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A MEDIATOR’S TOOLKIT FOR
NAVIGATING DIFFICULT
CLINICAL CONVERSATIONS
Groupement Hospitalier de l'Ouest Lémanique, Nyon
June 3, 2014
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
Case
Reactive Devaluation
• Slow Down
• Repeat what we hear
• Acknowledge common ground
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
MEDIATOR’S TOOLKIT
Case
Take A Deep Breath
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
MEDIATOR’S TOOLKIT
Case
Objectives
• What are common sources of conflict?
• What tools can be applied when you
encounter a conflict?
MEDIATOR’S TOOLKIT
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
Toolkit
Call Dr. Pepper
for
H - E - L - P
Humanize
Engage
Listen
Partner
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
MEDIATOR’S TOOLKIT
Toolkit
Dr. PepperSalty Belle
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
“If you don't know the kind
of person I am
and I don't know the kind of
person you are
a pattern that others made
may prevail in the world.”
- A Ritual to Read to Each Other
William Stafford
Humanize
HUMANIZE
Emergency!
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
Humanize
HUMANIZE
Time
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
HUMANIZE
Humanize
Social Structure
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
HUMANIZE
Humanize
Social Structure
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
HUMANIZE
Humanize
Power
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
HUMANIZE
CC 3.0 Huddle by Andrew McKinley
Meeting by Sergi Delgado (The Noun Project)
Humanize
Power
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
HUMANIZE
Humanize
Communication Style
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
HUMANIZE
Humanize
Communication Style
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
HUMANIZE
Humanize
Information & Decisions
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
HUMANIZE
Icon CC 3.0 Signpost by ZachVanDeHey from The Noun Project
Humanize
Information & Decisions
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
HUMANIZE
Humanize
Common Sources of Conflict
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
HUMANIZE
• Know your profile
• Understand the “other” person’s view
• Acknowledge the spectrum to find common ground
Humanize
!
Figure 1. Ethics in a Pluralistic Society
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
HUMANIZE
Humanize
Being ethical (aka “right”) in a pluralistic society
is another spectrum of difference to mediate
CC-BY 3.0 Kate Michi Ettinger
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
ENGAGE
“If you don't know the kind
of person I am
and I don't know the kind of
person you are
a pattern that others made
may prevail in the world.”
- A Ritual to Read to Each Other
William Stafford
Engage
OSTRICH
“Toto,
I don’t think
we’re in
Kansas
anymore”
- Dorothy in the
Wizard of Oz
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
ENGAGE
Engage
“We would
like to
welcome
you to
Munchkinland”
- The Lollipop Kids
welcome Dorothy
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
ENGAGE
Engage
“Tell me about Mama”
- Nancy N. Dubler
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
ENGAGE
Engage
Conversational Justice
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
ENGAGE
Engage
Strategies to Engage
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
ENGAGE
• Anchor conversations with the Patient’s Narrative
• Be hospitable in our “foreign” place
• Give pt & family a role, purpose & belonging
• Conversational Justice
Engage
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
LISTEN
“If you don't
know the kind of
person I am
and I don't know
the kind of
person you are
a pattern that
others made
may prevail in
the world.”
- A Ritual to Read to
Each Other
William Stafford
Listen
Photo: Practical Sanskrit
Listening for Layers
Data/Facts
Emotions
Values
Concerns/Needs
Identity
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
LISTEN
Listen
CC Wikimedia
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
LISTEN
Listen
• Listen for Layers
• Listen to Understand
• Reflective Listening
• Acknowledge &Validate
• Ask-Tell-Ask
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
LISTEN
Listen
MultipleViewpoints Matrix
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
LISTEN
Listen
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
PARTNERS
“If you don't know the kind
of person I am
and I don't know the kind
of person you are
a pattern that others made
may prevail in the world.”
- A Ritual to Read to Each Other
William Stafford
Partner
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
PARTNERS
Thomas Kilman Conflict Modes
Avoidance Accommodating
Compromise
Competitive Collaborative
ASSERTINGONE’SNEEDS
CONSIDERING OTHERS‘ NEEDS
Partner
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
PARTNERS
Whirlpool by Eli Ratner;Thomas Kilman Conflict Modes
Avoidance Accommodating
Compromise
Competitive Collaborative
ASSERTINGCLINICALGOALS
HONORING PATIENT PREFERENCES
Partner
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
PARTNERS
Whirlpool CC by Eli Ratner & PD Images from The Noun Project
Avoidance Accommodating
Compromise
Competitive Collaborative
Partner
ASSERTINGCLINICALGOALS
HONORING PATIENT PREFERENCES
TIME
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
PARTNERS
Partner
Graphics: Laura Thierry; 7
Coats: Kate Michi Ettinger
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
PARTNERS
Partner
Graphics: Laura Thierry; 7
Coats: Kate Michi Ettinger
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
PARTNERS
Partner
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
PARTNERS
Partner
Graphics: Laura Thierry; 7
Coats: Kate Michi Ettinger
What are common sources of conflict?
• Time
• Social Structure
• Power
• Communication Style
• Information & Decisions
MEDIATOR’S TOOLKIT
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
onclusion
What tools can be applied to conflict?
