Oadp User Guide(031611)

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Introduction to the Oracle Enterprise Architecture Development Process

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Oadp User Guide(031611)

  1. 1. Oracle Architecture Development ProcessUser GuideMarch 2011
  2. 2. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________DisclaimerThe following is intended for information purposes only, and may not be incorporated into any contract. Itis not a commitment to deliver any material, code, or functionality, and should not be relied upon inmaking purchasing decisions. ii
  3. 3. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________1 Executive Overview ............................................................................................................................... 22 Enterprise Architecture Frameworks ..................................................................................................... 33 Oracle Enterprise Architecture Framework............................................................................................ 5 3.1 Business Architecture .................................................................................................................. 6 3.2 Application Architecture ............................................................................................................... 6 3.3 Information Architecture............................................................................................................... 7 3.4 Technology Architecture .............................................................................................................. 7 3.5 People, Process, and Tools......................................................................................................... 8 3.6 Enterprise Architecture Governance ........................................................................................... 9 3.7 EA Repository.............................................................................................................................. 9 3.8 OEAF Relationship to TOGAF................................................................................................... 104 Oracle Architecture Development Process.......................................................................................... 11 4.1 Architecture Vision..................................................................................................................... 12 4.2 Current State ............................................................................................................................. 16 4.3 Future State ............................................................................................................................... 18 4.4 Strategic Roadmap .................................................................................................................... 20 4.5 EA Governance ......................................................................................................................... 21 4.6 Business Case........................................................................................................................... 23 4.7 OADP Relationship to TOGAF .................................................................................................. 265 OADP and OEAF ................................................................................................................................. 276 Oracle Architecture Development Process Applied to IT Problems .................................................... 287 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................... 308 Appendix .............................................................................................................................................. 31 8.1 Discovery Questions.................................................................................................................. 32 1
  4. 4. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________1 Executive OverviewThe Oracle Architecture Development Process is an agile and streamlined method focused on creatingfuture state architectures for information-driven organizations. It was developed using an agilearchitecture mindset where all activities and process steps were oriented towards delivering businessvalue quickly and repeatedly.OADP acts as an enabler for change management programs that are focused on aligning businessoperations and infrastructure (i.e. people, process and technology) with the business mission andstrategy.The OADP is a highly iterative and adaptive process that can be applied to develop future statearchitectures for individual functional segments in the business (e.g. supply chain, product lifecyclemanagement, sales and marketing) or to enterprise architecture domains (business, applications,technology infrastructure, information, governance). The purpose of taking an agile approach toarchitecture is to ensure that we are never making assumptions that are too big and therefore, we canconstantly course-correct ourselves to be able to arrive at our desired future state in the most effectiveand efficient manner. 2
  5. 5. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________2 Enterprise Architecture FrameworksCreating an Enterprise Architecture from scratch can be a daunting task, so EA frameworks were createdto simplify the process and guide an architect through all areas of architecture development. AnEnterprise Architecture framework provides a collection of best practices, standards, tools, processes,and templates to assist in the creation of the Enterprise Architecture and architectures of various scopes.Enterprise Architecture frameworks typically include: • Common vocabulary, models, and taxonomy • Processes, principles, strategies and tools • Reference architectures and models • Prescriptive guidance (EA processes, architecture content, implementation roadmap, governance) • Catalog of architecture deliverables and artifacts • Enterprise Architecture Content Meta-model • Recommended set of products and configurations (optional)Utilizing an Enterprise Architecture framework streamlines the process for creating and maintainingarchitectures at all levels (e.g. enterprise architectures, functional business segment architectures, cross-cutting technology domain architectures, and solution architectures) and enables an organization toleverage the value of architecture best practices.A number of EA frameworks exist in the industry with the goal of addressing the basic challenge ofassessing, aligning, and organizing business objectives with technical requirements and strategies.Examples include the Zachman Enterprise Framework, The Open Group Architecture Framework(TOGAF), OMB Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA), and The Gartner Methodology (formerly the MetaFramework).Each framework possesses different strengths and weaknesses, which makes it difficult to find any oneexisting framework that is ideal for all situations. The following chart depicts how four EnterpriseArchitecture Frameworks compare. 3
  6. 6. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________ 4
