SlideShare a Scribd company logo

Alert and sentinel approaches for the identification of work-related diseases in the EU

Presentation for a non-expert audience

1 of 33
Download to read offline
Safety and health at work is everyone’s concern. It’s good for you. It’s good for business.
Alert and sentinel approaches for the identification
of work-related diseases in the EU
Presentation for a non-expert audience
Authors: Jelena Bakusic, Annet Lenderink, Charlotte Lambreghts, Sofie Vandenbroeck, Jos
Verbeek, Stefania Curti, Stefano Mattioli, Lode Godderis
2
http://osha.europa.eu
INTRODUCTION
Continuous changes in work and working conditions may give rise to
new work-related diseases (WRDs)
Previously unknown exposure-disease combinations in a specific
work setting
e.g. night shift and breast cancer
3
http://osha.europa.eu
INTRODUCTION
Sentinel and alert systems
 Collect information on new WRDs
 Raise alert to stakeholders
 Use collected data to trigger timely preventive actions
SIGNAL
DETECTION
SIGNAL
ASSESSMENT
SIGNAL
STRENGTHENING
ALERT TO
STAKEHOLDERS
Image source:
4
http://osha.europa.eu
OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
Provide insight into the existing sentinel and alert approaches
to identify new WRDs
Provide recommendations for policy-makers and OSH actors
to implement sentinel and alert systems for prevention
• Policy-makers at national and EU levels
• Social partners
• Researchers
• Actors in occupational diseases recognition, workers’
compensation schemes and statistical data collection
Beneficiaries of the results of this project include:
5
http://osha.europa.eu
OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT
Task 1. • Literature review
Task 2.
• In-depth description of 12 selected
systems through interviews and
qualitative analysis
Task 3.
• Workshop to discuss outcomes of
tasks 1 and 2
Task 4.
• Final report including
analysis and
recommendations
Task 5.
• Workshop to
disseminate findings to
stakeholders
6
http://osha.europa.eu
LITERATURE REVIEW
Extracted data on each system: general aspects (country, organisation/institution
maintaining the system, website), aim of data collection, coverage, reporting
mechanism, evaluation of work-relatedness, alert on new WRDs, link with prevention
Scientific literature Grey literature
Databases: OpenGrey, OSH-update
Existing data from 3 surveys
Websites
Databases:
• MEDLINE (PUBMED)
• Embase
• Web of Science
Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/88687552@N02/8247017546

More Related Content

What's hot

HSPA 20150505 bernal-delgado ECHO Project
HSPA 20150505 bernal-delgado ECHO ProjectHSPA 20150505 bernal-delgado ECHO Project
HSPA 20150505 bernal-delgado ECHO ProjectAtlas VPM
 
Schwarzwaelder Who Guide To Prevention
Schwarzwaelder Who Guide To PreventionSchwarzwaelder Who Guide To Prevention
Schwarzwaelder Who Guide To Preventionsteschwa
 
Wasteful spending.. - Nathalie De Wulf, EHFCN
Wasteful spending.. - Nathalie De Wulf, EHFCNWasteful spending.. - Nathalie De Wulf, EHFCN
Wasteful spending.. - Nathalie De Wulf, EHFCNOECD Governance
 
Opportunities for the future of occupational cancer research
Opportunities for the future of occupational cancer researchOpportunities for the future of occupational cancer research
Opportunities for the future of occupational cancer researchCheryl Peters
 

What's hot (16)

Future scenarios and the impact of digitalization on OSH
Future scenarios and the impact of digitalization on OSHFuture scenarios and the impact of digitalization on OSH
Future scenarios and the impact of digitalization on OSH
 
Improving Occupational Safety and Health in micro and small enterprises
Improving Occupational Safety and Health in micro and small enterprisesImproving Occupational Safety and Health in micro and small enterprises
Improving Occupational Safety and Health in micro and small enterprises
 
Networking for knowledge transfer in occupational safety and health
Networking for knowledge transfer in occupational safety and healthNetworking for knowledge transfer in occupational safety and health
Networking for knowledge transfer in occupational safety and health
 
An EU-OSHA perspective on the challenges of preventing work-related accidents...
An EU-OSHA perspective on the challenges of preventing work-related accidents...An EU-OSHA perspective on the challenges of preventing work-related accidents...
An EU-OSHA perspective on the challenges of preventing work-related accidents...
 
The value of OSH - Estimating the societal costs of work-related injuries and...
The value of OSH - Estimating the societal costs of work-related injuries and...The value of OSH - Estimating the societal costs of work-related injuries and...
The value of OSH - Estimating the societal costs of work-related injuries and...
 
Biological agents and prevention of work-related diseases: a review for non-e...
Biological agents and prevention of work-related diseases: a review for non-e...Biological agents and prevention of work-related diseases: a review for non-e...
Biological agents and prevention of work-related diseases: a review for non-e...
 
ICOH 2015 - Trends and challenges of OSH in Europe
ICOH 2015 - Trends and challenges of OSH in EuropeICOH 2015 - Trends and challenges of OSH in Europe
ICOH 2015 - Trends and challenges of OSH in Europe
 
EU-OSHA Stakeholder Satisfaction Survey 2020
EU-OSHA Stakeholder Satisfaction Survey 2020EU-OSHA Stakeholder Satisfaction Survey 2020
EU-OSHA Stakeholder Satisfaction Survey 2020
 
OiRA - Online interactive Risk Assessment - an overview of the project
OiRA - Online interactive Risk Assessment - an overview of the projectOiRA - Online interactive Risk Assessment - an overview of the project
OiRA - Online interactive Risk Assessment - an overview of the project
 
Developing a data driven method for assessing exposure to dangerous substances
Developing a data driven method for assessing exposure to dangerous substancesDeveloping a data driven method for assessing exposure to dangerous substances
Developing a data driven method for assessing exposure to dangerous substances
 
Health risks and prevention practices during handling of fumigated container...
Health risks and prevention practices during handling of fumigated container...Health risks and prevention practices during handling of fumigated container...
Health risks and prevention practices during handling of fumigated container...
 