• Humanize
• Engage
• Listen
• Partner
MEDIATOR’S TOOLKIT
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
onclusion
MEDIATOR’S TOOLKIT
Kate Michi Ettinger, JD
@k8ethics
muralinstitute.org
A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
HUMANIZE
PEACE IN EVERY STEP, VEN. THICH NHAT HANH
NON VIOLENT COMMUNICATION, MARSHALL ROSENBERG
GETTINGTO YES, ROBERT FISHER AND WILLIAM URY. 
DIFFICULT CONVERSATIONS, DOUGLAS STONE, BRUCE PATTON,
SHEILA HEEN
COMMUNITY BOARDS OF SAN FRANCISCO MEDIATION TRAINING.
EMPATHIC LISTENING (STEVE ROSENBERG'S MEDIATION TRAINING)
ASK-TELL-ASK
Bibliography
BIBLIOGRAPHY
ENGAGE
LISTEN
PARTNER
THINKING, FAST AND SLOW. DANIEL KAHNEMAN.
CONTINUUM OF CONFLICT ADAPTED FROM: AVRUCH K, CULTURE &
CONFLICT RESOLUTION, UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE PRESS, 1998.  
CHEW PK, THE CONFLICT & CULTURE READER, NYU PRESS 2001.  LEBARON
M, BRIDGING CULTURAL CONFLICTS, JOSSEY-BASS PRESS, 2003.  "MAPPING
CULTURES: STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE INTERCULTURAL NEGOTIATIONS" IN
SECOND TRACTK/CITIZENS' DIPLOMACY, EDITED BY J. DAVIES AND E.
KAUFMAN.  LANHAM, MD: ROWMAN & LITTLEFIELD PUBLISHERS, INC.:
149-160.  MOORE, C.W. AND PETER WOODROW. 2002. AS WELL AS MYERS-
BRIGGS LITERATURE. 
BIOETHICS MEDIATION: SHAPING SHARED SOLUTIONS. NANCY DUBLER
AND CAROL FRIEDMAN.
SCARF: A BRAIN-BASED MODEL FOR COLLABORATING WITH
AND INFLUENCING OTHERS, NEUROLEADERSHIP JOURNAL BY DAVID ROCK.
PUBLIC CONVERSATIONS PROJECT: PUBLICCONVERSATIONS.ORG
PACE E BENE: PACEEBENE.ORG
THOMAS KILMAN CONFLICT MODES
SIX HATS, EDUARDO DE BONO

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A Mediator's Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations

  • 1. A MEDIATOR’S TOOLKIT FOR NAVIGATING DIFFICULT CLINICAL CONVERSATIONS Groupement Hospitalier de l'Ouest Lémanique, Nyon June 3, 2014 Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations
  • 2. Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations Case
  • 3. Reactive Devaluation • Slow Down • Repeat what we hear • Acknowledge common ground Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations MEDIATOR’S TOOLKIT Case
  • 4. Take A Deep Breath Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations MEDIATOR’S TOOLKIT Case
  • 5. Objectives • What are common sources of conflict? • What tools can be applied when you encounter a conflict? MEDIATOR’S TOOLKIT Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations Toolkit
  • 6. Call Dr. Pepper for H - E - L - P Humanize Engage Listen Partner Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations MEDIATOR’S TOOLKIT Toolkit Dr. PepperSalty Belle
  • 7. Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations “If you don't know the kind of person I am and I don't know the kind of person you are a pattern that others made may prevail in the world.” - A Ritual to Read to Each Other William Stafford Humanize HUMANIZE
  • 8. Emergency! Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations Humanize HUMANIZE
  • 9. Time Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations HUMANIZE Humanize
  • 10. Social Structure Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations HUMANIZE Humanize
  • 11. Social Structure Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations HUMANIZE Humanize
  • 12. Power Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations HUMANIZE CC 3.0 Huddle by Andrew McKinley Meeting by Sergi Delgado (The Noun Project) Humanize
  • 13. Power Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations HUMANIZE Humanize
  • 14. Communication Style Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations HUMANIZE Humanize
  • 15. Communication Style Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations HUMANIZE Humanize
  • 16. Information & Decisions Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations HUMANIZE Icon CC 3.0 Signpost by ZachVanDeHey from The Noun Project Humanize
  • 17. Information & Decisions Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations HUMANIZE Humanize
  • 18. Common Sources of Conflict Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations HUMANIZE • Know your profile • Understand the “other” person’s view • Acknowledge the spectrum to find common ground Humanize
  • 19. ! Figure 1. Ethics in a Pluralistic Society Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations HUMANIZE Humanize Being ethical (aka “right”) in a pluralistic society is another spectrum of difference to mediate CC-BY 3.0 Kate Michi Ettinger
  • 20. Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations ENGAGE “If you don't know the kind of person I am and I don't know the kind of person you are a pattern that others made may prevail in the world.” - A Ritual to Read to Each Other William Stafford Engage OSTRICH
  • 21. “Toto, I don’t think we’re in Kansas anymore” - Dorothy in the Wizard of Oz Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations ENGAGE Engage