  7. 7. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________3 Oracle Enterprise Architecture FrameworkIn an effort to provide an efficient, business-drivenframework to help our customers align their IT andbusiness strategies, Oracle created a hybrid EAframework, influenced by TOGAF, FEA and Gartner. Thissimple yet practical and prescriptive framework is calledthe Oracle Enterprise Architecture Framework (OEAF).The Oracle Enterprise Architecture Framework consists ofseven core components. Each of these seven corecomponents are explained in the following sectionsTo further increase the value of OEAF, Oracle also tailors prebuilt reference architectures that definefuture state architectures. These proven reference architectures drill down from logical components (forexample, functional capabilities) to physical components (for example, Oracle technologies and products)that complement a customer’s existing environment and can be used to minimize implementation risks.The central theme of the Oracle Enterprise Application Framework is to provide “just enough” structure,which can be created “just in time” to meet the business requirements of the organization. In addition, theOEAF provides a well-known architectural structure for sharing Oracle’s vast intellectual capital aroundenterprise IT solutions with its customers and partners, thereby, further enhancing Oracle’s strategicbusiness value proposition.The Oracle Enterprise Application Framework encompasses nine key values. • Driven by business strategy • Standardizes and simplifies the technical architecture • Comprises “just enough” modeling for enterprise solution architecture efforts • Reuses best practice business models and reference architectures from industry and commercial vendors • Focuses initially on speed of delivery for high level guidance • Developed collaboratively with business owners, stakeholders, and skilled architects • Developed iteratively and matures evolutionarily for breadth and depth • Can be enforced • Technology agnostic but leverages Oracle expertise and IP 5
  8. 8. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________These principles provide the foundation for agile enterprise architecture capabilities in mapping businessrequirements to IT implementation.3.1 Business ArchitectureAny architectural discussion should begin withBusiness Architecture. The Business Architecturealigns an organization’s operating model, strategies,and objectives with IT; it also creates a business casefor IT transformations and provides a business-centricview of the enterprise from a functional perspective.This part of the framework provides the following threekey areas of information about the business: • Business Strategy: Key business requirements, objectives, strategies, key performance indicators, business risks, and the business-operating model (how processes and systems are centralized versus decentralized across the business). • Business Function: The key business services, processes, and capabilities that will be affected by the enterprise architecture effort. • Business Organization: The high-level nature of the organizational structures, business roles (internal audiences, external customers and partners), the decision-making process, and the organizational budget information.3.2 Application ArchitectureThe Application Architecture provides an application- andservices-centric view of an organization that ties businessfunctions and services to application processes andservices to application components in alignment with theapplication strategy. The Application Architecture’sscope, strategy, standards are a consequence of theBusiness Architecture.The Application Architecture is composed of the followingcontent categories: • Application Strategy: The key application architecture principles (Build versus Buy, Hosted versus In-House, Open Standards versus .NET, etc.), application governance and portfolio management, and a set of reference application architectures relevant to the customer. • Application Services: An inventory of the key application services exposed to internal and external audiences that support the business services. 6
  9. 9. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________ • Application Processes: A series of application-specific processes that support the business processes in the Business Architecture. • Logical Components: An inventory of the relevant product-agnostic enterprise application systems that is relevant to the stated business objectives. • Physical Components: The actual products that support the logical application components and their relationships to the relevant components and services in the information and technology architectures.3.3 Information ArchitectureThe Information Architecture describes all of the movingpieces and parts for managing information across theenterprise, and the sharing of that information to the rightpeople at the right time to realize the business objectivesstated in the business architecture.The key components for describing the informationarchitecture are: • Information Strategy: The information architecture principles, information governance and compliance requirements, canonical data models, and industry data model support strategy and a set of reference information exchange as well as dissemination patterns and reference models. • Information Assets: A catalog of critical business data types and models (such as customer profile, purchase order, product data, supply chain, etc.) and the relationships between those business data types and all the services and processes that interact with that data.The Information Architecture provides an information- and data-centric view of an organization, focusingon key information assets that are used to support critical business functions.3.4 Technology ArchitectureThe Technology Architecture describes how theinfrastructure underlying the business, application, andinformation architectures is organized. The key componentsare: • Technology Strategy: The technology architecture principles, technology asset governance and portfolio management strategy, and technology standards, patterns, and reference architectures used for developing specific technology solutions. 7
  10. 10. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________ • Technology Services: An inventory of the specific technology services and their relationships and the business services, application services, information assets and logical or physical technology components that realize those services. • Logical Components: The product-agnostic components that exist at the technology infrastructure tier to support each technology service. • Physical Components: The set of technology products that exists behind each of the logical technology components to implement the technology service.The Technology Architecture provides a technical reference model, as documented in Oracle’s EnterpriseSoftware Framework (ESF), that is used to align technology purchases, infrastructure, and solutionimplementations with the enterprise IT strategies, architecture principles, standards, referencearchitectures, and governance model.3.5 People, Process, and ToolsThis area of the framework identifies the people,processes, and tools used to define enterprisearchitectures and architecture solutions. • People: Teams and individuals who are chartered with enterprise architecture responsibilities from several perspectives– architecture development, maintenance, implementation and governance. • Process: A selection and adherence to a set of architectural processes that are tailored to guide an architecture engagement through a path that maximizes the chance of a successful implementation and minimizing resource expenditure. The next section describes several applied processes offered by the OEAF. • Tools: A set of tools and technologies that accelerate the process of developing and managing enterprise architecture. Most of these tools fall under the category of modeling (for example, Troux, Oracle BPA Suite), portfolio management (for example, Oracle Primavera), and architecture asset repositories (for example, Oracle Enterprise Repository). 8
