Motivation and theories


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report on Motivation and Theories for Organizational Behavior and Human Resources Management

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  • In other words, you have certain needs or wants (these terms will be used interchangeably), and this causes you to do certain things (behavior), which satisfy those needs (satisfaction), and this can then change which needs/wants are primary (either intensifying certain ones, or allowing you to move on to other ones).  A variation on this model, particularly appropriate from an experimenter's or manager's point of view, would be to add a box labeled "reward" between "behavior" and "satisfaction". So that subjects (or employees), who have certain needs do certain things (behavior), which then get them rewards set up by the experimenter or manager (such as raises or bonuses), which satisfy the needs, and so on.
  • Motivation and theories

    1. 1. Motivation and Theories Ma. Eunice A. Granado, R.Ph. De La Salle University-Dasmariñas CBA-Graduate Studies of Business
    2. 2. Motivation • Strength of a drive toward action • the process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior • Willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual needs Key Elements 1. Intensity: how hard a person tries 2. Direction: toward beneficial goal 3. Persistence: how long a person tries Key Elements 1. Intensity: how hard a person tries 2. Direction: toward beneficial goal 3. Persistence: how long a person tries
    4. 4. 3 Major Types of Motivation Theories • Content Theories of Motivation (WHAT motivates us) • Process Theories of Motivation (WHY and HOW motivation occurs) • Reinforcement Theory (HOW outcomes influence behaviors)
    5. 5. Content Perspectives on Motivation • Content Perspectives – Approaches to motivation that try to answer the question, “What factors in the workplace motivate people?” • Content Perspectives of Motivation – Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – Aldefer’s ERG Theory – McGregory’s Theory X and Theory Y – Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory – McClelland’s Achievement, Power, and Affiliation Needs
    6. 6. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Need
    7. 7. Alderfer’s E-R-G Model
    8. 8. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Theory X Assumes that workers have little ambition, dislike work, avoid responsibility, and require close supervision. Theory y Assumes that workers can exercise self- direction, desire responsibility, and like to work.
    9. 9. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Model
    10. 10. McClelland’s Need Theory: Need for AchievemeNT –– need that concerns individuals’ issues of excellence, competition, challenging goals, persistence, and overcoming difficulties Need for Power - need that concerns an individual’s need to make an impact on others, influence others, change people or events, and make a difference in life Need for AffiliATioN – need that concerns an individual’s need to establish and maintain warm, close, intimate relationships with other people
    11. 11. Process Perspectives on Motivation • Process Perspectives – Why people choose certain behavioral options to satisfy their needs and how they evaluate their satisfaction after they have attained their goals. • Process Perspectives of Motivation – Goal Setting Theory – Equity Theory – Expectancy Theory
    12. 12. Goal Setting Theory: Basic Premise: That specific and difficult goals, with self-generated feedback, lead to higher performance. • Difficulty – Extent to which a goal is challenging and requires effort. • Specificity – Clarity and precision of the goal. Goal Achievement Depends on: • Acceptance – Extent to which persons accept a goal as their own. • Commitment – Extent to which an individual is personally interested in reaching a goal
    13. 13. Equity Theory:  Individuals equate value of rewards to effort and compare it to other people. outcomes(self)outcomes(self) inputs (self)inputs (self) == outcomes (other)outcomes (other) inputs (other)inputs (other) Inputs/OutcomesInputs/Outcomes Comparison ofComparison of self with othersself with others EquityEquity InequityInequity Motivation to maintainMotivation to maintain current situationcurrent situation Ways to reduce inequityWays to reduce inequity • Change inputsChange inputs • Change outcomesChange outcomes • Alter perceptions of selfAlter perceptions of self • Alter perceptions of otherAlter perceptions of other • Leave situationLeave situation • Change comparisonsChange comparisons
    14. 14. Expectancy Theory • Motivation depends on how much we want something and how likely we are to get it • M = E x I x V • Elements • Effort to Performance Expectancy (E) is the probability that effort will lead to performance. • Performance to Outcome Expectancy (I) is the perception that performance leads to an outcome. • Outcome is the consequence or reward for performance. • Valence (V) is how much a particular outcome is valued.
    15. 15. OB Mod • Argues that behavior is a function of its consequences. ↔It is based on “law of effect”, i.e, individual’s behaviour with positive consequences tends to be repeated, but individual’s behaviour with negative consequences tends not to be repeated. • proposed by BF Skinner and his associates • Totally focuses on what happens to an individual when he takes some action. • This theory is a strong tool for analyzing controlling mechanism for individual’s behaviour
    16. 16. Theory of Reinforcement
    17. 17. Schedule of Reinforcement