EU-OSHA Stakeholder Satisfaction Survey 2018
EU-OSHA Stakeholder Satisfaction Survey 2018 EU-OSHA Stakeholder Satisfaction Survey 2018
EU-OSHA Stakeholder Satisfaction Survey 2018
 
HSPA 20150505 bernal-delgado ECHO Project
HSPA 20150505 bernal-delgado ECHO ProjectHSPA 20150505 bernal-delgado ECHO Project
HSPA 20150505 bernal-delgado ECHO Project
 
Schwarzwaelder Who Guide To Prevention
Schwarzwaelder Who Guide To PreventionSchwarzwaelder Who Guide To Prevention
Schwarzwaelder Who Guide To Prevention
 
Wasteful spending.. - Nathalie De Wulf, EHFCN
Wasteful spending.. - Nathalie De Wulf, EHFCNWasteful spending.. - Nathalie De Wulf, EHFCN
Wasteful spending.. - Nathalie De Wulf, EHFCN
 
Opportunities for the future of occupational cancer research
Opportunities for the future of occupational cancer researchOpportunities for the future of occupational cancer research
Opportunities for the future of occupational cancer research
 

Similar to Alert and sentinel approaches for the identification of work-related diseases in the EU

What’s new in Pharmacovigilance
What’s new in PharmacovigilanceWhat’s new in Pharmacovigilance
What’s new in PharmacovigilanceMarket iT
 
What’s new in Pharmacovigilance
What’s new in PharmacovigilanceWhat’s new in Pharmacovigilance
What’s new in PharmacovigilanceBruno Moreau
 
En maint intro_long
En maint intro_longEn maint intro_long
En maint intro_longRashi Das
 
Using Healthcare Data for Research @ The Hyve - Campus Party 2016
Using Healthcare Data for Research @ The Hyve - Campus Party 2016Using Healthcare Data for Research @ The Hyve - Campus Party 2016
Using Healthcare Data for Research @ The Hyve - Campus Party 2016Kees van Bochove
 
Holistic public role osh chemical eu acm 280909
Holistic public role osh chemical eu acm 280909Holistic public role osh chemical eu acm 280909
Holistic public role osh chemical eu acm 280909Alberto Mico
 
EuroBioForum 2013 - Day 2 | Frank Molina
 EuroBioForum 2013 - Day 2 | Frank Molina EuroBioForum 2013 - Day 2 | Frank Molina
EuroBioForum 2013 - Day 2 | Frank MolinaEuroBioForum
 
1st eStandards conference: next steps for standardization in large scale eHea...
1st eStandards conference: next steps for standardization in large scale eHea...1st eStandards conference: next steps for standardization in large scale eHea...
1st eStandards conference: next steps for standardization in large scale eHea...chronaki
 
Procurement: The Cornerstone of Market Access in Europe
Procurement: The Cornerstone of Market Access in EuropeProcurement: The Cornerstone of Market Access in Europe
Procurement: The Cornerstone of Market Access in EuropeMedTech Europe
 
BDE SC4 Hangout - Simon Scerri, Introduction
BDE SC4 Hangout - Simon Scerri, IntroductionBDE SC4 Hangout - Simon Scerri, Introduction
BDE SC4 Hangout - Simon Scerri, IntroductionBigData_Europe
 
Ultrasound Sensing Technologies for Medical, Industrial and Consumer Applicat...
Ultrasound Sensing Technologies for Medical, Industrial and Consumer Applicat...Ultrasound Sensing Technologies for Medical, Industrial and Consumer Applicat...
Ultrasound Sensing Technologies for Medical, Industrial and Consumer Applicat...Yole Developpement
 
Nikos Markatos - NTUA
Nikos Markatos - NTUANikos Markatos - NTUA
Nikos Markatos - NTUAWWW.ERFC.GR
 
Stephan Bachofen - Mobile monitoring applied to the chronic diseases - e-heal...
Stephan Bachofen - Mobile monitoring applied to the chronic diseases - e-heal...Stephan Bachofen - Mobile monitoring applied to the chronic diseases - e-heal...
Stephan Bachofen - Mobile monitoring applied to the chronic diseases - e-heal...Thearkvalais
 
European network for workplace health promotion presentation
European network for workplace health promotion presentationEuropean network for workplace health promotion presentation
European network for workplace health promotion presentationAlberto Mico
 

Similar to Alert and sentinel approaches for the identification of work-related diseases in the EU (20)

ICOH 2015 - EU OSH Strategies and national examples
ICOH 2015 - EU OSH Strategies and national examplesICOH 2015 - EU OSH Strategies and national examples
ICOH 2015 - EU OSH Strategies and national examples
 
What’s new in Pharmacovigilance
What’s new in PharmacovigilanceWhat’s new in Pharmacovigilance
What’s new in Pharmacovigilance
 
What’s new in Pharmacovigilance
What’s new in PharmacovigilanceWhat’s new in Pharmacovigilance
What’s new in Pharmacovigilance
 
Sowoon_Success_story
Sowoon_Success_storySowoon_Success_story
Sowoon_Success_story
 
En maint intro_long
En maint intro_longEn maint intro_long
En maint intro_long
 
Using Healthcare Data for Research @ The Hyve - Campus Party 2016
Using Healthcare Data for Research @ The Hyve - Campus Party 2016Using Healthcare Data for Research @ The Hyve - Campus Party 2016
Using Healthcare Data for Research @ The Hyve - Campus Party 2016
 
Investor deck sep2017 eng
Investor deck  sep2017 engInvestor deck  sep2017 eng
Investor deck sep2017 eng
 
Holistic public role osh chemical eu acm 280909
Holistic public role osh chemical eu acm 280909Holistic public role osh chemical eu acm 280909
Holistic public role osh chemical eu acm 280909
 
EuroBioForum 2013 - Day 2 | Frank Molina
 EuroBioForum 2013 - Day 2 | Frank Molina EuroBioForum 2013 - Day 2 | Frank Molina
EuroBioForum 2013 - Day 2 | Frank Molina
 
5.3.2nd WS. News from the COGAIN Association & DTU G.Interaction
5.3.2nd WS. News from the COGAIN Association & DTU G.Interaction5.3.2nd WS. News from the COGAIN Association & DTU G.Interaction
5.3.2nd WS. News from the COGAIN Association & DTU G.Interaction
 
FSYC - European drug prevention quality standards
FSYC - European drug prevention quality standardsFSYC - European drug prevention quality standards
FSYC - European drug prevention quality standards
 
Uad Nov 30 Avert It
Uad Nov 30 Avert ItUad Nov 30 Avert It
Uad Nov 30 Avert It
 
1st eStandards conference: next steps for standardization in large scale eHea...
1st eStandards conference: next steps for standardization in large scale eHea...1st eStandards conference: next steps for standardization in large scale eHea...
1st eStandards conference: next steps for standardization in large scale eHea...
 
