Eriksonian Emerging Adulthood Defense

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My dissertation defense presentation... This contains the most important findings of the emerging adulthood survey and a discussion of the results. The manuscript will be available on ProQuest within the next couple of weeks, or you can email me to request a copy. I'm sure all of you want to add it to your summer reading list.

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  • i enjoyed your slide im surrently doing some research and was wondering if i could possible take a look at your instrument. Can we talk via email? my email address is christasoleyn@gmail.com
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Eriksonian Emerging Adulthood Defense

  1. 1. Emerging Adulthood as a Unique Stage in Erikson’s Psychosocial Development Theory: Incarnation v. ImpudenceAlicia V. PattersonUniversity of Texas at ArlingtonSchool of Social Work
  2. 2. IntroductionMy interest in emerging adulthood…
  3. 3. Statement of the IssueTransitions to adulthood have changed since the 1950swhen Erikson developed his theory of psychosocialdevelopment, but the theory had not been updated toreflect this transformation.
  4. 4. Purpose of the Study– Test Eriksonian Emerging Adulthood theory • What is the crisis of emerging adulthood? • What are the characteristics of emerging adulthood that lead to crisis resolution? • Is emerging adulthood experienced differently by boomerang children compared to emerging adults living autonomously?
  5. 5. Review of Theory– Erik H. Erikson’s Psychosocial Development Theory • In each stage of life, there is a crisis to resolve • The crisis can have a positive or negative outcome • The crisis is resolved as a consequence of different experiences, such as psychosexuality, relationships with others, basic strengths and weaknesses, and perceptions of social order– Jeffrey Jensen Arnett’s Emerging Adulthood Theory • Emerging adulthood has five features – Identity exploration – Instability – Self-focus – Feeling in-between – Feelings of limitless possibilities
  6. 6. Gaps in Theory– Erik H. Erikson’s Psychosocial Development Theory • Transition directly from adolescence to young adulthood • Emerging adulthood does not fit into young adulthood or extended adolescence • Emerging adulthood is not just an “in-between” stage • Does not reflect current phenomena– Jeffrey Jensen Arnett’s Emerging Adulthood Theory • Emerging adulthood is not conceptualized as a life stage that progresses to the next • “Things happen” to emerging adults, but things are not “accomplished” by emerging adults
  7. 7. Eriksonian Emerging Adulthood Theory – EEA occurs between adolescence and young adulthood – Crisis: Incarnation v. Impudence• Incarnation – acceptance of adult roles and responsibilities, with realistic expectations for the future and concrete plans to achieve those goals• Impudence – denial of responsibility, concurrent with lack of planning, unrealistic goals, and immodesty
  8. 8. Emerging Adulthood in Relation to Psychosocial Development Theory Psychosexual Psychosocial Radius of Basic Strengths Basic Related Binding Ritualisms Stages and Crises Significant Antipathies Principles of Ritualizations Modes Relations Social OrderI. Infancy Oral- Basic Trust v. Maternal Hope Withdrawal Cosmic Order Numinous Idolism respiratory, Basic Mistrust Person Sensory- kinesthetic (Incorporative Modes)II. Early Childhood Anal-urethral, Autonomy v. Parental Will Compulsion “Law and Judicious Legalism Muscular Shame, Doubt Persons Order” (Retentive- Eliminative)III. Play Age Infantile- Initiative v. Basic Family Purpose Inhibition Ideal Dramatic Moralism Genital, Guilt Prototypes Locomotor (Intrusive, Inclusive)IV. School Age “Latency” Industry v. Neighborhood, Competence Inertia Technological Formal Formalism Inferiority School Order (Technical)V. Adolescence Puberty Identity v. Peer Groups Fidelity Repudiation Ideological Ideological Totalism Identity and Outgroups Worldview ConfusionVI. Emerging Adulthood Experimental Incarnation v. Temporal and Interdependence Dependence Experimental Relativism Absolutism Sexuality Impudence Spatial Social and and Ideology and Intimate Self-sufficiency Helplessness RelationsVII. Young Adulthood Genitality Intimacy v. Partners in Love Exclusivity Patterns of Affiliative Elitism Isolation Friendship, Cooperation Sex, and Competition, Competition CooperationVIII. Adulthood Procreativity Generativity v. Divided Labor Care Rejectivity Currents of Generational Authoritism Stagnation and Shared Education and Household TraditionIX. Old Age Generalization Integrity v. Mankind Wisdom Disdain Wisdom Philosophical Dogmatism of Sensual Despair Modes
  9. 9. Themes in Boomerang Living Research • Boomerang child – an adult child who returns to the parental home after living away from home for at least 6 months • In general, researchers have studied parents instead of the home returners • Common research aims include impact on parental marriage satisfaction, parent- child relationships, and parental satisfaction with coresidence • Few studies guided by theory • Predictors of boomerang living are inconsistent throughout literature • In general, boomerang living is considered a positive experience
  10. 10. Gaps in Previous Research– Few studies examine boomerang living from the perspective of the home returner– No quantitative study has looked at the relationship between boomerang living and psychosocial development– Most publications on boomerang living are anecdotal, not academic
  11. 11. Research Hypotheses• The crisis of emerging adulthood, incarnation versus impudence, resolves as a consequence of at least some of the characteristics of Eriksonian emerging adulthood (experimental sexuality, temporal and spatial social and intimate relationships, interdependence, and ideological experimentation).• Living situation is a significant predictor of incarnation and impudence.• The resolution of the crisis of emerging adulthood differs for boomerang children and emerging adults living autonomously by postponing the resolution of the crisis of emerging adulthood in boomerang children.• As emerging adults successfully resolve the crisis of incarnation versus impudence, they are more likely to boomerang to their parental home.
