p c ICT a
                             v...
Context of our work: Knowledge Society

                              In theg b lize w rld , knowledge is
               ...
Field of our work: Transitioning Education for
a Knowledge Society
                           It isa kno le g d tha tra i...
Field of our work: Transitioning Education for a
Learning Society

                      • Sus ina lehum n d ve p e w d p ...
Our Challenge in Developing Countries

                             •W hilethe im o nc o e uc tio isc m o
                ...
GeSCI Outreach
2009 - 2011      •   Country programmes invo    lvingd c a vis ry
                                         ...
The way we work:
                                                      MoE’s




                                         ...
The future of learning environments in the developing
world

Evid nc m ke c a theincapacity o e ting
     e e a s le r   ...
The future of learning environments in the developing
world

Any intim tio to a sIllic sd s ho lings lutio
          a ns ...
GeSCI approach: A Systemic view to ICT
integration in education
Technical level: Hardware/ software:      Cultureware
    ...
ICT innovation …
...a tool to be applied...
...a new process to be developed...
GeSCI approach: A Systemic view to ICT
integration in education
Technical level: Ha w re s ftw re:
                   rd a...
Challenge in Education Systems




         Lines…?                 Circles…?
Challenge in Education Systems: Paradigm shift
                        Assumptions about knowledge and learning
          ...
GeSCI approach: A Systemic view to ICT
integration in education
Technical level: Ha w re s ftw re: ICT
                   ...
Facilitating Expansive School Transformation Using
ICT in the SADC Region: A Botswana Pilot Project

                     ...
GeSCI approach: A Systemic view to ICT
integration in education
Technical level: Ha w re s ftw re: ICT
                   ...
Traditional educational practices no longer
provide prospective teachers with all the
necessary skills for teaching studen...
Towards Expansive Professional Learning
Two dimensions for Expansive Professional Transformation
                         ...
Towards System-wide Development
The central issue of educational change is the tension
 between technicalizing (improve teaching) and not
 technicalizing ...
A system defends itself against recognizing the depth of
 its problems and the need for fundamental change.
              ...
System Solutions

      ‘Symptomatic Solution’
           Technicalizing
          Improve teaching



Hierarchical teache...
What sorts of new practices, institutional
arrangements and human interactions can be
developed to best support learning w...
Critical Transformation Zones
                                             Cultureware
Technical level: Ha w re s ftw re: ...
Workshop on North/South Research Partnerships for
                  ICT in Education
             April 21st Irish Aid Cen...
What is needed?
   Brid ingtheg p b tw e re e rc p lic a p c e
         g       a e e n s a h, o y nd ra tic
   C o ina ...
GeSCI
Towards Inclusive Knowledge Societies




                           C nta t & m reinfo a n
                        ...
References
   Daanen, H. and Facer, K. 2007. 2020 and Beyond: Future scenarios for education in the age of new
    techno...
References
   Nleya, P. 2009. Facilitating Expansive School Transformation Using ICT in the SADC Region: A
    Botswana P...
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  • GeSci Mary Hoocker