  11. 11. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________3.6 Enterprise Architecture GovernanceEnterprise Architecture governance provides thestructure and processes for implementing anorganization’s businesses strategy and objectivesthrough an Enterprise Architecture. An EA governancebody is used to guide each project and ensure itsalignment with the EA during IT transformations andsolution implementations. Successful EA governanceincludes: • People: Teams, individuals, roles, and responsibilities of the governance board(s) • Processes and Policies: Architecture lifecycle management, change management, review cycles, etc. • Technology: Infrastructure for implementing the processes and policies of enterprise architecture governance • Financial: IT cost allocation, project-funding models, business case tools to continuously monitor a positive return on investment, etc.3.7 EA RepositoryThe EA Repository is an Oracle internal repository for allthe architecture artifacts and deliverables that arecaptured and developed throughout the lifecycle of anEnterprise Architecture. The purpose of this repository isto provide information describing the current-statearchitecture and a library of reference architectures,models, and principles that describes the target desiredstate of the architecture, given the business objectives.This includes Oracle EA intellectual property for jump-starting customer EA initiatives and architectingenterprise solutions. 9
  12. 12. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________3.8 OEAF Relationship to TOGAFThe Oracle Enterprise Architecture Framework is complementary to other EA frameworks, with clearmappings to TOGAF and FEA, such that customers can use the EA framework of their choice.TOGAF Oracle Enterprise Architecture FrameworkPart II: Architecture Development Method (ADM) Oracle Architecture Development Process (OADP)Part III: ADM Guidelines & Techniques • Oracle Architecture Development Process (OADP) • Applied EA ProcessesPart IV: Architecture Content Framework – Content OEA Content Meta ModelMeta Model • Business Architecture• Business Architecture • Information Architecture• IS Data Architecture • Application Architecture• IS Application Architecture • Technology Architecture• Technology ArchitecturePart V: Enterprise Continuum: Architecture EA RepositoryRepositoryPart VI: Reference Models and Technology Technology ArchitectureReference Model (Note: Oracle Artifacts are stored in the EA Repository)Part VII: Architecture Capability Framework EA GovernanceThe intent of building the OEAF was to leverage the strengths of TOFAF and other industry frameworksand marry them with Oracle’s experience in developing enterprise solutions.Our best-of-breed approach overcomes many of the complexities associated with other frameworks. TheOEAF is designed to provide quick, incremental results. Each process and artifact has been carefullyanalyzed to reduce waste and provide the appropriate level of detail required to meet the objectives of thebusiness. 10
  13. 13. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________4 Oracle Architecture Development ProcessTo create these Enterprise Architecture components,Oracle has created a streamlined process to facilitatetheir development. The Oracle ArchitectureDevelopment Process (OADP) defines a practicalapproach for working with customers collaboratively toalign their enterprise and solution architectures to theirbusiness strategies and goals.The OADP provides a generic, base process fordeveloping architectures as part of the OracleEnterprise Architecture Framework. The OADPcontains the following components: • Six High-level Phases: Architecture Vision, Current State Architecture, Future State Architecture, Strategic Roadmap, EA Governance, and Business Case. Oracle’s approach enables many of these phases to be run concurrently to reduce the time associated with creating architectures of various scopes. Also, the OADP is meant to be a highly iterative process because architectures are developed and refined with feedback. • Tasks: Performed in each phase and any prescriptive guidance for performing the task in a practical and most efficient manner that leverages Oracles EA Repository (of reusable architecture artifacts). • Artifacts Created in Each Phase: Individual models and diagrams; the simplified documentation approach provides just enough detail without requiring excessive overhead associated with documentation. • Deliverables Created in Each Phase: Generally one or two documents that summarize the results of each task and references all artifacts produced in each phase.From the base OADP process, Oracle creates tailored OADP processes that target a specific segment,domain, and/or solution architecture such as Application Portfolio Rationalization and IT Optimization.These tailored OADP processes use the basic structure and phases of the base OADP process; however,they are further streamlined by emphasizing the critical path for a given architecture engagement, and byproviding prescriptive guidance, case studies, sample artifacts, applicable reference models, etc. forexecuting these critical tasks and creating key artifacts. 11
  14. 14. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________4.1 Architecture VisionThe purpose of this phase is to establish an architecture visionfrom a business perspective. The steps include developing aforward thinking business architecture that identifies thebusiness’s strategy, operating model, core business processesand capabilities, assessing the current EA maturity gap,establishing architecture principles for developing future statearchitectures, and finally, defining the scope for the currentOADP architecture engagement.InputsThe inputs to the Architecture Vision Phase are existing discovery maps, customer profile data, priorpresales/consulting content that describes the business goals, objectives, organizations, functions andprocesses within the customerTasksThe following tasks are performed during the Architecture Vision Phase: • Create a Future State Business Architecture: o Identify and/or validate what challenges the business is trying to solve (e.g. retail cost leadership) o Map the business requirements and driver to operational strategies (e.g. lower inventory carrying cost by increasing supply chain information visibility) • Conduct a Maturity Assessment: o Identify & prioritize key organizations and functions (capabilities and processes) that are going to be impacted by this initiative (e.g. Manufacturing and Distribution) • Identify Guiding Architecture Principles: o Identify the high-level principles from each LOB stakeholder and the Corporate IT (e.g. IT: Global Single Instance, Business: Integrate acquisition in 90 days). Put this into the Architecture Assessment and Vision deliverable. • Identify Architecture Scope: o Perform a high level EA assessment with the key stakeholders. o Put the requirements into the Architecture Assessment and Vision deliverable. • Create an Architecture Development Plan: o Select applied EA process and tool(s) for engagement 12