  12. 12. Methodology– Non-experimental, quantitative, self-report survey– Participants asked to think about the time in their lives from about 19 to 25 years– Questionnaire administered online through SurveyMonkey– Purposive sample of American men and women ages 18 through 68– A donation was made to the National September 11 Memorial and Museum for each completed survey
  13. 13. Instruments Used to Measure Aspects of Emerging Adulthood• Inventory of the Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA; Reifman et al., 2007)• Psychological Separation Inventory (PSI; Hoffman, 1984) as Psychological Separation Inventory – Short Version (PSI-SV; Patterson & Arvidson, 2012)• Sexual Socialization Instrument – Short Form (SSI; Lottes & Kuriloff, 1998)• Experiences in Close Relationships – Relationships Structures (ECR-RS; Fraley et al., 2011)• Millennial Survey (Pew Social and Demographic Trends; 2010)• Patterson’s Eriksonian Emerging Adulthood Survey (PEEAS; Patterson, 2012)
  14. 14. Results
  15. 15. Participant DemographicsVariable n %Sex Female 370 64.0 Male 211 36.0Age group Adolescents 108 17.9 Emerging adults 219 36.4 Young adults + 262 43.5Race/Ethnicity White 273 49.4 Black 105 19.0 Latino 123 22.2 Other 52 9.4Student status Student 405 74.1 Non-student 108 19.7Employment status Employed 354 65.0 Not employed 177 32.5
  16. 16. Participant HomeleavingVariable n %Left the parental home Yes 399 75.3 No 131 24.7Age to leave home Under 18 85 16.0 18 189 35.7 19 to 22 103 19.5 Over 22 10 4.1 Never moved out 131 24.7Boomeranged Yes 197 37.4 No 330 62.6Perception of boomeranging Generally positive 202 77.4 Generally negative 59 22.6
  17. 17. Hypothesis 1– Research hypothesis: Emerging adulthood qualifies as the sixth stage of Erikson’s psychosocial development theory as evinced by the relationship between aspects of Eriksonian emerging adulthood theory and established measures of those same aspects of development.– Null hypothesis: Emerging adulthood is not a stage of Erikson’s psychosocial development theory due to the lack of relationship between aspects of Eriksonian emerging adulthood theory and established measures of those same aspects of development.– Tested by comparing concurrent validity between PEEAS and valid and reliable instruments which measure the same aspects.
  18. 18. Hypothesis 1 – Results – The null hypothesis was rejected. – Significant relationships exist between subscales. Other PEEAS Instrument r r2 α n Subscale SubscalesExperimental Sexuality SSI Peer -.198 .039 .041 107 ECR-RS Avoidance -.316 .100 .001 110 PSI-SV Functional -.256 .066 .006 112 IDEA Identity Exploration .214 .046 .022 115 IDEA Experimentation .284 .081 .002 114 IDEA Self-Focus .216 .047 .022 112Incarnation v. Impudence PSI-SV Functional -.256 .066 .006 112 IDEA Identity Exploration .709 .503 .010 12* IDEA Negativity/Instability .752 .565 .005 12* ECR-RS Avoidance -.466 .217 .127 12*Social and Intimate PSI-SV Conflictual -.234 .055 .016 105Relationships SSI-SF Peer .213 .045 .033 101Interdependence & IDEA Identity Exploration .294 .086 .007 83Dependence IDEA Self-Focus .391 .152 .000 83 PSI-SV Conflictual -.319 .102 .004 80Experimental Ideology PPA Dualism .029 .001 .754 123Overall Crisis Resolution PSI-SV Functional -.826 .682 .022 7*
  19. 19. Hypothesis 2– Research hypothesis: The crisis of emerging adulthood, incarnation versus impudence, successfully resolves as a consequence of experimental sexuality, temporal and spatial social and intimate relationships, interdependence, and experimental ideology.– Null hypothesis: The crisis of emerging adulthood, incarnation versus impudence, is unresolved.– Tested through ANOVA comparing crisis resolution scores for 3 age groups: adolescents, emerging
  20. 20. Hypothesis 2 – Results – Null hypothesis was rejected. – There were differences in crisis resolution scores. Obtained F Critical F Significance Total df 4.122 3.21 .023 45 – Post hoc tests revealed young adults are more likely than emerging adults and adolescents to have higher crisis resolution scores. 95% confidence interval Comparison age Age by category groups Mean difference Standard error Significance Lower bound Upper bound Emerging Adults .903 1.458 .536 -1.96 3.77Adolescents Young Adults -5.319* 1.441 .000 -8.15 -2.49 Adolescents -.903 1.458 .536 -3.77 1.96Emerging Adults Young Adults -6.222* 1.168 .000 -8.52 -3.93 Adolescents 5.319* 1.441 .000 2.49 8.15Young Adults andbeyond Emerging Adults 6.222* 1.168 .000 3.93 8.52
  21. 21. Hypothesis 3– Research hypothesis: The resolution of the crisis of emerging adulthood differs for boomerang children and emerging adults living autonomously by postponing the resolution of the crisis of emerging adulthood in boomerang children.– Null hypothesis: The resolution of the crisis of emerging adulthood does not differ for boomerang children and emerging adults living autonomously.– Tested using a t-test to determine if there was a difference between crisis resolution scores of boomerang children and emerging adults living autonomously.
