Developing higher-order thinking through blended problem-based learning


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Developing higher-order thinking through blended problem-based learning

  1. 1. Developing higher-order thinking through blended problem-based learning Mr TONG, Edmond Tak Fai School of Nursing, Dr Paula Hodgson Education Development Centre, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR, China This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License .
  2. 2. Blended learning <ul><li>face-to-face mode </li></ul>online mode
  3. 3. Background <ul><li>Year 3 students of a four-year Bachelor of Science (Nursing) programme </li></ul><ul><li>Class of 124 students </li></ul><ul><li>Five groups were randomly formed </li></ul><ul><li>3 cases were reconstructed from real cases and each case was split into 3 parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Case analysis: Face-to-face tutorials & online tasks ( 5% ): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on each case, students posted topics, issues and hypotheses, peer group members were to post subsequent threaded discussions. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Blended PBL
  5. 5. Bloom’s taxonomy Categories in the cognitive domain of Bloom's Taxonomy (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001) Source:'s+and+ICT+tools
  6. 6. 4 categories of learning challenge Remember Understand Apply / Analyze Evaluate / Create
  7. 7. Results and findings <ul><li>Group participation (5 groups) </li></ul><ul><li>Referencing sources (websites, books, and journals) </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of the four categories modified from Bloom’s taxonomy in online forum discussion </li></ul>
  8. 8. Group participation <ul><li>N=124 </li></ul>Most active Least active
  9. 9. Online case discussion <ul><li>Discussion topics created by students of Sophie’s case </li></ul><ul><li>Sophie may suffer from left tympanic bone facture (8 postings) </li></ul><ul><li>The fluid in her left eye (2 postings) </li></ul><ul><li>The initial management of head injury (17 postings) </li></ul><ul><li>Brain death of Sophie (13 postings) </li></ul><ul><li>The organ donation card (3 postings) </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences of CSF leakage & Temporal bone fracture (1 posting) </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing her level of consciousness in hospital (2 postings) </li></ul><ul><li>Patient and Family Psychological Support (3 postings) </li></ul><ul><li>Alcoholic Effects on the Brain (6 postings) </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical Ventilation (1 posting) </li></ul><ul><li>Management on ventricular cartherter (6 postings) </li></ul><ul><li>Craniectomy (3 postings) </li></ul><ul><li>More information about Craniectomy (5 postings) </li></ul><ul><li>Management of Increased ICP in Part 2 (28 postings) </li></ul><ul><li>Shivering ??? (13 postings) </li></ul><ul><li>The cause of vertigo (7 postings) </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose for using steroid and side effects related to appearance (6 postings) </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
  10. 10. Supporting discussion with references
  11. 11. Referencing sources
  12. 12. Distribution of the four categories identified from student postings in 3 cases
  13. 13. Significantly different between cases <ul><li>“ Remember” were significantly different between cases, c2 (2, N = 559) = 28.0, p < .001 </li></ul><ul><li>Similar findings were seen in the postings categorized as “Analyse/Apply” with c2 (2, N = 559) = 8.66, p < .013 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Mapping top / low 10% students in examination with uses of referencing materials in online forum
  15. 15. Distribution of the 4 categories of top / low 10% students examination with student participation in online forum
  16. 16. Conclusion <ul><li>Nurturing supportive and open learning environment is essential </li></ul><ul><li>Students were engaged in graded tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Increased percentage of postings for three cases: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S1 (31 percent) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S2 (32 percent) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S3 (37 percent) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Improved quality of discussion gradually emerges </li></ul><ul><li>An increase in the number of postings in </li></ul><ul><li>‘ apply and analyse’ in S2 and S3 </li></ul><ul><li>A decrease in the number of postings in </li></ul><ul><li>‘ remember’ in S2 and S3 </li></ul><ul><li>Continuing support from facilitator </li></ul>