Procurement: The Cornerstone of Market Access in Europe
Procurement: The Cornerstone of Market Access in EuropeProcurement: The Cornerstone of Market Access in Europe
Procurement: The Cornerstone of Market Access in Europe
 
BDE SC4 Hangout - Simon Scerri, Introduction
BDE SC4 Hangout - Simon Scerri, IntroductionBDE SC4 Hangout - Simon Scerri, Introduction
BDE SC4 Hangout - Simon Scerri, Introduction
 
Ultrasound Sensing Technologies for Medical, Industrial and Consumer Applicat...
Ultrasound Sensing Technologies for Medical, Industrial and Consumer Applicat...Ultrasound Sensing Technologies for Medical, Industrial and Consumer Applicat...
Ultrasound Sensing Technologies for Medical, Industrial and Consumer Applicat...
 
Biological agents and prevention of work-related diseases: a review for experts
Biological agents and prevention of work-related diseases: a review for expertsBiological agents and prevention of work-related diseases: a review for experts
Biological agents and prevention of work-related diseases: a review for experts
 
Nikos Markatos - NTUA
Nikos Markatos - NTUANikos Markatos - NTUA
Nikos Markatos - NTUA
 
Stephan Bachofen - Mobile monitoring applied to the chronic diseases - e-heal...
Stephan Bachofen - Mobile monitoring applied to the chronic diseases - e-heal...Stephan Bachofen - Mobile monitoring applied to the chronic diseases - e-heal...
Stephan Bachofen - Mobile monitoring applied to the chronic diseases - e-heal...
 
European network for workplace health promotion presentation
European network for workplace health promotion presentationEuropean network for workplace health promotion presentation
European network for workplace health promotion presentation
 

More from European Agency for Safety and Health at Work - EU-OSHA

ΠΡΟΒΛΕΨΗ ΤΩΝ ΝΕΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΑΔΥΟΜΕΝΩΝ ΚΙΝΔΥΝΩΝ ΕΠΑΓΓΕΛΜΑΤΙΚΗΣ ΑΣΦΑΛΕΙΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΥΓΕΙΑ...
ΠΡΟΒΛΕΨΗ ΤΩΝ ΝΕΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΑΔΥΟΜΕΝΩΝ ΚΙΝΔΥΝΩΝ ΕΠΑΓΓΕΛΜΑΤΙΚΗΣ ΑΣΦΑΛΕΙΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΥΓΕΙΑ...ΠΡΟΒΛΕΨΗ ΤΩΝ ΝΕΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΑΔΥΟΜΕΝΩΝ ΚΙΝΔΥΝΩΝ ΕΠΑΓΓΕΛΜΑΤΙΚΗΣ ΑΣΦΑΛΕΙΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΥΓΕΙΑ...
ΠΡΟΒΛΕΨΗ ΤΩΝ ΝΕΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΑΔΥΟΜΕΝΩΝ ΚΙΝΔΥΝΩΝ ΕΠΑΓΓΕΛΜΑΤΙΚΗΣ ΑΣΦΑΛΕΙΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΥΓΕΙΑ...European Agency for Safety and Health at Work - EU-OSHA
 
ПРОГНОЗИ ЗА НОВИ И НОВОВЪЗНИКВАЩИ РИСКОВЕ ЗА БЗР ВСЛЕДСТВИЕ НА ЦИФРОВИЗАЦИЯТА...
ПРОГНОЗИ ЗА НОВИ И НОВОВЪЗНИКВАЩИ РИСКОВЕ ЗА БЗР ВСЛЕДСТВИЕ НА ЦИФРОВИЗАЦИЯТА...ПРОГНОЗИ ЗА НОВИ И НОВОВЪЗНИКВАЩИ РИСКОВЕ ЗА БЗР ВСЛЕДСТВИЕ НА ЦИФРОВИЗАЦИЯТА...
ПРОГНОЗИ ЗА НОВИ И НОВОВЪЗНИКВАЩИ РИСКОВЕ ЗА БЗР ВСЛЕДСТВИЕ НА ЦИФРОВИЗАЦИЯТА...European Agency for Safety and Health at Work - EU-OSHA
 

More from European Agency for Safety and Health at Work - EU-OSHA (16)

Preventing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) through worker participation
Preventing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) through worker participationPreventing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) through worker participation
Preventing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) through worker participation
 
New Developments and Trends in Psychosocial Risk Management by Xabier Irastor...
New Developments and Trends in Psychosocial Risk Management by Xabier Irastor...New Developments and Trends in Psychosocial Risk Management by Xabier Irastor...
New Developments and Trends in Psychosocial Risk Management by Xabier Irastor...
 
On the move — MSDs and avoiding prolonged static sitting at work
On the move — MSDs and avoiding prolonged static sitting at workOn the move — MSDs and avoiding prolonged static sitting at work
On the move — MSDs and avoiding prolonged static sitting at work
 
Working with chronic musculoskeletal disorders
Working with chronic musculoskeletal disordersWorking with chronic musculoskeletal disorders
Working with chronic musculoskeletal disorders
 
Risk Assessment for Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs)
Risk Assessment for Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs)Risk Assessment for Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs)
Risk Assessment for Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs)
 
Introduction to Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) prevention
Introduction to Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) preventionIntroduction to Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) prevention
Introduction to Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) prevention
 
ANÁLISE PROSPETIVA DOS RISCOS NOVOS E EMERGENTES RELACIONADOS COM A DIGITALIZ...
ANÁLISE PROSPETIVA DOS RISCOS NOVOS E EMERGENTES RELACIONADOS COM A DIGITALIZ...ANÁLISE PROSPETIVA DOS RISCOS NOVOS E EMERGENTES RELACIONADOS COM A DIGITALIZ...
ANÁLISE PROSPETIVA DOS RISCOS NOVOS E EMERGENTES RELACIONADOS COM A DIGITALIZ...
 