    1. 1. P p re fo theInte tio l Ed a n Ne o re a d r rna na uc tio tw rk Sym o ium2 0 ps 09 ‘ ha s uld b thefutureo le rning W t ho e f a enviro e ? s s io nm nts ’ e s n By Ma Ho ke ry o r, Re e rc Ma g r, Ge s a h na e SCI
    2. 2. Our Background: GeSCI’s Foundation  De lo ingc untrie a p c ICT a ve p o s re la ing nd WSIS Education a thec ntreo the t e f ir development strategies.  Ho e r, d ve p c untrie a o n le s w ve e lo ing o s re fte s e uip e in te so human capacity a q pd rm f nd fina ia re o e to s c s fully a nc l s urc s uc e s nd e c ly ha s thep te l o IC ffe tive rne s o ntia f T.  With thisin m , Ge ind SCI w sfo e b a und d y theUN ICT Taskforce in 2 0 , a b g n 0 3 nd e a o e tio in 2 0 w rkinginitia w p ra ns 05 o lly ith UN ICT Na ib , Gha , Ind , Bo m ia na ia liviaa la r nd te TaskForce Rw nd . Ge I isno o e tinga o in a a SC w p ra ls re io l fo sa p g m e in Afric , g na rum nd ro ra m s a As a La Am ric ia nd tin e a GeSCI as a Global Partnership
    3. 3. Context of our work: Knowledge Society  In theg b lize w rld , knowledge is lo a d o inc a ing thekey factor of production a re s ly s w ll a araw material fo e o m e s r c no ic d ve p e (= p ve e d a n). e lo m nt o rty ra ic tio “ World of Knowledge”  Whilethetra itio to kno le g -b s d ns n w d e ae e o m sa s c tie isp g s ing thegap c no ie nd o ie s ro re s , b tw e d ve p c untrie a d ve p d o e e n e lo ing o s nd e lo e r ind tria e c untrie c n b w e us lis d o s a e id ning d ue thelo e inve tm ntsin ICT, education a wr s e nd innovation processes in d ve p c untrie e lo ing o s “ World of Money” So e UNCTAD, 2 0 urc : 07
    4. 4. Field of our work: Transitioning Education for a Knowledge Society  It isa kno le g d tha tra itio c w de t ns nings c s fully uc e s to thekno le g s c ty re uire investment in w d e o ie q s education, innovation systems, ICT infrastructure a im le e tio o tho e nd p m nta n f s p lic stha s p rt s h atra itio o ie t up o uc ns n.  A coherent Knowledge Society policy re uire q s c lla o tio a ro sthere va m trie , o b ra n c s le nt inis s e p c lly b tw e m trie o e uc tio S&T, s e ia e e n inis s f d a n, ind try a fina e us nd nc .  Ed a n m trie a in ke ro in this uc tio inis s re y le d ve p e The fo Ge e lo m nt. re re SCI’ mission isto s w rk to e r w Mo empowering the o g the ith Es ir policy making and strategy capacity. So e AKRI Ltd urc : .
    5. 5. Field of our work: Transitioning Education for a Learning Society • Sus ina lehum n d ve p e w d p nd ta b a e lo m nt ill e e no o o universal access to knowledge b t nly n ut a o theparticipation of all in knowledge ls societies. •C itize w ne d to b p p re in new ns ill e e re a d technology literacy competencies inc iveolus f hig r o e thinkinga s und re s ning he rd r nd o ao skills- the ability to learn how to learn (i.e to . b alife-long learner), the ability to reflect, to e analyse synthesize, to find solutions and to adapt GeSCI, 2008; UNESCO, 2005, 2008
    6. 6. Our Challenge in Developing Countries •W hilethe im o nc o e uc tio isc m o p rta e f d a n o m nly a c p d thed ve p w rld fa e s ve c e te e lo ing o c s e re challenges w re a to e uc tio ith g rd d a n • ala k o unive a a inclusive access to c f rs l nd e uc tio a e uc tio l re o e ; d a n, nd d a na s urc s • p o quality o e uc tio or f d a n; • a uteshortages in thes p o s b c up ly f uita ly q lifie a e e nc d te c rs ua d nd xp rie e a he ; INCLUSIVE ACCESS? • p o management a m nito or nd o ringo the f MANAGEMENT ? QUALITY ? e uc tio s te a d a n ys m nd RELEVANCE ? • theinc a ingirrelevance o thec nt re s f urre e uc tio s te in thekno le g s c ty. d a n ys m w d e o ie Da , 2 0 ; Ya s 2 0 Le c 2 0 vis 0 0 te , 0 7; a h 0 8
