Permaculture for Farmers 2009

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Ecological agriculture - by design! Learn more at http://www.regenerativedesigns.wordpress.com

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Permaculture for Farmers 2009

  1. 1. Permaculture for Farmers Ecological Production by Design Benneth G. Phelps, Mosaic Farm Ethan C. Roland, AppleSeed Permaculture Regenerative Apios Design Group Institute
  2. 2. Permaculture for Farmers
  3. 3. Permaculture Design • Origins - Ethics - Principles
  4. 4. The Permaculture Pie biochar/ bioremediation terra preta composting & aquaculture food forestry compost tea coppice perennial woodcrafts vegetables & biomass apiculture keyline mycoscaping management- alternative intensive grazing currencies edible forest earthworks gardening natural building green architecture
  5. 5. Ethics of Permaculture 1. Earth Care 2. People Care 3. Resource Share Developed in 1980’s, over 1,000,000 people certified, active in 140+ Countries, more than 4,000 projects on the ground
  6. 6. Ethics of Permaculture 1. Earth Care 2. People Care 3. Resource Share Developed in 1980’s, over 1,000,000 people certified, active in 140+ Countries, more than 4,000 projects on the ground
  7. 7. Ethics of Permaculture 1. Earth Care 2. People Care 3. Resource Share Developed in 1980’s, over 1,000,000 people certified, active in 140+ Countries, more than 4,000 projects on the ground
  8. 8. Ethics of Permaculture 1. Earth Care 2. People Care 3. Resource Share Developed in 1980’s, over 1,000,000 people certified, active in 140+ Countries, more than 4,000 projects on the ground
  9. 9. Ethics of Permaculture 1. Earth Care 2. People Care 3. Resource Share Developed in 1980’s, over 1,000,000 people certified, active in 140+ Countries, more than 4,000 projects on the ground
  10. 10. Principles
  11. 11. Design Tools
  12. 12. Zones of Use
  13. 13. Camp Epworth
  14. 14. Zone 1
  15. 15. Zone 1 Zone 2
  16. 16. Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3
  17. 17. Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4
  18. 18. Sector Analysis
  19. 19. Sector Thinking: Windbreaks
  20. 20. Keyline Design
  21. 21. Keyline: Catch+store Catch and Store Energy Source: Permaculture: A Designers Manual
  22. 22. Yobarnie
  23. 23. Yobarnie, 2007 Yobarnie, Layout, 1988 Source: Permaculture: A Designers Manual
  24. 24. Keyline Plow
  25. 25. Coulter, Tip, Shank
  26. 26. seeding
  27. 27. Yeomans Keyline Plow – Plowing for Rapid & Cheap Soil Development (Pasture) Soil conditioning Existing Condition: Shallow, Compacted, Drought-Prone Topsoil 1. Soil Test & Remineralise 2. Plow to 2” below hard pan 3. Remove stock for 4-6 weeks 4. Just at onset of flowering: Hard graze to 2-4” 1. Plow to 2” below new root depth 2. Remove stock for 4-6 weeks 3. Just at onset of flowering: Hard graze to 2-4” 1. Plow to 2” below new root depth: Max out at 12-15” 2. Remove stock for 4-6 weeks 3. Just at onset of flowering: Hard graze to 2-4” And Another Thing: 1% increase in Organic Matter = 63 ton/ac capture in Atmospheric CO2 ! (That’s twice your total annual emissions)
  28. 28. Keyline Pattern
  29. 29. [DD keyline design]
  30. 30. LittleSeed CSA Chatham, NY
  31. 31. 3-Shank Plow
  32. 32. Shank & Weed-Knives
  33. 33. Carbon Farmers of America
  34. 34. Cimarron Farm Swanton,VT
  35. 35. 5-Shank Plow
  36. 36. Italian Ryegrass
  37. 37. www.carbonfarmersofamerica.com
  38. 38. Rodale Whitepaper • A 40% reduction of global carbon emissions is possible with a switch to regenerative organic agricultural practices on the world’s 3.5 billion tillable acres. • Agriculture contributes 20% of Carbon emissions in the US, and 12% worldwide