PROGNOZY DO ROKU 2025 DOTYCZĄCE NOWYCH I POJAWIAJĄCYCH SIĘ ZAGROŻEŃ ZWIĄZANY...
PROGNOZY DO ROKU 2025 DOTYCZĄCE NOWYCH I POJAWIAJĄCYCH SIĘ ZAGROŻEŃ ZWIĄZANY...PROGNOZY DO ROKU 2025 DOTYCZĄCE NOWYCH I POJAWIAJĄCYCH SIĘ ZAGROŻEŃ ZWIĄZANY...
PROGNOZY DO ROKU 2025 DOTYCZĄCE NOWYCH I POJAWIAJĄCYCH SIĘ ZAGROŻEŃ ZWIĄZANY...
 
PROSPECTIVE SUR LES RISQUES NOUVEAUX ET ÉMERGENTS EN MATIÈRE DE SST LIÉS À LA...
PROSPECTIVE SUR LES RISQUES NOUVEAUX ET ÉMERGENTS EN MATIÈRE DE SST LIÉS À LA...PROSPECTIVE SUR LES RISQUES NOUVEAUX ET ÉMERGENTS EN MATIÈRE DE SST LIÉS À LA...
PROSPECTIVE SUR LES RISQUES NOUVEAUX ET ÉMERGENTS EN MATIÈRE DE SST LIÉS À LA...
 
AVISO SOBRE LOS RIESGOS NUEVOS Y EMERGENTES DE SST RELACIONADOS CON LA DIGIT...
AVISO SOBRE LOS RIESGOS NUEVOS Y EMERGENTES DE SST RELACIONADOS CON LA DIGIT...AVISO SOBRE LOS RIESGOS NUEVOS Y EMERGENTES DE SST RELACIONADOS CON LA DIGIT...
AVISO SOBRE LOS RIESGOS NUEVOS Y EMERGENTES DE SST RELACIONADOS CON LA DIGIT...
 
ΠΡΟΒΛΕΨΗ ΤΩΝ ΝΕΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΑΔΥΟΜΕΝΩΝ ΚΙΝΔΥΝΩΝ ΕΠΑΓΓΕΛΜΑΤΙΚΗΣ ΑΣΦΑΛΕΙΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΥΓΕΙΑ...
ΠΡΟΒΛΕΨΗ ΤΩΝ ΝΕΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΑΔΥΟΜΕΝΩΝ ΚΙΝΔΥΝΩΝ ΕΠΑΓΓΕΛΜΑΤΙΚΗΣ ΑΣΦΑΛΕΙΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΥΓΕΙΑ...ΠΡΟΒΛΕΨΗ ΤΩΝ ΝΕΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΑΔΥΟΜΕΝΩΝ ΚΙΝΔΥΝΩΝ ΕΠΑΓΓΕΛΜΑΤΙΚΗΣ ΑΣΦΑΛΕΙΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΥΓΕΙΑ...
ΠΡΟΒΛΕΨΗ ΤΩΝ ΝΕΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΑΔΥΟΜΕΝΩΝ ΚΙΝΔΥΝΩΝ ΕΠΑΓΓΕΛΜΑΤΙΚΗΣ ΑΣΦΑΛΕΙΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΥΓΕΙΑ...
 
ПРОГНОЗИ ЗА НОВИ И НОВОВЪЗНИКВАЩИ РИСКОВЕ ЗА БЗР ВСЛЕДСТВИЕ НА ЦИФРОВИЗАЦИЯТА...
ПРОГНОЗИ ЗА НОВИ И НОВОВЪЗНИКВАЩИ РИСКОВЕ ЗА БЗР ВСЛЕДСТВИЕ НА ЦИФРОВИЗАЦИЯТА...ПРОГНОЗИ ЗА НОВИ И НОВОВЪЗНИКВАЩИ РИСКОВЕ ЗА БЗР ВСЛЕДСТВИЕ НА ЦИФРОВИЗАЦИЯТА...
ПРОГНОЗИ ЗА НОВИ И НОВОВЪЗНИКВАЩИ РИСКОВЕ ЗА БЗР ВСЛЕДСТВИЕ НА ЦИФРОВИЗАЦИЯТА...
 
EU-OSHA Stakeholder Satisfaction Survey 2018 IT
EU-OSHA Stakeholder Satisfaction Survey 2018 ITEU-OSHA Stakeholder Satisfaction Survey 2018 IT
EU-OSHA Stakeholder Satisfaction Survey 2018 IT
 
EU-OSHA Stakeholder Satisfaction Survey 2018 FR
EU-OSHA Stakeholder Satisfaction Survey 2018 FREU-OSHA Stakeholder Satisfaction Survey 2018 FR
EU-OSHA Stakeholder Satisfaction Survey 2018 FR
 
EU-OSHA Stakeholder Satisfaction Survey 2019 ES
EU-OSHA Stakeholder Satisfaction Survey 2019 ESEU-OSHA Stakeholder Satisfaction Survey 2019 ES
EU-OSHA Stakeholder Satisfaction Survey 2019 ES
 
EU-OSHA Stakeholder Satisfaction Survey 2018 DE
EU-OSHA Stakeholder Satisfaction Survey 2018 DEEU-OSHA Stakeholder Satisfaction Survey 2018 DE
EU-OSHA Stakeholder Satisfaction Survey 2018 DE
 

Recently uploaded

Vitamin C Face wash Brands in India - Harriet Healthcare
Vitamin C Face wash Brands in India - Harriet HealthcareVitamin C Face wash Brands in India - Harriet Healthcare
Vitamin C Face wash Brands in India - Harriet Healthcaredehawebhopers
 