    7. 7. GeSCI Outreach 2009 - 2011 • Country programmes invo lvingd c a vis ry ire t d o e a e e w d ve p ng g m nt ith e lo ing c untry Mo to o Es p vid hig q lity s te ica vic a s p rt ro e h ua tra g d e nd up o to thec untrie ’ w p ns p lic sa e rts o s o n la , o ie nd ffo to d p y a inte ra IC in e uc tio e lo nd g te Ts d a n. • Regional programmes invo lvingkno le g w de s ringb tw e Ge I a thep rtne c untrie ha e e n SC nd a r o s a b tw e thep rtne c untrie , a there io l nd e e n a r o s t g na le l in Afric , As a La Am ric . ve a ia nd tin e a • Knowledge products and research thro h the ug id ntific tio o m jo kno le g g p o e a n f a r w de as r c m o c lle e re te to IC in e uc tio o m n ha ng s la d Ts d a n. • P m tingpartnerships a fa ilita ro o nd c tingglobal policy dialogue w ad rs num e o ith ive e br f p rtne , g b lly, re io lly a lo a a rs lo a g na nd c lly.
    8. 8. The way we work: MoE’s rs ne Ex t Knowledge Sharing p Pa er ts al • Peer to peer learning b lo G • Participatory policy making Multi stakeholder Science Business partnerships GeSCI Knowledge creation • Research, planning tools Ed Critical advocacy Co u c m ati y iet m on oc • Promoting knowledge, un lS innovation, inclusiveness and it y vi Ci sustainability Donors
    9. 9. The future of learning environments in the developing world Evid nc m ke c a theincapacity o e ting e e a s le r f xis institutio l s ture to c p w thes a a urg nc na truc s o e ith c le nd e y o theis ue f s s Thetho htful us o old and particularly new forms ug e f of ICT c n b e lo dto s ng n a e nc a e xp ite tre the nd nha e te c a hinga le rninge nd a nviro e a im ro the nm nts nd p ve q lity o e uc tio p vis n in g ne l ua f d a n ro io e ra Cawthera, 2001; Dhanarajan, 2001; Marker et al., 2002; cited in Leach, 2009; Swarts, 2006; Evoh, 2007
    10. 10. The future of learning environments in the developing world Any intim tio to a sIllic sd s ho lings lutio a ns w rd h’ e c o o ns in thefo o m s d ta ele rningp g m e a rm f a s is nc a ro ra m s s a rna sfo c nve na m d lsa no s p rte lte tive r o ntio l o e re t up o d b inte tio l o inio y rna na p n; schools and teachers re a central to the concept m in o aquality education p c s . f ro e s Yates, 2007
    11. 11. GeSCI approach: A Systemic view to ICT integration in education Technical level: Hardware/ software: Cultureware ICT d p ym nt m d s uld b : e lo e o e ho e • Ad in / e uc tiveus ? m d a e • Re o ec ntre/ lib ry m d l? s urc e ra oe • P la m d l / d trib d m d l? C b o e is ute o e Socialware • One o , m b , ub uito e ? 2 ne o ile iq us tc Warmware Ha w re rd a Software Hardware ICT Principal, Teacher, Learners, Parents School, University Home Society & policies Pulkkinen, 2009
    12. 12. ICT innovation …
    13. 13. ...a tool to be applied...
    14. 14. ...a new process to be developed...
    15. 15. GeSCI approach: A Systemic view to ICT integration in education Technical level: Ha w re s ftw re: rd a / o a Cultureware IC d p ym nt m d s uldb : T e lo e o e ho e • Ad in / e uc tiveus ? m d a e • Re o ec ntre/ lib ry m d l? s urc e ra oe • P la m d l / d trib d m d l? C b o e is ute o e Socialware • One o , m b , ub uito e ? 2 ne o ile iq us tc Process level: “Warmware”; w t aha re e uc to s p s dto d ? W t d a rs up o e o ha Warmware p d g g a p c s e s uldb d ve p d e a o ic l ro e s s ho e e lo e b s do us o ICT? ae n e f • Le rninginte c n ( a o le rne ) a ra tio m ng a rs • Te c a hinginte c n ( w le rne ) ra tio ith a rs Ha w re rd a Software • Ma g m nt , m nito , e . na e e o ring tc p c se ? ro e s s Hardware ICT Principal, Teacher, Learners, Parents School, University Home Society & policies Pulkkinen, 2009
    16. 16. Challenge in Education Systems Lines…? Circles…?
    17. 17. Challenge in Education Systems: Paradigm shift Assumptions about knowledge and learning Sing w y o kno ing le a f w  Le rningistra m s n o kno le g a ns is io f w de  Re d a w a ing nd riting p ip a c s ro rinc le c e s ute  Ba nkingm d l oe  Line r thinking a P l w y o kno ing lura a f w  Le rningisare o truc n o kno le g a c ns tio f w de  Inte c ra tivem ro o sa a rna ro to ic w rld s lte tive ute kno le g w de  So ia c ns tivis m d l c l o truc t o e  Sys m thinkinginc rp ra te s o o tingfe d a k a e b c nd a a ta n d p tio
