Chapter 6


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Chapter 6

  1. 1. Chapter 6<br />Esther Tharakaturi<br />
  2. 2. Hodgkin’s Disease<br />This disease is also known as Hodgkin's lymphoma.<br />It is a cancer of the lymphatic system it usually targets lymph nodes, spleen, liver and bone marrow.<br />The cells grow abnormally and this makes it harder for the body to fight diseases.<br />
  3. 3. Hodgkin’s Disease<br />The symptoms are : pain or swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, armpit, or groin, fever, chills, night sweats, weight loss, loss of appetite, and itchy skin. <br />It is best to see a doctor if any of these symptoms are there for more than two weeks or if they repeatedly go away and then return. <br />
  4. 4. Hodgkin’s Disease<br />The cause of this disease is not known.<br />Sometimes it is hard to diagnose Hodgkin’s Disease because it’s symptoms are similar to influenza. <br />There are some symptoms that are distinctive to Hodgkin’s such as the spreading pattern is orderly it goes from one group of lymph nodes to the next. Another symptom the disease almost never skips an area of lymph nodes.<br />
  5. 5. Hodgkin’s Disease<br />There are many different tests and procedures that can be done to diagnose Hodgkin’s :<br />Biopsy – taking a tissue sample from an swollen lymph node<br />Physical Exam – Doctor checks the swollen areas<br />X-rays – can help show areas that are swollen<br />Computerized tomography (CT) scan – dye is injected or swallowed to get a better picture of the inside of the body<br />Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)- magnet and radio waves are used to provide detailed pictures of the body<br />Positron emission tomography (PET) scan – radioactive glucose is injected which surrounds the cancerous cells and pictures are taken to located the cancerous cells.<br />Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy – bone marrow, bone, and blood sample is taken to be analyzed for cancer.<br />Blood tests – Blood work is looked at for an indication of cancer<br />
  6. 6. Hodgkin’s Disease<br />There are four stages of Hodgkin’s :<br />Stage I – The cancer is only limited to one lymph node or one organ.<br />Stage II – The cancer is in two lymph nodes or it is in a portion of an organ. Cancer is either above or below the diaphragm or a certain section of the body.<br />Stage III – The cancer is above and below the diaphragm. It can also be in one portion of the tissue or organ that is near the lymph nodes or the spleen.<br />Stage IV – This stage is the most advanced. The Cancerous cells are in more than one organ or tissues of the body. It just doesn’t affect the lymph nodes but also other parts of the body.<br />
  7. 7. Hodgkin’s Disease<br />There are treatment and drugs available for Hodgkin’s.<br />Chemotherapy – uses a combination of drugs to kill tumor cells.<br />Radiation – High-energy x-rays are used to kill cancer cells.<br />Bone marrow or stem cell transplant – your own bone marrow or stem cells is taken out and any cancerous cells are killed. The stem cells or bone marrow is then frozen and stored. When you get your high-dose chemotherapy to kill the cancer cells the saved bone marrow or stem cells are then injected into your body.<br />
  8. 8. Sarcoidosis<br />Sarcoidosis is known for the development and growth of the immune system cells into tiny clump (granulomas). They can affect any part of the body but usually the lungs, lymph nodes, eyes, and skin.<br />Doctors think that Sarcoidosis is an auto immune response.<br />
  9. 9. Sarcoidosis<br />The symptoms of Sarcoidosis are persistent cough, shortness of breath, vague feeling of discomfort, fever, weight loss, small red bumps on your face, arms or buttocks, red, watery eyes , or arthritis in your ankles, elbows, wrists and hands, commonly associated with bumps in the skin over your shins.<br />If these symptoms last for weeks or months along with red bumps you should go in to see a doctor.<br />
  10. 10. Sarcoidosis<br />The causes of Sarcoidosis are not known exactly but doctors think it is a overreaction of the immune system to an unknown toxin, drug, or pathogen that enters into our body through the airways.<br />Some people may have a genetic predisposition that along with a substance that sets of an reaction that Sarcoidosisdevelops.<br />
  11. 11. Sarcoidosis<br />Sarcoidosis can be mistaken for lymphoma, tuberculosis, rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatic fever and fungal infection.<br />Test and Procedures that are used to diagnose Sarcoidosis:<br />Physical exam – to check the skin for bumps, enlarged lymph nodes, redness in eyes.<br />Chest x-ray - to check for granulomas or enlarged lymph nodes.<br />Lung function tests – to measure the amount of air the lungs can hold and the flow of air in and out.<br />Blood tests – which can be used to check the levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), people with Sarcoidosis have high-levels of it.<br />Bronchoscopy – used to take tissue samples of the airways.<br />Tissue sample<br />Slit-lamp examination – the use of an high intensity lamp to check the eyes for damage from Sarcoidosis.<br />
  12. 12. Sarcoidosis<br />Treatment and drugs of Sarcoidosis :<br />Sometimes treatment is not necessary if the symptoms are not bothersome or do not appear.<br />If in a chest x-ray the disease is more spread out then the doctor may monitor for about 3 to 12 months and start treatment if nothing has improved.<br />Corticosteroid treatment - are anti-inflammatory drugs theses are Steroidal drugs. <br />There are other drugs available if you are not able to handle steroidal treatments.<br />
  13. 13. Hives<br />Hives are raised, red, itchy welts that can come and disappear on the skin. <br />Hives are also known as urticaria<br />Usually hives are not harmful and they disappear without leaving any marks or scars.<br />
  14. 14. Hives <br />The symptoms of hives:<br />Raised red or white welts of different sizes<br />A single welt or a group that covers a large area of the body.<br />Burning or stinging<br />Itching<br />Hives can be either acute or chronic – acute meaning that last less than a day to 6 weeks. Chronic Hives last more than 6 weeks.<br />
  15. 15. Hives<br />Hives are caused by inflammation of the skin. <br />Hives can also be triggered when mast cells release histamine and other chemicals into the bloodstream.<br />Hives can be from an allergic reaction to food, medications, allergens such as pollen, animal dander.<br />
  16. 16. Hives <br />There are tests that can be done for hives :<br />Puncture, prick or scratch test – which is done to identify what allergies someone has<br />Intradermal test – skin test that is done also to identify allergies but usually done to figure out insect allergies<br />Patch test – another skin test but usually done to identify latex or medication allergies.<br />
  17. 17. Hives <br />If the symptoms are mild then medication is not nessecery.<br />The most common treatment used to treat Hives are antihistamines.<br />The types of medications available that are over the counter are Diphenhydramine, Chlorpheniramine, Loratadine, (Zyrtec).<br />The prescription treatments for hives are Desloratadine,Fexofenadine ,Hydroxyzine, Levocetirizine.<br />