  15. 15. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________ o Establish review and change management process o Assign tasks, roles and responsibilities to individualsArtifactsThe following artifacts are developed during the Architecture Vision Phase: • Operating Model: consists of two dimensions: o Business Processes Standardization (and related systems means) defining exactly how a process will be executed regardless of who is performing the process or where it is completed. o Integration links the efforts of organizational units through shared data. This sharing of data can be between processes to enable end-to-end transaction processing, or across processes to allow a company to present a single face to customer. • Business Strategy Map: is a visual representation of the strategy of an organization. It illustrates how the organization plans to achieve its mission and vision by means of a linked chain of continuous improvements. Strategy Maps describe an organization’s strategies from four perspectives: o Financial perspective o Customer perspective o Internal (business) process perspective o Learning and growth perspective • Drivers, Goals, Objectives, Measurements: provide a cross-organizational reference of an organization meets its drivers (or strategies) in practical terms through goals, objectives, and measures. The Drivers, Goals, Objective catalog contains information about the following: o Organization Unit o Business drivers o Goals o Objectives o Measure • Business Model: is like a blueprint for a strategy to be implemented through organizational structures, processes, and systems. The business model is described through nine basic building blocks that show the logic of how a company intends to deliver valuable products and or services to its customers: o Customer segments o Value propositions o Channels o Customer relationships o Revenue streams 13
  16. 16. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________ o Key resources o Key activities o Key partnerships o Cost structure • Business Capability Model: can be used to apply focus to funding decisions, align IT investments with business goals, and deepen the Business-IT dialogue. The Business Capability Model provides: o An approach to deepen the strategic dialogue between business and IT leaders and increase strategic coherence. o A translation between business concerns and IT concerns. Tying IT strategies, projects, and costs to business capabilities offers a view of IT that resonates with business executives. • EA Maturity Assessment: defines the stages of architecture maturity, represents the IT capability being developed, and the strategic business implications of that capability. The four stages of Architecture Maturity are: o Business Silos o Standardized Technology o Optimized Core o Business Modularity • Guiding Architecture Principles: articulate the fundamental rules and guidelines used to define the Architecture Strategy. These principles ultimately form the basis for making IT decisions regarding the selection, use, and deployment of all IT resources and assets across the enterprise. Guiding Architecture Principles should be clearly related back to the business objectives and key architecture drivers. The Oracle Enterprise Architecture Framework (OEAF) defines Guiding Architecture Principles for: o Business Architecture o Application Architecture o Information Architecture o Technology Architecture o Enterprise Architecture GovernanceDiscovery QuestionsA set of “Discovery Questions” have been developed to provide a “starting point” for the interviews withclient stakeholders. The intent of these questions is to develop an accurate understanding of the Current-State Business Perspective. These “Discovery Questions” are in the Appendix of this document. 14
  17. 17. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________DeliverablesDuring the Architecture Vision Phase, the following formal deliverables are developed: • Architecture Vision: is the architects "elevator pitch" - the key opportunity to sell the benefits of the proposed development to the decision-makers within the enterprise. The goal is to articulate an Architecture Vision that enables the business goals, responds to the strategic drivers, conforms to the principles, and addresses the stakeholder concerns and objectives. Architecture projects are often undertaken with a specific purpose in mind - a specific set of business drivers that represent the return on investment for the stakeholders in the architecture development. Clarifying that purpose, and demonstrating how it will be achieved by the proposed architecture development, is the whole point of the Architecture Vision. • Architecture Development Plan (ADP): The primary objective of the ADP is to describe the scope and nature of Oracle’s investment in our relationship with the client. The objective of an ADP is to develop a mutual understanding of the client’s needs and Oracle’s capabilities, and serves as a plan for execution aligned with Oracle’s Architecture Development Process. The scope of the engagement may focus on a particular aspect of the OADP (e.g. Architecture Vision) or may be focused on a particular process or domain area. An ADP document addresses the following issues: o OEA Engagement Overview o Scope, Objectives, and Approach o Constraints and Assumptions o Executive Sponsor(s) o Primary Contact(s) o Meeting Participants (Key Stakeholders) o Meeting Location o Key Tasks o Deliverables o Planned Start / End DatesPhase Exit CriteriaAn Oracle Architect engagement model is employed and the appropriate Oracle Architect is assigned. 15
  18. 18. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________4.2 Current StateUsing inputs from Architecture Vision, Discovery and othersources (as available), understand the reasons why the CurrentState architecture falls short in meeting the business strategy &objectives. Use a “just enough” and “just in time” approach toiteratively capture the current state architecture for the purposesof identifying misaligned areas and areas requiring change,performing gap analysis with the future state architecture, andcreating realistic roadmaps from the current state to the futurestateInputsThe inputs to the Current State Phase are well-defined scope for the business problem, organizationsinvolved and a defined team of individuals with specific roles and responsibilities to develop an enterprisearchitecture.TasksThe following tasks are performed during the Current State Phase: • Capture Baseline Architecture: o Setup an EA repository to capture models and artifacts o Capture the relevant high-level models representing current architecture (just-enough). These models will be reused for developing the future state blueprint. • Validate with Stakeholders: o Present and validate the architecture assessment and baseline with the stakeholders. It is critical to get agreement from those stakeholders since the future state architecture will be driven by this analysis.ArtifactsThe following artifacts are developed during the Current State Phase: • Business Architecture: o Business Service Catalog • Application Architecture: o Business Process Flow o Applications Footprint o Application-Technology Footprint 16