    18. 18. GeSCI approach: A Systemic view to ICT integration in education Technical level: Ha w re s ftw re: ICT rd a / o a Cultureware d p ym nt m d s uld b : e lo e o e ho e • Ad in / e uc tiveus ? m d a e • Re o ec ntre/ lib ry m d l? s urc e ra oe • P la m d l / d trib d m d l? C b o e is ute o e Socialware • One o , m b , ub uito e ? 2 ne o ile iq us tc Process level: “ a w re ; w t a W rm a ” ha re e uc to s p s dto d ? W t d a rs up o e o ha p d g g a p c s e s uldb d ve p d e a o ic l ro e s s ho e e lo e Warmware b s do us o ICT? ae n e f • Le rninginte c n ( a o le rne ) a ra tio m ng a rs • Te c a hinginte c n ( w le rne ) ra tio ith a rs • Ma g m nt , m nito , e . na e e o ring tc Ha w re rd a Software p c se ? ro e s s Institution level: “Socialware”; w tha Hardware o e tio l m d lss uldb d ve p d p ra na o e ho e e lo e ICT b s do us o ICT: ae n e f • C s ro m/ virtua m d l la s o l oe • Sing ins le titutio / ne o m d l n tw rk o e • Hyb m d ls rid o e Principal, Teacher, • De c o -s ho lingm d l oe Learners, Parents School, University Home Society & policies Pulkkinen, 2009
    19. 19. Facilitating Expansive School Transformation Using ICT in the SADC Region: A Botswana Pilot Project The activity system ICT IMPLEMENTS ICT SKILLS CHANGE LAB CHANGE OF MINDSET Instruments: tools and signs ICT INTERGRATION ACROSS THE CURRICILUM Object TEACHER/ sense, STUDENT Subject Outcome CITIZENS W ITH MANAGEMENT meaning HIGH LEVELS OF ICT LITERACY Rules Community Division of labor A. TIME TABLING (COMPUTER MINISTRIAL AND LABS) PROVIDERS OUTSIDE THE SCHOOL SCHOOL LEVEL B. TEACHING LOADS PTA COORDINATION (CDNE, DEPT SEC, C. OTHER COMPUTER POLICY MAKERS SMT). REGULATIONS MOE DEPARTMENTS e.g. TT&D AND D. POLICIES DNFE Nleya, 2009
    20. 20. GeSCI approach: A Systemic view to ICT integration in education Technical level: Ha w re s ftw re: ICT rd a / o a Cultureware d p ym nt m d s uld b : e lo e o e ho e • Ad in / e uc tiveus ? m d a e • Re o ec ntre/ lib ry m d l? s urc e ra oe • P la m d l / d trib d m d l? C b o e is ute o e • One o , m b , ub uito e ? 2 ne o ile iq us tc Socialware Process level: “ a w re ; w t a W rm a ” ha re e uc to s p s dto d ? W t d a rs up o e o ha p d g g a p c s e s uldb d ve p d e a o ic l ro e s s ho e e lo e b s do us o ICT? ae n e f Warmware • Le rninginte c n ( a o le rne ) a ra tio m ng a rs • Te c a hinginte c n ( w le rne ) ra tio ith a rs • Ma g m nt , m nito , e . na e e o ring tc p c se ? ro e s s Institution level: “ c lw re ; w t So ia a ” ha Ha w re rd a Software o e tio l m d lss uldb d ve p d p ra na o e ho e e lo e b s do us o ICT: ae n e f Hardware • C s ro m/ virtua m d l la s o l oe ICT • Sing ins le titutio / ne o m d l n tw rk o e • Hyb m d ls rid o e • De c o -s ho lingm d l oe Principal, Teacher, Society / policy level: “Cultureware” Re va eo thee uc tio s te (a le nc f d a n ys m nd Learners, Parents IC fo d ve p e o thes c ty T) r e lo m nt f o ie • Re ro uc n / Inno tio p d tio va n • P d tio e o m / Kno le g ro uc n c no y w de School, University eo m c no y? Home Society & policies Pulkkinen, 2009
    21. 21. Traditional educational practices no longer provide prospective teachers with all the necessary skills for teaching students to survive economically in today’ s workplace. UNESCO (2008: 1)