  39. 39. Rodale Institute Regenerative Organic Farming: A Solution to Global Warming • A 40% reduction of global carbon emissions is possible with a switch to regenerative organic agricultural practices on the world’s 3.5 billion tillable acres. • Agriculture contributes 20% of Carbon emissions in the US, and 12% worldwide • Soil holds twice as much carbon as terrestrial vegetation • Midwestern soils that in the 1950s were composed of up to 20 percent carbon are now between 1- and 2-percent carbon. • Forests and grasslands generally are 6 to 10 percent organic matter, well over the 1- to 3-percent levels typical of today’s agricultural field systems. • Because soil organic matter is primarily carbon, increases in these levels will be directly correlated with carbon sequestration. While prevailing farming practices using synthetic inputs typically deplete SOM, regenerative farming practices, including the integration of crop and animal production, build it.
  40. 40. Carbon Farming • August 25 - September 16th. • The Farm, Summertown, TN
  41. 41. Carbon Farming • August 25 - September 16th. • The Farm, Summertown, TN • Next one in Hudson Valley?
  42. 42. Design Patterns
  43. 43. Animals & Aquaculture
  44. 44. HM Grazing Deseret Ranch, AZ
  45. 45. Deseret Ranch, AZ 8 years later
  46. 46. Tractors
  47. 47. Polyface Farm
  48. 48. Aquaculture & Aquaponics CH_CS_fish1 Cascade Systems Wadenswil Agriculture Research Station, Switzerland Photo: Ethan Roland
  49. 49. Tilapia 50
  50. 50. CH_CS_view01 Photo: Ethan Roland
  51. 51. CH_CS_waterflow Photo: Ethan Roland
  52. 52. CH_CS_parsley Photo: Ethan Roland
  53. 53. 54
  54. 54. 55
  55. 55. CH_CS_papaya Photo: Ethan Roland
  56. 56. CH_CS_waterflow Photo: Ethan Roland
  57. 57. CH_CS_banana Photo: Ethan Roland
  58. 58. Ecosystem Mimicry • Land Institute
  59. 59. Ecosystem Mimicry • Kazakh Food Forests
  60. 60. Ecosystem Mimicry • Kazakh Food Forests
  61. 61. Perennial Vegetables
  62. 62. Perennial Vegetables • Permaculture Principle: Least effort for large effect • Plants w/ a 3-3000+ year lifespan • Not destroyed by harvesting • More Common: – Asparagus, Rhubarb, Horseradish
  63. 63. Perennial Vegetables • Human Uses: 7 F’s • Ecosystem Functions: – Beneficial Insect Attractant & Habitat – Aromatic Pest Confusion – Dynamic Accumulator & Soil Builder – Carbon Sequestration & Water Conservation
  64. 64. Perennial Vegetables LOW MAINTENANCE • Only plant once • Years of harvests • No digging or tilling • Resist pests, weeds, drought • Extend harvest season • Excellent yield/time Slide: Eric Toensmeier
  65. 65. Some (More) Common Perennial Vegetables Nettle Asparagus Rhubarb French sorrel Urtica dioica Asparagus Rheum x cultorum Rumex acetosa officinalis Slide: Eric Toensmeier
  66. 66. Top Ten Perennial Vegetables
  67. 67. Climbing Spinach (Hablitzia tamnoides) Photos: Eric Toensmeier
  68. 68. Good King Henry (Chenopodium bonus- Photos: Ethan Roland & Eric Toensmeier henricus)
  69. 69. Skirret (Sium sisarum) Photos: Eric Toensmeier
  70. 70. Multiplier Onion (Allium cepa-aggregatum) • Shallot, walking onion, chive, garlic chives Photo: Eric Toensmeier
  71. 71. Sea Kale (Crambe maritima) Photos: Ethan Roland
  72. 72. Sea Kale (Crambe maritima) Photos: Ethan Roland
  73. 73. Sunchokes (Helianthus tuberosus) Photo: Eric Toensmeier Photo: Kathryn Conway
  74. 74. Turkish Rocket (Bunias orientalis) Photos: Kathryn Conway & Eric Toensmeier
  75. 75. Water Celery (Oenanthe javanica) Photos: Eric Toensmeier
  76. 76. Welsh Onion (Allium fistulosum) Photo: Kathryn Conway
  77. 77. Salad Hedge
  78. 78. Salad Hedge
  79. 79. Small Fruits & Nuts
  80. 80. Currants (Ribes spp.)
  81. 81. Hardy Kiwi (Actinidia arguta)
  82. 82. Seaberry (Hippophae rhamnoides)
  83. 83. Hazelnuts (Corylus spp.)
  84. 84. Sandraberry (Schisandra chinensis)
  85. 85. Agroforestry & Forest Gardening
  86. 86. Agroforestry & Forest Gardening Tree Crops & Agroforestry: 2:15-4:15 Resource Center
  87. 87. Design Patterns
  88. 88. Summary Example: Threshold Farm
  89. 89. Keyline
  90. 90. Keyline
  91. 91. Perennial Vegetables
  92. 92. Forest Gardening
  93. 93. Chive, sorrel, anise hyssop, and chicory starts
  94. 94. TBD understory 1 season later
  95. 95. Harvest bins
  96. 96. Apples, Pears, Peaches
  97. 97. Animal Integration
  98. 98. Permaculture for Farmers
  99. 99. Business Design • Mosaic Farm • Econ Ag Tool
  100. 100. Mosaic Farm Benneth Phelps Northampton, Massachusetts bphelps2@gmail.com All
photos:
Benneth
Phelps,
2008