悉尼大学毕业证制作流Sydney毕业证文凭学历学位认证
悉尼大学毕业证制作流Sydney毕业证文凭学历学位认证悉尼大学毕业证制作流Sydney毕业证文凭学历学位认证
悉尼大学毕业证制作流Sydney毕业证文凭学历学位认证8cuw8kc0
 
Medical Translation for Accurate Care: A Step-by-Step Guide
Medical Translation for Accurate Care: A Step-by-Step GuideMedical Translation for Accurate Care: A Step-by-Step Guide
Medical Translation for Accurate Care: A Step-by-Step Guide24 Hour Translation
 
intracranial pressure nursing care process
intracranial pressure nursing care processintracranial pressure nursing care process
intracranial pressure nursing care processHayatALAKOUM
 
CRO Audit & Monitoring Quality Perspectives.pdf
CRO Audit & Monitoring Quality Perspectives.pdfCRO Audit & Monitoring Quality Perspectives.pdf
CRO Audit & Monitoring Quality Perspectives.pdfDr Prashant Bodhe
 
sara atefد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديميد حاتم البيطار.pdf
sara atefد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديميد حاتم البيطار.pdfsara atefد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديميد حاتم البيطار.pdf
sara atefد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديميد حاتم البيطار.pdfد حاتم البيطار
 
orbital_pseudotumor presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptx
orbital_pseudotumor presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptxorbital_pseudotumor presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptx
orbital_pseudotumor presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptxdhbketan
 
HEALTH, ILLNESS, DISEASE, AND WELLNESS
HEALTH,  ILLNESS, DISEASE,  AND WELLNESSHEALTH,  ILLNESS, DISEASE,  AND WELLNESS
HEALTH, ILLNESS, DISEASE, AND WELLNESSRommel Luis III Israel
 
dr heba allah abozeidد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pdf
dr heba allah abozeidد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pdfdr heba allah abozeidد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pdf
dr heba allah abozeidد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pdfد حاتم البيطار
 
Role of Regulatory authorities in Quality education, practice, and rights of ...
Role of Regulatory authorities in Quality education, practice, and rights of ...Role of Regulatory authorities in Quality education, practice, and rights of ...
Role of Regulatory authorities in Quality education, practice, and rights of ...RashmiTiwari72
 
Advanced Cardiac Disease | VITAS Healthcare
Advanced Cardiac Disease | VITAS HealthcareAdvanced Cardiac Disease | VITAS Healthcare
Advanced Cardiac Disease | VITAS HealthcareVITASAuthor
 
endo diagnosis ppt friday.pptx [Autosaved].pptx
endo diagnosis ppt friday.pptx [Autosaved].pptxendo diagnosis ppt friday.pptx [Autosaved].pptx
endo diagnosis ppt friday.pptx [Autosaved].pptxAmanSachdeva32
 
APPENDICITIS...ppt...MSN -I...SlideShare....
APPENDICITIS...ppt...MSN -I...SlideShare....APPENDICITIS...ppt...MSN -I...SlideShare....
APPENDICITIS...ppt...MSN -I...SlideShare....Beena Vaza
 
EQUIPMENT FOR CRANIAL AND DENTAL RADIOGRAPHY.pptx
EQUIPMENT FOR CRANIAL AND DENTAL RADIOGRAPHY.pptxEQUIPMENT FOR CRANIAL AND DENTAL RADIOGRAPHY.pptx
EQUIPMENT FOR CRANIAL AND DENTAL RADIOGRAPHY.pptxRukamaneeYadav
 
Top Antifungal Creams in India - Hariet Healthcare
Top Antifungal Creams in India - Hariet HealthcareTop Antifungal Creams in India - Hariet Healthcare
Top Antifungal Creams in India - Hariet Healthcaredehawebhopers
 
DIABETIC_STUDIES_STY_2 presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptx
DIABETIC_STUDIES_STY_2  presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptxDIABETIC_STUDIES_STY_2  presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptx
DIABETIC_STUDIES_STY_2 presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptxdhbketan
 
Foot Care Cream For Cracks & Dryness Feet
Foot Care Cream For Cracks & Dryness FeetFoot Care Cream For Cracks & Dryness Feet
Foot Care Cream For Cracks & Dryness FeetUniqaya Lifestyle
 
RED EYE Public health Publication for IPC
RED EYE Public health Publication for IPCRED EYE Public health Publication for IPC
RED EYE Public health Publication for IPCStephenKigotho
 
Use of AI: Misinformation on Social Media
Use of AI: Misinformation on Social MediaUse of AI: Misinformation on Social Media
Use of AI: Misinformation on Social MediaIris Thiele Isip-Tan
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Blindness Medical & Surgical Nursing.pptx
Blindness Medical & Surgical Nursing.pptxBlindness Medical & Surgical Nursing.pptx
Blindness Medical & Surgical Nursing.pptx
 
Vitamin C Face wash Brands in India - Harriet Healthcare
Vitamin C Face wash Brands in India - Harriet HealthcareVitamin C Face wash Brands in India - Harriet Healthcare
Vitamin C Face wash Brands in India - Harriet Healthcare
 
悉尼大学毕业证制作流Sydney毕业证文凭学历学位认证
悉尼大学毕业证制作流Sydney毕业证文凭学历学位认证悉尼大学毕业证制作流Sydney毕业证文凭学历学位认证
悉尼大学毕业证制作流Sydney毕业证文凭学历学位认证
 
Medical Translation for Accurate Care: A Step-by-Step Guide
Medical Translation for Accurate Care: A Step-by-Step GuideMedical Translation for Accurate Care: A Step-by-Step Guide
Medical Translation for Accurate Care: A Step-by-Step Guide
 
intracranial pressure nursing care process
intracranial pressure nursing care processintracranial pressure nursing care process
intracranial pressure nursing care process
 