  19. 19. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________ o Application Integration o Application Portfolio Catalog • Information Architecture: o Information Asset Catalog, o Information Architecture Capabilities Matrix o Information Architecture-Application Matrix o Information Architecture-Role Matrix o Data Dissemination Diagram • Technology Architecture: o Technology Services Portfolio o Technology Standards Catalog o Functional Diagrams o Systems Diagrams o Physical Components–Services MatrixDiscovery QuestionsA set of “Discovery Questions” have been developed to provide a “starting point” for the interviews withclient stakeholders. The intent of these questions is to develop an accurate understanding of the Current-State Information Technology Perspective. These “Discovery Questions” are in the Appendix of thisdocument.DeliverablesThe Current State Architecture Baseline and Assessment deliverable addresses the following areas: • Business • Application • Information • Technology • EA Governance • People, Process & Tools • EA RepositoryPhase Exit CriteriaCaptured customer’s Current State and validated the vision for a Future State Architecture 17
  20. 20. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________4.3 Future StateWorking with the customer, use the Architecture Vision as inputto define a Future State Architecture that aligns with theBusiness, and adheres to the customer’s architecture principles.Iteratively develop a Future State Architecture and use as afoundation to evolve the enterprise. Develop architecture viewsacross the OEAF layers in-line with EA and solution architectureactivities, providing the “as needed” detail for current efforts.Establish reference models and leverage OEA assets from theEA Repository for faster turnaround and a high-qualitydeliverable. Identify and analyze gaps from Current StateArchitecture and explore implementation options.InputsThe inputs to the Future State Phase are the Current State architecture (captured, to the level needed),and a vision and blueprint exists to guide what the Future State architecture looks like.TasksThe following tasks are performed during the Future State Phase: • Select Reference Models: o Select the relevant reference industry blueprints, architectures, capabilities, applications footprint, business processes, data model and technology standards • Refine, Elaborate, and Apply Architecture Principles: o Adhere to architecture principles established in Architecture Vision phase o Refine, elaborate, decompose, and add architecture principles for completeness across the BAIT layers. o Detail implications for using these principles and identify possible incompatibilities between principles and how to resolve. • Develop Future State Architecture Models and Artifacts: o With the customer, draw a rough blueprint of a proposed future state architecture (OEAF BAIT views) based on the business requirements, architecture principles and standards, industry and technical reference models, and the current state architecture baseline. o Extend the architectural blueprint to develop artifacts and sections in the arch definition relevant to describe the future state. o Analyze and select architectural options to realize vision. 18
  21. 21. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________ o Leverage existing reference architectures and models • Identify Gaps and Architecture Change: o Compare and contrast the current state models with the future state and identify the delta. o List the key architectural changes needed to realize the target state (e.g. Need a master data management solution for all customer records) • Identify Benefits and Risks of each Change: o Identify the benefits, risks (e.g. cost, compliance, security, etc), and dependencies on the rest of the enterprise. o Include proof points to mitigate risks • Validate with Stakeholders: o Present the target state architecture and the proposed architectural changes to the stakeholders and get buy-in.ArtifactsThe following artifacts are developed during the Future State Phase: • Business Architecture: o Business Benefits Conceptual Diagram • Application Architecture: o Updated Current State Artifacts o Redundancy & Gap Reports o Applications Footprint Diagram o Applications-Technology Diagram o Applications Integration Diagram o Updated Guiding Architecture Principles • Information Architecture: o Updated Current State Artifacts o Updated Guiding Architecture Principles • Technology Architecture: o Updated Current State Artifacts o Updated Guiding Architecture Principles o Technology Architecture GuidanceDeliverablesThe Future State Architecture deliverable addresses the following areas: • Architecture Blueprint (Including Reference Models) • Future State Value Proposition • Proposed Future State Architecture 19
  22. 22. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________ • Gap Analysis • Benefit and Risk AssessmentPhase Exit CriteriaA Future State architecture has been created and validated for the defined scope.4.4 Strategic RoadmapThe purpose of the Strategic Roadmap phase is to create aprogressive plan to evolve towards the future statearchitecture that maximizes the value from each phase of theroadmap while minimizing risk and cost for proposed EAinitiatives and solution implementations, and considerstechnology dependencies across phases while providing theflexibility to adapt to new business priorities and to changingtechnology over time.InputsThe input to the Strategic Roadmap Phase is the target Future State architecture has been created andvalidated with the customer.TasksThe following tasks are performed during the Strategic Roadmap Phase: • Prioritize Current to Future State Architecture Gaps: o Prioritize architecture gaps (between current & future states) based on business value & alignment, technical/architectural dependencies, cost/risk considerations, EA maturity objectives, and stakeholder inputs • Create an Architecture Roadmap: o Create a phased approach that advances the EA, segment, domain or solution architectures from the current state, through transitional states to the future state architecture based on priorities (above) • Create an Implementation Plan: o Convert architecture roadmap into implementable projects (at the solution architecture/IT initiative level) and create a high level implementation plan o Define the dependencies and timelines for implementations 20
  23. 23. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________ o Estimate costs of each project based on labor and software license costs o If practical, assign risk to these projects using simple measures (e.g. “high risk”) • Validate with Stakeholders: o Get validation from the relevant stakeholders and the oversight board that the strategic roadmap aligns with the business expectations. • Plan Transition to Implementation: o Identify potential implementation teams who can execute on the recommendations approved by the customer and develop a transition planArtifactsThe following artifacts are developed during the Strategic Roadmap Phase: • Prioritization Analysis • Architecture Roadmap • Roadmap Implementation Plan • Transition to Implementation PlanDeliverablesThe Architecture Roadmap deliverable is developed during the Strategic Roadmap Phase.Phase Exit CriteriaAn architecture roadmap, implementation and transition plans have been created to realize the futurestate enterprise architecture.4.5 EA GovernanceEnterprise Architecture Governance provides the structureand processes for implementing an organization’sbusinesses strategy and objectives through an EnterpriseArchitectureEA Governance primarily revolves around strategic decisionsthat are taken that will influence the future design of the ITenvironment. EA Governance sets in place design relatedPolicies, Standards, Guidelines and Procedures that must becomplied with. EA Governance is concerned with ensuring 21