    22. 22. Towards Expansive Professional Learning Two dimensions for Expansive Professional Transformation Institutions and schools in collaboration with the community (local, national, regional) ICT a core technology ‘Transformation’ ‘Transition’ ‘Knowledge creation’ ‘Knowledge deepening’ Teachers are themselves master learners and Teacher professional development focus knowledge producers who are constantly engaged in on the use of ICT to guide students educational experimentation and innovation to through complex problems and manage produce new knowledge about learning and teaching dynamic learning environment practice Experimentation in Given 4 context 3 Programmes 1 2 with varying ‘Traditional’ ‘Transmission’ solutions ‘Technology add-on’ ‘Technology literacy’ Teacher training focus the use of ICT as Teacher training focus on the development of digital an add-on to the traditional curricula and literacy and the use of ICT for professional standardized test systems improvement ICT a complementary technology Institutions and schools as relatively isolated from the community The trajectory for individual and collective technology enhanced expansive professional learning Adapted: Engestrom, 2003; Kennedy, 2005; UNESCO, 2008
    23. 23. Towards System-wide Development
    24. 24. The central issue of educational change is the tension between technicalizing (improve teaching) and not technicalizing (improve learning), and here the teacher occupies the fulcrum position. P p rt (19 3 5 ) ae 9: 5
    25. 25. A system defends itself against recognizing the depth of its problems and the need for fundamental change. Papert (1993: 205)
    26. 26. System Solutions ‘Symptomatic Solution’ Technicalizing Improve teaching Hierarchical teacher-centric culture ‘Fundamental Solution’ Not technicalizing Improve learning Adapted: Senge, 2006
    27. 27. What sorts of new practices, institutional arrangements and human interactions can be developed to best support learning when we are not reliant upon a centrally organised location for people and material resources, but instead can enable ‘near presence’ interactions between learners, experts, advisors and mentors wherever they might be? Daanen and Facer, 2007
    28. 28. Critical Transformation Zones Cultureware Technical level: Ha w re s ftw re: ICT rd a / o a d p ym nt m d s uld b : e lo e o e ho e • Ad in / e uc tiveus ? m d a e • Re o ec ntre/ lib ry m d l? s urc e ra oe • P la m d l / d trib d m d l? C b o e is ute o e Socialware • One o , mobile, ub uito e ? 2 ne iq us tc Process level: ” a w re ; w t a e uc to W rm a ” ha re d a rs s p s dto d ? W t p d g g a up o e o ha e a o ic l Warmware p c s e s uld b d ve p db s d o ro e s s ho e e lo e a e n us o ICT? e f • Le rninginte c n ( a o le rne ) a ra tio m ng a rs • Te ca hinginte c n ( w le rne ) ra tio ith a rs Ha w re rd a • Ma g m nt , m nito , e . na e e o ring tc Software p c se ? ro e s s Hardware Institution level: “ c lw re ; w t So ia a ” ha ICT o e tio l m d lss uldb d ve p d p ra na o e ho e e lo e b s do us o ICT: ae n e f • C s ro m/ virtua m d l la s o l oe Principal, Teacher, • Sing ins le titutio / ne o m d l n tw rk o e • Hyb m d ls rid o e Learners, Parents • De c o -s ho lingm d l oe Society / policy level: “ ulture a ” C w re School, University Re va eo thee uc tio s te ( a le nc f d a n ys m nd IC fo d ve p e o thes c ty T) r e lo m nt f o ie Home • Re ro uc n / Inno tio p d tio va n • P d tio e o m / Kno le g ro uc n c no y w de eo m c no y? Society & policies Pulkkinen, 2009
    29. 29. Workshop on North/South Research Partnerships for ICT in Education April 21st Irish Aid Centre, Dublin • Ne jo re e rc w int s a h p je ts ro c Research • Ne m d lsfo w oe r inte ra g tingre e rc to sa h e uc tio d a n GeSCI d ve p e a e lo m nt nd p lic m king o y a Policy making Education Development • Ne c p c sin w a a itie So a No uth nd rth
    30. 30. What is needed?  Brid ingtheg p b tw e re e rc p lic a p c e g a e e n s a h, o y nd ra tic  C o ina da c m le e ry e rts o rd te nd o p m nta ffo  Re xa ina n o a s p ns -e m tio f s um tio  Fund m nta re a e l -thinkingo e uc tio l p o ea f d a na urp s nd p c e ra tic  Multi-d c lina a p a he a m is ip ry p ro c s nd ultip p rs e tive le e p c s  C a n o inno tivea p a he w h a c nte lly re tio f va p ro c s hic re o xtua re va le nt  Tra fo a na m d lsa s te ie ns rm tio l o e nd tra g s  Sus ina lec p c sa c p b ta b a a itie nd a a ilitie in d ve p s e lo ing c untrie tod ve p o n s lutio o s e lo w o ns