CRO Audit & Monitoring Quality Perspectives.pdf
CRO Audit & Monitoring Quality Perspectives.pdfCRO Audit & Monitoring Quality Perspectives.pdf
CRO Audit & Monitoring Quality Perspectives.pdf
 
sara atefد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديميد حاتم البيطار.pdf
sara atefد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديميد حاتم البيطار.pdfsara atefد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديميد حاتم البيطار.pdf
sara atefد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديميد حاتم البيطار.pdf
 
orbital_pseudotumor presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptx
orbital_pseudotumor presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptxorbital_pseudotumor presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptx
orbital_pseudotumor presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptx
 
HEALTH, ILLNESS, DISEASE, AND WELLNESS
HEALTH,  ILLNESS, DISEASE,  AND WELLNESSHEALTH,  ILLNESS, DISEASE,  AND WELLNESS
HEALTH, ILLNESS, DISEASE, AND WELLNESS
 
dr heba allah abozeidد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pdf
dr heba allah abozeidد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pdfdr heba allah abozeidد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pdf
dr heba allah abozeidد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pdf
 
Role of Regulatory authorities in Quality education, practice, and rights of ...
Role of Regulatory authorities in Quality education, practice, and rights of ...Role of Regulatory authorities in Quality education, practice, and rights of ...
Role of Regulatory authorities in Quality education, practice, and rights of ...
 
Advanced Cardiac Disease | VITAS Healthcare
Advanced Cardiac Disease | VITAS HealthcareAdvanced Cardiac Disease | VITAS Healthcare
Advanced Cardiac Disease | VITAS Healthcare
 
endo diagnosis ppt friday.pptx [Autosaved].pptx
endo diagnosis ppt friday.pptx [Autosaved].pptxendo diagnosis ppt friday.pptx [Autosaved].pptx
endo diagnosis ppt friday.pptx [Autosaved].pptx
 
APPENDICITIS...ppt...MSN -I...SlideShare....
APPENDICITIS...ppt...MSN -I...SlideShare....APPENDICITIS...ppt...MSN -I...SlideShare....
APPENDICITIS...ppt...MSN -I...SlideShare....
 
EQUIPMENT FOR CRANIAL AND DENTAL RADIOGRAPHY.pptx
EQUIPMENT FOR CRANIAL AND DENTAL RADIOGRAPHY.pptxEQUIPMENT FOR CRANIAL AND DENTAL RADIOGRAPHY.pptx
EQUIPMENT FOR CRANIAL AND DENTAL RADIOGRAPHY.pptx
 
Top Antifungal Creams in India - Hariet Healthcare
Top Antifungal Creams in India - Hariet HealthcareTop Antifungal Creams in India - Hariet Healthcare
Top Antifungal Creams in India - Hariet Healthcare
 
DIABETIC_STUDIES_STY_2 presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptx
DIABETIC_STUDIES_STY_2  presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptxDIABETIC_STUDIES_STY_2  presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptx
DIABETIC_STUDIES_STY_2 presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptx
 
Foot Care Cream For Cracks & Dryness Feet
Foot Care Cream For Cracks & Dryness FeetFoot Care Cream For Cracks & Dryness Feet
Foot Care Cream For Cracks & Dryness Feet
 
RED EYE Public health Publication for IPC
RED EYE Public health Publication for IPCRED EYE Public health Publication for IPC
RED EYE Public health Publication for IPC
 
Use of AI: Misinformation on Social Media
Use of AI: Misinformation on Social MediaUse of AI: Misinformation on Social Media
Use of AI: Misinformation on Social Media
 

Alert and sentinel approaches for the identification of work-related diseases in the EU