  24. 24. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________design integrity of the business as a whole and will govern decisions that are outside of the domain of IT.InputsThe inputs to the EA Governance Phase are existing roles and rules in the organization, corporategovernance structure, existing governance KPIs, corporate culture, business organizational model,effective, project management infrastructure, existing accountability structures.TasksThe following tasks are performed during the EA Governance State Phase: • Identify existing Architecture Governance: o Collect existing governance structure, roles, rules and responsibilities. • Assess Governance Effectiveness: o Observe existing corporate culture, business organizational model, effective communication methods, project management style(s) and existing accountability structures. o Assess existing EA Governance Maturity • Recommend Changes to EA Governance Model (if needed): o Guide EA Governance board structure, policies and procedures. o Guide EA Governance policies, metrics, compliance monitoring procedures and communication plan. o Guide EA lifecycle, EA project lifecycle and EA asset lifecycle processes. o Define the key measures and objectives of each project used to track the implementation quality in an on-going basis. o Identify funding process, ROI monitoring procedures and auditing procedures. o Implement supporting tools (Enterprise Repository, etc.) o Integrate into IT Governance and IT Project Lifecycle • Validate o Stakeholder signoffArtifactsThe following artifacts are developed during the EA Governance Phase: • EA Governance Focus Points • EA Governance Policies • EA Governance Metrics • EA Governance Roles and Responsibilities Matrix 22
  25. 25. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________DeliverablesThe deliverable developed during the EA Governance Phase is a formal set of recommendations that willfacilitate organizational change.The EA Governance deliverable addresses the following areas: • People Elements • Process Elements • Technology Elements • Financial Elements • Policy ElementsPhase Exit CriteriaThe EA Governance recommendations and implementation plan are validated and accepted by theExecutive sponsor.4.6 Business CaseCreate a Business Case that validates that the definedFuture State Architecture and proposed RoadmapImplementations will achieve the desired Business and ITobjectives.InputsThe inputs to the Business Case Phase are the developedimplementation/transition plan for realizing the Future Statearchitecture with high-level estimates for each project.TasksThe following tasks are performed during the Business Case Phase: • Collect Current State Costs/Risks: o During the current state architecture phase, the business and IT analysts should be able to provide information regarding their current operational costs and risks • Assess against Benchmarks & Targets: 23
  26. 26. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________ o The customer might be able to provide certain target benchmarks that they expect to achieve with the future state architecture. Also, consider using third-party industry benchmarks to define the targets. • Define Projected Future State Costs/Risks: o Estimate the cost, benefits and risks of the future state architecture change recommendations. This is an iterative task that can provide feedback to the architecture development process to find better and more affordable options for change. • Estimate EA Roadmap Investments: o Estimate the cost, benefits and risks of the IT projects that have been defined as part of the strategic roadmap. This is also expected to be an iterative cycle that drives the project roadmap to be less risky, more affordable and yield higher returns quicker. • Create Cost/Benefit Analysis: o Summarize the costs and benefits to produce simple ROI estimates if practicalArtifactsThe following artifacts are developed during the Business Case Phase: • Value Proposition Hypothesis: provides a focus for discovery as you begin your business case assessment • Business Sponsorship Matrix: assists with targeting and aligning sponsorship with business issues • Quadrant Analysis: tests and validates each hypothesis pillar within the logical flow of your business case findings • Benefit Triangulation: leverages multiple vantage points to set a range of benefit targets • Benefit Classification: documents and segments benefits into a logical business structure to improve communication and presentation of benefit estimates • Business Value Discovery Matrix: prioritizes, based on business value, which initiatives should be done in the first transition • Risk Analysis: is the planning process where you identify the types, probability and severity of the risks that might happen on a project • Risk Mitigation: is the plan for what to do about the risks identified by Risk AnalysisDiscovery QuestionsA set of “Discovery Questions” have been developed to provide a “starting point” for the interviews withclient stakeholders. The intent of these questions is to develop an accurate understanding of theBusiness Case Perspective. These “Discovery Questions” are in the Appendix of this document. 24
  27. 27. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________DeliverablesThe Business Case deliverable is a formal document that addresses the following areas: • Executive Summary o Key Business and IT Issues • Current Business State • Proposed Course of Action • Options Evaluation o Tactical o Strategic o Status-quo (“do nothing”) • Financial Analysis • Management Practices o Project Management o Risk Mitigation o Governance • Appendices o Additional data that supports the main sections of the Business Case documentPhase Exit CriteriaAn informal review of the business solution has been validated by customer and is ready to be reviewedby LOB executives and chief sponsor. 25
  28. 28. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________4.7 OADP Relationship to TOGAFOADP is complementary to other EA processes, with clear mappings to TOGAF, such that customers canuse the EA process of their choice.TOGAF Architecture Development Method Oracle Architecture Development ProcessPreliminaryA. Architecture Vision Architecture VisionB. Business ArchitectureC. Information System Architecture Current State ArchitectureD. Technology ArchitectureC. Information System ArchitectureD. Technology Architecture Future State ArchitectureE. Opportunities & SolutionsE. Opportunities & Solutions Strategic RoadmapF. Migration PlanningG. Implementation Governance EA GovernanceH. Architecture Change Management Business CaseRequirements Management EA RepositoryThe intent of building the OADP was to leverage the strengths of the different EA processes. 26