    31. 31. GeSCI Towards Inclusive Knowledge Societies C nta t & m reinfo a n o c o rm tio m ry.ho ke g s i.o a o r@ e c rg w w e c rg w .g s i.o
    32. 32. References  Daanen, H. and Facer, K. 2007. 2020 and Beyond: Future scenarios for education in the age of new technologies [Online]. Available from Futurelab at: http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/opening_education/2020_and_beyond.pdf [Acces 1 June 2009]  Engestrom, R. 2003. Change lab – a new perspective to teachers’ professional development [Online]. Available from WITFOR at: www.witfor.org.bw/doc/dr_ritva_education.ppt [Accessed 19 April 2009]  Evoh, C. J. (2007). Collaborative partnerships and the transformation of secondary education through ICTs in South Africa. Educational Media International [Online]. 44(2), 81-98. Available from: Academic Search Premier http://www.library.dcu.ie/Eresources/databases-az.htm [Accessed 26 March 2009]  GeSCI 2008. Strategic Plan 2009 – 2011 [Online]. Available from GeSCI at: www.gesci.org [Accessed 15 December 2008]  Hakkarainen, K. et al. 2008. A Research Plan for the Academy of Finland. Helensinki: University of Helsinki (internal document)  Hakkarainen, K. et al. 2008. Facilitating expansive school transformation in the SADC region. A Research Plan for the Academy of Finland. Helsinki: University of Helsinki  Kennedy, A. 2005. Models for Continuing Professional Development: A framework for Analysis. Journal of In-Service Education [Online]. 31 (2), pp235-250. Available from Professional Development Collection at: http://www.library.dcu.ie/Eresources/databases-az.htm [Accessed 15 December 2008]  Leach, J. 2008. Do new information and communications technologies have a role to play in the achievement of education for all? British Educational Research Journal [Online]. 34 (6), pp783 – 805. Available from: Academic Search Premier http://www.library.dcu.ie/Eresources/databases-az.htm [Accessed 26 March 2009]
    33. 33. References  Nleya, P. 2009. Facilitating Expansive School Transformation Using ICT in the SADC Region: A Botswana Pilot Project IN: Workshop on Perspectives for North/South Research for ICT in Education 21 April, 2009 [Online]. Available from GeSCI at: www.gesci.org [Accessed 27 April 2009]  Papert, S. 1993. The Children’s Machine: Rethinkinh School in the Age of the Computer. New York: Basic Books  Pulkkinen, J. 2009. Preliminary Conclusions and the Way Froward. IN: UN Global Alliance for ICT and Development Expert Group Web-Forum. 11 March 2009 [Online]. Available from GAID at: http://un-gaid.ning.com/forum/topics/preliminary-conclusions-and-1 [Accessed 17 April 2009]  Senge, P. 2006. The Fifth Discipline: The Art & Practice of the Learning Organization.London: Random House  Swarts, P. 2006. Teacher Professional Development Workshop Report. Dublin: GeSCI  United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Secretariat 2007. The Least Developed Countries Report 2007 [Online]. Available from UNCTAD at: http://www.unctad.org/Templates/webflyer.asp?docid=8674&intItemID=4314&lang=1&mode=downloads [Accessed 24 May 2009]  UNESCO 2005. Towards Knowledge Societies [Online]. Available from UNESCO at: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001418/141843e.pdf [Accessed 10 June 2009]  UNESCO 2008. ICT Competency Standards for Teachers: Policy Framework [Online]. Available from UNESCO at: http://cst.unesco-ci.org/sites/projects/cst/The%20Standards/ICT-CST-Policy%20Framework.pdf [Accessed 11 April 2009]  Yates, C. 2007. Teacher education policy: International development discourses and the development of teacher education. IN: Teacher Policy Forum for Sub-Saharan Africa November 2007, UNESCO Paris [Online]. Available from UNESCO at: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0016/001627/162798e.pdf [Accessed 8 April 2009]

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