  22. 22. Hypothesis 3 – Results– Failed to reject the null hypothesis.– No significant difference was found in the crisis resolution scores of boomerang children and emerging adults living autonomously. Critical t Obtained t Significance df = 43 -1.312 +/-2.017 .197
  23. 23. Hypothesis 4– Research hypothesis: As emerging adults successfully resolve the crisis of incarnation versus impudence, they are more likely to boomerang to the parental home.– Null hypothesis: Emerging adults are no more likely to return to their parental home as they resolve the crisis of incarnation versus impudence.– Tested by analyzing correlations between independent variables and boomerang living.
  24. 24. Hypothesis 4 – Results– Null hypothesis was rejected.– Two instrument scores were found to have significant positive correlations with boomerang living: PEEAS Experimental Sexuality and PEEAS Incarnation.– One instrument score was found to have a significant negative correlation with boomerang living: ECR-RS Avoidance. Instrument Subscale r r2 α n PEEAS Experimental Sexuality .272 .074 .002 124 PEEAS Incarnation .333 .111 .000 124 ECR-RS Avoidance -.133 .018 .006 434
  25. 25. Limitations of the Study– Sample size • Too small for structural equation modeling (SEM)– Missing data • Response rate as low as 3.2% (for PEEAS Item #16)– Survey design • Directions for PEEAS were too complex • Questionnaire was too long– Self-report data • Social desirability bias suspected
  26. 26. Implications for Social Work Theory– Arnett’s theory of emerging adulthood is not regularly applied in social work.– Emerging adulthood may be better understood if it is put in the context of a well-known social work theory, psychosocial development.– May start a dialogue for updating theories to reflect current realities faced by today’s youth.
  27. 27. Implications for Social Work Practice– Work with emerging adults and their families to navigate this transformative life stage • Family therapy practices • College mental health services • College parent week workshops– Change perceptions of boomerang living • Boomeranging is a healthy movement toward self- sufficiency
  28. 28. Implications for Social Work Policy– Social Policy • The “student loan effect” has a serious impact on society – boomerang living may mitigate that– Education Policy • Schools must normalize all emerging adulthood experiences, not just the stereotypical college experience • Colleges should acknowledge that experimental behaviors are part of emerging adulthood– Family Policy • Emerging adults will remain dependent on families of origin longer than they have in the past – families need to be prepared
  29. 29. Implications for Social Work Research– More research is needed • Predictive nature of variables– Class time for data collection • Increase response rates • Ability to clarify directions • Increase interest in research • Involvement of students • Need an app for that?– Larger sample sizes • More variables need a larger sample • Ability to use more sophisticated statistical techniques
  30. 30. Directions for Further Research– Validate PEEAS and PSI-SV– Determine if social desirability bias is more apparent after participants answer questions about their families– Examine the impact of parental expectations of their children’s emerging adulthood on the reality of their children’s emerging adulthood– Assess the effects of popular culture depictions of boomerang living on societal perceptions of boomerang living
  31. 31. Conclusion– Emerging adulthood can be considered a life stage according to Erikson’s psychosocial development theory.– The crisis of emerging adulthood can resolve successfully as incarnation or unsuccessfully as impudence.– Boomerang living does not impede psychosocial development during emerging adulthood.– Boomerang living is positively correlated with increased sexual awareness and acceptance of adult roles.
  32. 32. Emerging Adulthood as a Unique Stage in Erikson’s Psychosocial Development Theory: Incarnation v. ImpudenceAlicia V. PattersonUniversity of Texas at ArlingtonSchool of Social Work

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