  29. 29. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________5 OADP and OEAFOADP provides an architectural development process that can be used for developing architectures ofvarious scopes. Although the OADP can be used at a project or solution level, the OADP achieves itsgreatest value when complementing an Enterprise Architectural Framework. These frameworks provide aunified and consistent structure for realizing an Enterprise Architecture in an organization.OADP achieves its greatest value when combined with the Oracle Enterprise Architecture Framework(OEAF). The OEAF provides a streamlined framework that helps Oracle collaboratively work withcustomers to develop strategicroadmaps and architecturesolutions that enable business andIT alignment. Oracle emphasizes a“just enough” and “just in time”practical approach to EnterpriseArchitecture, which may be usedstandalone or as a complement toa customer’s selected EAmethodology.The OEAF shares the same coreguiding principles as the OADPproviding a practical, agile, and complete solution for EA. In addition, by leveraging Oracle’s ReferenceArchitectures and industry-specific best practices, the time and risk associated with developing an EA aresubstantially reduced.By focusing on business results and leveraging Oracle’s unique EA assets and reference architectures,the OEAF can be employed to efficiently create a strategic roadmap with sound technology solutionsbacked by a business case for business and IT alignment. 27
  30. 30. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________6 Oracle Architecture Development Process Applied to IT ProblemsThe Oracle Architecture Development Process is a base architecture development approach that can beapplied to a variety of scenarios and problem types that most enterprises are experiencing in today’senvironment. OADP is structured in a manner that lets us tailor its tasks, in each phase, so that we canhave focused processes around very specific architecture problem sets. The OADP portfolio currentoffers the following of applied processes: • Application Portfolio Rationalization: A specialized version of the OADP process that prescribes a practical and open approach to rationalizing costly redundant Business Applications (for example enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, custom, and legacy business applications) that an enterprise can end up with after one or more merger and acquisition actions. The specialized Application Portfolio Rationalization process leverages the overall structure of the OADP phases, but focuses the tasks on application rationalization. For example, it takes the OADP task around collecting Current State artifacts and prescribes the specific and “just-enough” set of models and artifacts that are required to perform an effective application rationalization exercise. • IT Infrastructure Optimization: A similar process to the Application Portfolio Rationalization, however, focused primarily on technology and infrastructure components of the enterprise. Instead of rationalizing the ERP applications themselves, the IT Optimization focuses on rationalizing and optimizing the usage of the components that support the applications and other enterprise IT systems. For instance, IT Optimization can be used to rationalize data center infrastructure around grid computing, virtualization, security, enterprise management, and other infrastructure that end-user businesses rely upon. This applied process is a very complementary process to Application Portfolio Rationalization, since the two exercises are chasing the same business objective of lowering overall cost and risk of running in the IT without sacrificing innovation and agility in the business. These exercises can be sequenced in parallel or in serial as long as the architect has an understanding of the dependencies between the two areas in the EA. • Information Rationalization: An applied process that focuses on rationalizing the enterprise from the perspectives of information storage, management, ownership, exchange, and consumption. This process provides specific guidance and prescriptions on how to create a single unified enterprise data model that aligns with the operating model and the data governance structures in the organization. It provides a set of best practices around architecture artifacts and templates that can be applied to capture and assess the current state of a customer’s enterprise information architecture. It also provides a set of reference information architectures and patterns that can be adopted to develop the future state. 28
  31. 31. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________The portfolio of applied OADP processes will continue to grow as we keep applying the base OADPprocess to different types of architecture problems that seem to correlate quick closely to externalcircumstances, such as economic climates and other social and environmental factors in the IT industry. 29
  32. 32. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________7 ConclusionThe Oracle Enterprise Architecture Framework (OEAF) and Oracle Architecture Development Process(OADP) helps Oracle work collaboratively with customers in developing strategic roadmaps andarchitecture solutions that enable business and IT alignment.OEAF and OADP were developed to enable and support Oracle’s role as a trusted, enterprise solutionsprovider. The intent was to make solutions to Customer requirements more prescriptive by includingOracle’s Intellectual Property (e.g. reference architectures, capability-product service mappings, bestpractices, etc.)By focusing on business results and leveraging Oracle’s unique EA assets and reference architectures,OEAF and OADP can be employed to efficiently create architecture roadmaps for implementing business-driven enterprise solutions.The anticipated benefits to Oracle’s Customers include: • Strategic analysis and recommendations driven by Business and IT Alignment • Speak to both Business & IT stakeholders • Give context to Oracle proposed solutions o Working with customer’s existing IT environment o As part of customer’s guiding architecture principles o As part of a customer’s IT transformation initiatives • Provides proven reference architectures and prescriptive guidance for moving forward • Provides a disciplined approach & uses industry EA language that Chief Architects understandThe Oracle Enterprise Framework and Oracle Architecture Development Processes are vendor neutral,yet take an efficient, practical approach that matches Oracle’s sales and delivery style. The content(reference architectures, prescriptive guidance, etc.) are not vendor neutral. Oracle emphasizes a “justenough” and “just in time” practical approach to Enterprise Architecture, which may be used standaloneor as a complement a customer’s selected EA methodology. 30
  33. 33. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________8 Appendix • Discovery Questions 31
  34. 34. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________8.1 Discovery QuestionsArchitecture VisionElement Area Discovery Question Client AnswerBusiness Goals and What are the Business Goals and Objectives?Drivers What are the Business Drivers?Architecture Scope What is within the Scope of the Architecture Vision? What is outside the Scope of the Architecture Vision?Constraints Are there Enterprise-wide constraints? Are there Project-specific constraints? (e.g. Time, Schedule, Money, Resources, …)Business Model How does the business (or government entity) deliver valuable products and or services to its customers? What are the Supply ”building blocks”? (e.g. Key Partners, Key Segments , Key Resources, Cost Structure, …) What are the Demand ”building blocks”? (e.g. Value Proposition, Customer Relationships, Channels, Customer Segments, Revenue Streams, …)Business Capability What are the business priorities that are importantModel to business leaders? How are these business priorities aligned with business and IT initiatives? 32