  • 1. Safety and health at work is everyone’s concern. It’s good for you. It’s good for business. Alert and sentinel approaches for the identification of work-related diseases in the EU Presentation for a non-expert audience Authors: Jelena Bakusic, Annet Lenderink, Charlotte Lambreghts, Sofie Vandenbroeck, Jos Verbeek, Stefania Curti, Stefano Mattioli, Lode Godderis
  • 2. 2 http://osha.europa.eu INTRODUCTION Continuous changes in work and working conditions may give rise to new work-related diseases (WRDs) Previously unknown exposure-disease combinations in a specific work setting e.g. night shift and breast cancer
  • 3. 3 http://osha.europa.eu INTRODUCTION Sentinel and alert systems  Collect information on new WRDs  Raise alert to stakeholders  Use collected data to trigger timely preventive actions SIGNAL DETECTION SIGNAL ASSESSMENT SIGNAL STRENGTHENING ALERT TO STAKEHOLDERS Image source:
  • 4. 4 http://osha.europa.eu OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT Provide insight into the existing sentinel and alert approaches to identify new WRDs Provide recommendations for policy-makers and OSH actors to implement sentinel and alert systems for prevention • Policy-makers at national and EU levels • Social partners • Researchers • Actors in occupational diseases recognition, workers’ compensation schemes and statistical data collection Beneficiaries of the results of this project include:
  • 5. 5 http://osha.europa.eu OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT Task 1. • Literature review Task 2. • In-depth description of 12 selected systems through interviews and qualitative analysis Task 3. • Workshop to discuss outcomes of tasks 1 and 2 Task 4. • Final report including analysis and recommendations Task 5. • Workshop to disseminate findings to stakeholders
  • 6. 6 http://osha.europa.eu LITERATURE REVIEW Extracted data on each system: general aspects (country, organisation/institution maintaining the system, website), aim of data collection, coverage, reporting mechanism, evaluation of work-relatedness, alert on new WRDs, link with prevention Scientific literature Grey literature Databases: OpenGrey, OSH-update Existing data from 3 surveys Websites Databases: • MEDLINE (PUBMED) • Embase • Web of Science Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/88687552@N02/8247017546
  • 7. 7 http://osha.europa.eu THE IN-DEPTH STUDY  6 systems described through in-depth desk research:  6 systems described through interviews with 3 stakeholders: 1. Owner of the sentinel or alert system 2. Workplace actor who reports to the system 3. Researcher or other stakeholder using the system for monitoring, occupational disease recognition, or workplace prevention Information describing the development, outline and results of the systems was gathered from websites, grey literature and scientific publications
  • 8. 8 http://osha.europa.eu TWO WORKSHOPS  Expert workshop to discuss outcomes of Tasks 1 and 2 of the project  Gathered systems’ owners and users, researchers and actors in the disease recognition area  Objective: to gain more insight on the drivers and obstacles to the implementation of systems  Policy workshop to discuss and consolidate results of the project  Gathered representatives of ministries of health and labour, national insurance bodies, institutes of public health, etc.  Objective: disseminate findings and recommendations derived from the project Image source: http://freecliparty.com/free-image-clip-art/358524/general-meeting-clipart-images-urda6gb-image-clip-art
  • 9. 9 http://osha.europa.eu RESULTS LITERATURE REVIEW  75 systems/approaches identified from EU countries as well as outside Europe (USA, Canada, Australia, Singapore, Taiwan etc.)  Typology with algorithm to determine type
  • 12. 12 http://osha.europa.eu Compensation-based systems Evaluation by experts Case reported for compensation Alert to new WRD Workplace interventions Image sources: https://www.iconspng.com/images/Ke-png/40, https://carwad.net/free-cli, http://clipart-library.com/safety-equipment-cliparts.html, https://www.clipartmax.com/middle/m2i8G6A0K9b1N4K9_monitoring-evaluation-and-impact-assessment-of-food-evaluation-assessment-graphics/
  • 13. 13 http://osha.europa.eu  Created to provide insurance to workers  Over time expanded to include preventive workplace activities and publication of national OSH statistical data  Reporting based on voluntary participation of all types of physicians  Data mainly from two sources: compensation claims and medical examinations (screening) of workers  Work-relatedness evaluation is performed by SUVA’s occupational health (OH) experts  Possible to include detailed workplace inspections with exposure assessments Swiss National Accident Insurance Fund SUVA (Switzerland) OPEN LIST APPROACH Even though the criteria for compensation are strict, all suspected WRDs can be reported and can trigger alert and preventive actions, e.g. burnout preventive campaigns Image source: https://www.nbboaonline.com/single-post/2023/08/19/This-is-the-title-of-your-second-post, https://fx-forexshop.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/swiss-2700775_1920.png
  • 14. 14 http://osha.europa.eu Systems for data collection and statistics
  • 15. 15 http://osha.europa.eu Motivation of reporters Systems for data collection and statistics Statistics/data mining Physicians report cases seen in their practice Alert to new WRDPreventive strategies and policies DATABASE Image sources: https://pixabay.com/en/folder-office-files-corporate-23609, https://www.gograph.com/vector-clip-art/growth- chart.html/http://www.haydanhthoigian.net/lawyer-clipart/clipart-lawyers-collection-lawyer-scale-best-png-4983-2800-9/
  • 16. 16 http://osha.europa.eu The Health and Occupation Research network THOR (UK)  Maintained by the University of Manchester  Different reporting schemes for different types of WRDs  THOR-EXTRA — scheme for reporting interesting cases or WRDs with a potentially novel cause  Sophisticated statistical methods for determination of incidences and trends in WRDs  Data quality constantly improved  Strong link with authorities Image source: https://www.kissclipart.com/free/relations,14.html
  • 17. 17 http://osha.europa.eu The Health and Occupation Research network THOR (UK) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Nurse (3211) Hairdresser (3221) Cook/chef (5434) Catering assistant (9223) Cleaner (9233) Average annual number of cases Incidence rate per 100,000 employees Occupational skin disease reported to THOR 2002-2005 Data source: Turner S, Carder M, van Tongeren M, McNamee R, Lines S, Hussey L, et al. The incidence of occupational skin disease as reported to The Health and Occupation Reporting (THOR) network between 2002 and 2005. Br J Dermatol. 2007;157:713–722.; Image source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/hairdressing/bad-hand.htm
  • 19. 19 http://osha.europa.eu Sentinel systems Evaluation by experts Suspected case of new WRDs Alert to new WRD Workplace interventions Network of occupational physicians Detailed investigation of each case Image sources: https://www.kissclipart.com/network-clipart-computer-network-clip-art-l2qn92/download-clipart.html, http://clipart-library.com/magnifying-glass-vector.html
  • 20. 20 http://osha.europa.eu  Maintained by the Netherlands Centre for Occupational Diseases (NCvB) and the Centre of Environment and Health of KU Leuven (Belgium)  Main goal is to detect new OH risks and new WRDs  OH physicians report diseases they suspect to be caused by an employee’s occupation to an online platform  Every reported case is evaluated in a structured manner by at least two independent OH experts  After the assessment, the reporting physician receives an expanded report. This report contains supportive literary research, the relevance to the job in question and suggestions regarding the next steps in the course of action. SIGNAAL (Belgium and the Netherlands) Image sources: https://ilpallonenellarete.files.wordpress.com/2016/07/countrieseuro2000.png, https://www.mysignal.be/
