Digestive System

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Digestive System

  1. 1. Anatomy and Physiology Digestive System
  2. 2. Gastrointestinal System (GI) <ul><li>30 ft of muscular tube called gut or alimentary canal or gastrointestinal tract( stretches between the mouth and anus) </li></ul><ul><li>Sections Include: Oral Cavity, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Colon </li></ul><ul><li>The accessory organs are: Liver, gallbladder, Pancreas, Salivary Gland </li></ul>
  3. 3. Three Main Functions <ul><li>Digesting Foods </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbing Nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminating Waste </li></ul>
  4. 4. Oral Cavity <ul><li>Food enters the mouth, where it is broken down by the teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>The tongue mixes the food with saliva, to make it easier to swallow. </li></ul><ul><li>Saliva contains enzymes that breakdown carbohydrates and contains a slippery lubricant that makes food traveling down the esophagus easier. </li></ul><ul><li>The tongue has taste buds that help distinguish: Bitter, sweet, sour, or salty foods </li></ul><ul><li>Palate is the roof of the mouth </li></ul>
  5. 5. Oral Cavity (Continue) <ul><li>Uvula hangs from the flexible posterior portion, serves two functions: Speech production and gag reflex </li></ul><ul><li>Swallowing cause the epiglottis to cover the larynx to prevent food from entering the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>The cheeks and lips are the anterior opening. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Oral cavity (Teeth) <ul><li>First stage of digestion </li></ul><ul><li>Front Teeth: bite, tear, cut food into smaller pieces </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting teeth: Incisors, Cuspids, Canines </li></ul><ul><li>Grinding teeth: Bicuspids, premolars, molars; these teeth crush and grind food into finer pieces </li></ul><ul><li>The tooth has two parts </li></ul><ul><li>The Crown (visible to the teeth) covered by enamel; under the enamel is the dentin </li></ul><ul><li>The root ( below the gums); constructed of cementum ( bony socket) and tiny periodontal ligaments </li></ul><ul><li>Humans have two sets of teeth: Deciduous teeth( baby teeth) and Permanent teeth </li></ul>
  7. 7. Pharynx <ul><li>When swallowing food, food enters the oropharynx, then through the laryngopharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Epiglottis flap close to cover the larynx and trachea, so food do not enter the respiratory tract </li></ul><ul><li>Food continues down the esophagus by peristalsis ( wavelike muscular contractions) push food through the gastrointestinal tract </li></ul>
  8. 8. Stomach <ul><li>J-Shape muscular organ </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as a sac that collect and churn food with digestive juices </li></ul><ul><li>Three Regions :Fundus ( upper region), Body ( main region), Antrum ( lower region) </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrochloric Acid secretions that come out of the mucus membranes of the rugae ( lining of the stomach). Food mixes with this to form a liquid mixture called Chyme. </li></ul><ul><li>Sphincters controls the entry and exit of food, to ensure the food moves forward. </li></ul><ul><li>Lower esophageal sphincter keeps food from flowing backwards </li></ul><ul><li>Pyloric sphincter regulates the passage of food into the small intestine </li></ul>
  9. 9. Small Intestine <ul><li>Small Bowel </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbs nutrients from food </li></ul><ul><li>Major site of digestion </li></ul><ul><li>20 ft in length </li></ul><ul><li>Three Sections: Duodenum(10-12in long), Jejunum( 8 ft long), Ileum (12 ft Long) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Colon <ul><li>Fluid left over after digestion, enters the colon </li></ul><ul><li>Feces exits through the colon during bowel movements </li></ul><ul><li>5 ft long </li></ul><ul><li>The cecum is the first three inches of the colon </li></ul><ul><li>The sections to the colon: Ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon </li></ul><ul><li>Rectum, where feces is stored, leads to the anus </li></ul><ul><li>Anal Sphincter controls the evacuation of feces; defecation </li></ul>
  11. 11. Accessories of the Digestive system <ul><li>Salivary glands: which is located in the oral cavity. </li></ul><ul><li>Liver: process nutrients absorbed by the small intestine and detoxifies harmful substances in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Gallbladder: Bile produced by the liver is stored here. </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreas: Produces secretions for digestion, Buffers and Pancreatic enzymes. Produces hormones insulin and glucagon; regulates the levels of glucose in the blood </li></ul>
  12. 12. Pathology <ul><li>Aphthous ulcers </li></ul><ul><li>Herpes Labialis </li></ul><ul><li>Esophageal Varices </li></ul><ul><li>Gastric Carcinoma </li></ul><ul><li>Peptic ulcer Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Anal Fistula </li></ul><ul><li>Crohn’s Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Polyposis </li></ul><ul><li>Volvulus </li></ul><ul><li>Inguinal Hernia </li></ul>
  13. 13. Diagnostic Therapeutic and Procedures <ul><li>Intravenous Cholecystography </li></ul><ul><li>Bite-wing x-ray </li></ul><ul><li>Upper gastrointestinal series </li></ul><ul><li>Lower gastrointestinal series </li></ul><ul><li>Bariatric Surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Colostomy </li></ul>
  14. 14. Conclusion <ul><li>The Digestive system helps the human body absorb nutrients, and rid the body of waste. </li></ul><ul><li>With the use of the digestive system, our food we ingest can be use to help growth development, healthy eye site and skin complexion </li></ul>

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