  35. 35. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Element Area Discovery Question Client AnswerGuiding Architecture Does the organization have defined GuidingPrinciples Architecture Principles? What are their Business Architecture Principles? What are their Application Architecture Principles? What are their Information Architecture Principles? What are their Technology Architecture Principles?EA Governance Stakeholders Who are the key stakeholders for the Architecture Vision? What are their objectives and concerns? What is their level of accountability, participation and sponsorship?Business Case Stakeholders Who are the key stakeholders for the Business Case? Who needs to approve and sign-off on the Business Case? At what financial threshold will approval be required by the CFO? CEO? Board of Directors? Key Performance What are the performance metrics that need to be Indicators built into the enterprise architecture to meet the business needs? (e.g. Time, Financial, Business Capabilities, Risk, …) Procurement Are there specific procurement requirements for Requirements hardware, software and services? 33
  36. 36. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Current StateElement Area Discovery Question Client AnswerBusiness What are the business processes that are within the scope of the Architecture Vision? Are any of these business processes performed external to the enterprise? Who are the owners of these business processes? (e.g. LoB, Corporate, IT, …)Applications What are the applications that are within the Scope of the Architecture Vision? Are there other applications that use or interface with these applications? Are any of these applications operated external to the enterprise? Who are the owners of these applications? (e.g. LoB, Corporate, IT, …) Are there significant “pain points” for these applications? Are there application platform “standards”?Information What are the data stores that are within the Scope of the Architecture Vision? Are there other applications that use or interface with these data stores? Are there other data stores that use or interface with these data stores? Are any of these data stores operated external to the enterprise? Who are the owners of these data stores? (e.g. LoB, Corporate, IT, …) Are there significant “pain points” for these data stores? Are there information platform “standards”? 34
  37. 37. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Element Area Discovery Question Client AnswerTechnology Are there technology platform “standards”? (e.g. Server, Storage, Network, Operating Systems, Systems Management, …) Are any of these technology platforms outsourced to an organization external to the enterprise? Are any of these technology platforms operated external to the enterprise? Are there significant “pain points” for these technology platforms?EA GovernanceOrganizationalBodies Enterprise Who approves the Enterprise Architecture? Architecture Who is responsible for making sure the Enterprise Governance Board Architecture is in alignment with the Business and IT strategy of the organization? What are the roles and responsibilities of each stakeholder? Audit Committee Who is responsible for auditing the implementation of the Enterprise Architecture? Steering Who provides subject matter guidance from the Committee(s) business and technology stakeholders into the Enterprise Architecture? Working Group(s) Who is responsible for working on specific subjects associated with the Enterprise Architecture? 35
  38. 38. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Element Area Discovery Question Client AnswerEA GovernancePolicies EA Scope What is the scope of the Enterprise Architecture in the organization? How does the Enterprise Architecture align with the Business and IT strategy of the organization? EA Standards What standards are to be used in creating and maintaining the enterprise architecture? EA Strategy What is the strategy for implementing an Enterprise Architecture? EA Requirements What is required to successfully define and implement an Enterprise Architecture? Governance What are the guiding principles for Governance in Policies the Enterprise Architecture?EA GovernanceProcesses EA Value Metrics What are the metrics that will be used to asses the successes of the Enterprise Architecture? How will these metrics be evaluated? Compliance How is compliance with the Enterprise Monitoring Architecture evaluated and enforced? Procedures How are IT projects evaluated against the Enterprise Architecture? Communication How is the Enterprise Architecture documented Plan and communicated to the rest of the organization? Strategic Alignment What process monitors the continued alignment of the Enterprise Architecture with the Business Strategy? 36
  39. 39. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Element Area Discovery Question Client AnswerEA GovernanceTechnology Enterprise How are the artifacts of the Enterprise Repository Architecture managed? Portfolio How are projects in the enterprise managed Management against the Enterprise Architecture? Workflow How are approvals managed within the Enterprise Architecture? Compliance How is compliance with the Enterprise Reporting Architecture’s KPIs reported?EA GovernanceFinance Funding Model How is the Enterprise Architecture Funded? ROI Monitoring How is the Return on Investment (ROI) for the Enterprise Architecture monitored? Financial Auditing How are the finances associated with an Enterprise Architecture audited?Business Case Understand the What level of Quantitative model “proof” is existing Business expected in the Business Case document? Case culture What are the performance metrics that need to be built into the enterprise architecture to meet the business needs? - Goals / Drivers - Priority measures used - Metrics used - Financials - Time to realize benefits 37
  40. 40. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Business CaseElement Area Discovery Question Client AnswerValue Proposition What is the value proposition for key stakeholders ? (e.g. Corporate, LoB, IT, …)EA Governance What are the potential risks associated with theFinance Future State and Strategic Roadmap? What is the risk mitigation strategy for each risk? 38
  41. 41. Oracle Architecture Development Process User Guide____________________________________________________________________________________The Oracle Architecture Development ProcessUser GuideMarch 2011Author: Steven GorenberghContributing Authors: Gail Wright, PaulSilverstein, Hamza Jahangir Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is provided for information purposes only and the contents hereof are subject to change without notice. This document is not warranted to be error-free, nor subject to any otherOracle Corporation warranties or conditions, whether expressed orally or implied in law, including implied warranties and conditions of merchantability orWorld Headquarters fitness for a particular purpose. We specifically disclaim any liability with respect to this document and no contractual obligations are500 Oracle Parkway formed either directly or indirectly by this document. This document may not be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by anyRedwood Shores, CA 94065 means, electronic or mechanical, for any purpose, without our prior written permission.U.S.A.Worldwide Inquiries: Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respectivePhone: +1.650.506.7000 owners.Fax: +1.650.506.7200oracle.com 0311 39

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