  • 21. 21 http://osha.europa.eu SIGNAAL (Belgium and the Netherlands) Some of the reports since July 2013 Country Work- related? New combination? Open angle glaucoma and playing saxophone (teacher) NL Yes Not new, relatively unknown Achilles tendon rupture in the assembly, dismantling and maintenance of cranes NL Yes Not new, relatively unknown Back pain in the care of dementia patients without available lifting aids NL Possible Not new Endotoxin fever after cleaning a polluted drain with high pressure air NL Yes Not new, not described in this work setting Nosebleeds and formaldehyde exposure in aluminimum production B Yes New Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and exposure to hairspray in a hairdresser B Yes Not completely new, but rarely described
  • 23. 23 http://osha.europa.eu Public health systems Public health authority Extract work-related data Alert to new WRD Monitoring health of general population Preventive strategies at the public health level Image sources: https://www.emaze.com/@AORCZWQWF, https://cliparts.zone/column-cliparts, http://www.home-air-purifier-expert.com/
  • 24. 24 http://osha.europa.eu  Collect data in three-month periods, through interviews with workers (randomly selected) in households  Main purpose: estimate incidence and prevalence of work-related injuries and WRDs  Ireland: QNHS survey (Quarterly National Household Survey) is carried out by the Central Statistics Office (CSO) of Ireland, covering 26,000 households each quarter  UK: Self-Reported Work-Related Illness (SWI), is carried out by the Office for National Statistics (ONS), covering 50,000 households each quarter  Individuals are asked if they have suffered any illnesses or disabilities in the past 12 months that they believe were caused or aggravated by their work and about factors at work that may adversely affect mental well-being or physical health  The Labour Force Surveys provide information on WRDs from the workers' perspective  Data is triangulated with other systems in the UK and used for prevention Labour Force Surveys (Ireland and UK) Image sources: https://www.uihere.com/free-cliparts/telephone-telephony-orange-telefono-rotary-telephone-illustration-963060, https://www.picswe.com/pics/great-britain-ireland-a7.html
  • 25. 25 http://osha.europa.eu DRIVERS AND OBSTACLES OF THE SYSTEMS Drivers/obstacles Recommendations Visibility of the system: some systems are poorly described in the literature • Raise awareness about the existence of the system • Publish results derived from the system • Share success stories, make the ‘business case’ Motivation of reporting parties: difficulties in engaging physicians to report due to increased demands in their clinical practice • Simplification/automation of reporting • Two-way communication and feedback • Legal obligation • Provide a reward for reporting Exposure assessment: lack of adequate exposure assessment seen as one of the major drawbacks by most of the interviewees; crucial for establishment of causal relation with work • Include exposure description in reporting • Exposure assessment during the evaluation procedure of reported cases • Use tools for more standardised reporting of exposure (such as hierarchical codes for all types of exposures) Standardisation and quality control: important for data quality improvement, but also to enable the comparison of data collected at national and international levels • Clear case definitions, • Sensitivity versus specificity • Clear coding system, • Training and guiding in coding • Code control
  • 26. 26 http://osha.europa.eu DRIVERS AND OBSTACLES OF THE SYSTEMS Drivers/obstacles Recommendations Awareness and detection on new/emerging WRDs: one of the main conditions for capturing new WRDs is that the reporting parties who can identify them and experts who assess work-relatedness are aware of these diseases and reporting lines are clear • Raise awareness and expertise • Publish on new/emerging health risks • Offer expert help with establishing work- relatedness • Low reporting threshold • Data mining in existing databases Different levels of links with prevention: prevention can be established at several different levels, which involves different groups of stakeholders and could be linked to the typology of the systems • Collaboration with governmental bodies • Contact with companies/sectors/workers’ representatives/labour inspectorate • Follow-up and followback activities • Enable link with policies Political and financial support and resources: stable, long-term funding is crucial for maintenance of a system; linked to the issue of human resources and data quality; depends on the level of importance given to OSH by the government • Raise awareness • Publish case reports in journals • Constantly demonstrate the significance of the work performed by these systems • Develop smaller projects that target specific areas of OSH
  • 27. 27 http://osha.europa.eu SETTING UP A SENTINEL APPROACH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SYSTEM DEVELOPERS • organisation of OH service • coverage and number of OH providers • accessibility of the OH service (e.g. to different economic sectors/SMEs) Place the system in the national OH context Use already tested systems from other countries Engage occupational physicians as reporters Implement actions to motivate reporters Image sources: http://bestmaths.net/online/files/9914/0045/9266/VectorMen.jpg, https://openclipart.org/image/2400px/svg_to_png/280633/World-Flags-Globe- 3.png, https://rh.org.ru/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/doctor-icon-005-896x1024.png
  • 28. 28 http://osha.europa.eu SETTING UP A SENTINEL APPROACH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SYSTEM DEVELOPERS  Focus on identifying individual cases of new WRDs and new exposure-WRD links  Capture a smaller number of cases  More sensitive approach and high expertise in terms of work-relatedness evaluation ‘Individual sentinel signals’ ‘Population-based sentinel signals’  Focus on identifying groups of workers/economic sectors at risk  Use data to calculate incidences and trends  Look for groups of workers/sectors with an increased incidence or emerging trends Systems can primarily focus on one of two types of signals Image sources: https://mariarubiom.files.wordpress.com/2014/01/los-diferentes-pc3bablicos-de-una-empresa.png, https://www.kissclipart.com/hiring-process-recruitment-clipart-recruitment-org- h9wy75/
  • 29. 29 http://osha.europa.eu SETTING UP A SENTINEL APPROACH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SYSTEM DEVELOPERS
  • 30. 30 http://osha.europa.eu ASSESSMENT OF THE SIGNALS — RECOMMENDATIONS • Nature of certain groups of exposures and diseases makes their monitoring more difficult (e.g. multifactorial health issues such as musculoskeletal and psychosocial ill health) Adjust to specific groups of diseases Clearer assessment criteria for mental diseases Request exposure description from reporters Structure on- site exposure assessment Improve exposure assessment Image source: https://wcvmtoday.usask.ca/images/2018/iStock-brain.mar.16.2018.jpg
  • 31. 31 http://osha.europa.eu ASSESSMENT OF THE SIGNALS — RECOMMENDATIONS Different levels of alert Level 1 – internal experts Level 2 – bigger groups of experts, industries at risk Level 3 – OH and public health authorities Work- relatedness evaluation by experts Improve signal strengthening and alert Image source: http://clipartstation.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/industries-clipart-5-1.png
  • 32. 32 http://osha.europa.eu RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SENTINEL SURVEILLANCE IN THE EU — GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS
  • 33. 33 http://osha.europa.eu VISIONS FOR FUTURE — DEVELOPMENT OF EU-WIDE SENTINEL SURVEILLANCE SIGNAL DETECTION ALERT TO STAKEHOLDERS SIGNAL STRENGTHENING SIGNAL ASSESSMENT • Promote guidance documents on how to implement sentinel approaches • Promote harmonisation of recorded data • Develop uniform criteria for assessment of work- relatedness • Form a group of international experts on new/emerging WRDs • Experts can help to assess cases reported at the national level National level National level EU level EU level National level Level 1 alert Levels 2 and 3 alerts Image source: https://www.goethe.de/resources/files/jpg430/Intro_ETS-formatkey-jpg-w320m.jpg