  • 22. “We would like to welcome you to Munchkinland” - The Lollipop Kids welcome Dorothy Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations ENGAGE Engage
  • 23. “Tell me about Mama” - Nancy N. Dubler Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations ENGAGE Engage
  • 24. Conversational Justice Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations ENGAGE Engage
  • 25. Strategies to Engage Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations ENGAGE • Anchor conversations with the Patient’s Narrative • Be hospitable in our “foreign” place • Give pt & family a role, purpose & belonging • Conversational Justice Engage
  • 26. Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations LISTEN “If you don't know the kind of person I am and I don't know the kind of person you are a pattern that others made may prevail in the world.” - A Ritual to Read to Each Other William Stafford Listen Photo: Practical Sanskrit
  • 27. Listening for Layers Data/Facts Emotions Values Concerns/Needs Identity Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations LISTEN Listen CC Wikimedia
  • 28. Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations LISTEN Listen
  • 29. • Listen for Layers • Listen to Understand • Reflective Listening • Acknowledge &Validate • Ask-Tell-Ask Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations LISTEN Listen
  • 30. MultipleViewpoints Matrix Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations LISTEN Listen
  • 31. Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations PARTNERS “If you don't know the kind of person I am and I don't know the kind of person you are a pattern that others made may prevail in the world.” - A Ritual to Read to Each Other William Stafford Partner
  • 32. Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations PARTNERS Thomas Kilman Conflict Modes Avoidance Accommodating Compromise Competitive Collaborative ASSERTINGONE’SNEEDS CONSIDERING OTHERS‘ NEEDS Partner
  • 33. Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations PARTNERS Whirlpool by Eli Ratner;Thomas Kilman Conflict Modes Avoidance Accommodating Compromise Competitive Collaborative ASSERTINGCLINICALGOALS HONORING PATIENT PREFERENCES Partner
  • 34. Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations PARTNERS Whirlpool CC by Eli Ratner & PD Images from The Noun Project Avoidance Accommodating Compromise Competitive Collaborative Partner ASSERTINGCLINICALGOALS HONORING PATIENT PREFERENCES TIME
  • 35. Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations PARTNERS Partner Graphics: Laura Thierry; 7 Coats: Kate Michi Ettinger
  • 36. Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations PARTNERS Partner Graphics: Laura Thierry; 7 Coats: Kate Michi Ettinger
  • 37. Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations PARTNERS Partner
  • 38. Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations PARTNERS Partner Graphics: Laura Thierry; 7 Coats: Kate Michi Ettinger
  • 39. What are common sources of conflict? • Time • Social Structure • Power • Communication Style • Information & Decisions MEDIATOR’S TOOLKIT Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations onclusion
  • 40. What tools can be applied to conflict? • Humanize • Engage • Listen • Partner MEDIATOR’S TOOLKIT Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations onclusion
  • 41. MEDIATOR’S TOOLKIT Kate Michi Ettinger, JD @k8ethics muralinstitute.org A Mediator’s Toolkit for Navigating Difficult Clinical Conversations HUMANIZE PEACE IN EVERY STEP, VEN. THICH NHAT HANH NON VIOLENT COMMUNICATION, MARSHALL ROSENBERG GETTINGTO YES, ROBERT FISHER AND WILLIAM URY.  DIFFICULT CONVERSATIONS, DOUGLAS STONE, BRUCE PATTON, SHEILA HEEN COMMUNITY BOARDS OF SAN FRANCISCO MEDIATION TRAINING. EMPATHIC LISTENING (STEVE ROSENBERG'S MEDIATION TRAINING) ASK-TELL-ASK Bibliography BIBLIOGRAPHY ENGAGE LISTEN PARTNER THINKING, FAST AND SLOW. DANIEL KAHNEMAN. CONTINUUM OF CONFLICT ADAPTED FROM: AVRUCH K, CULTURE & CONFLICT RESOLUTION, UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE PRESS, 1998.   CHEW PK, THE CONFLICT & CULTURE READER, NYU PRESS 2001.  LEBARON M, BRIDGING CULTURAL CONFLICTS, JOSSEY-BASS PRESS, 2003.  "MAPPING CULTURES: STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE INTERCULTURAL NEGOTIATIONS" IN SECOND TRACTK/CITIZENS' DIPLOMACY, EDITED BY J. DAVIES AND E. KAUFMAN.  LANHAM, MD: ROWMAN & LITTLEFIELD PUBLISHERS, INC.: 149-160.  MOORE, C.W. AND PETER WOODROW. 2002. AS WELL AS MYERS- BRIGGS LITERATURE.  BIOETHICS MEDIATION: SHAPING SHARED SOLUTIONS. NANCY DUBLER AND CAROL FRIEDMAN. SCARF: A BRAIN-BASED MODEL FOR COLLABORATING WITH AND INFLUENCING OTHERS, NEUROLEADERSHIP JOURNAL BY DAVID ROCK. PUBLIC CONVERSATIONS PROJECT: PUBLICCONVERSATIONS.ORG PACE E BENE: PACEEBENE.ORG THOMAS KILMAN CONFLICT MODES SIX HATS, EDUARDO DE BONO