  101. 101. Mosaic Farm MISSION STATEMENT Offer unique vegetables, fruits and nuts, produced with sustainable methods, and provide a diverse, seasonal, year-round diet to local customers, while developing a model farm for the future, including investing in a carbon neutral energy supply, building ecological capital on site, utilizing a mixed food forest system of perennial crops, and a low-input, self-regenerating, high-yielding system where crops and products are byproducts of improvements in the site ecosystem.
  102. 102. Mosaic Farm LANDSCAPE MOSAIC A geographic group of site-level ecosystems (Bailey, 1998).
  103. 103. Food Forest Farm Goal
#1:
Acquire
15‐25
acres
class
I
or
II
soil
in
one
to
two
 con=guous
fields
within
range
of
willing
customer
base
for
 experimental
CSA.
Long
term
lease,
rent
to
own,
or
purchase.
Water
access.

 
 Goal
#2:
Lay
groundwork
for
CSA
opera=on
on
site.
 Objec/ves:
 A:
Ini=al
Soil
Improvements
(Green
Manures)
Q3
2010 B.
Ini=al
Infrastructure
Improvements
(barn,
water,
greenhouse)
Q1
2011 C.
Ini=al
Equipment
Acquisi=on
(Tractor
1
and
2)
Q4
2010 D.
Land
Use
Plan
&
Nursery
Garden
Q3
2010
  104. 104. Mosaic Farm Goal
#3:
Meet
energy
needs
in
a
carbon
neutral
manner Objec/ves: A.
Complete
Energy
Plan,
with
solar
specs
and
budget

 (Completed
Q1
09)
 B.
Solar
electric
system
on
barn
roof C.
Solar
electric
for
heat
in
greenhouse E.
Research,
evaluate
and
conduct
electric
tractors
and
 tractor
conversions
 
 Goal
#4:
Create
a
150
member
CSA
that
serves
customers
year
 round
and
offers
new
and
exci=ng
fruits,
vegetables
and
nuts.
 Objec/ves: A.
Sign
up
100
shareholders,
Q2
2011 

  105. 105. Mosaic Farm FARM PRODUCTS - beginning in years 1-2  Annual vegetable production  Winter greens  Storage roots and alliums  Mushrooms  Solar energy FARM PRODUCTS - beginning years 3-5  Fruits  Perennial Vegetables (greens, alliums, roots etc…)  Perennial Flowers FARM PRODUCTS -beginning in years 10-25  Nuts
  106. 106. Mosaic Farm Benneth Phelps Northampton, Massachusetts bphelps2@gmail.com All
photos:
Benneth
Phelps,
2008

  107. 107. Eco-Ag Design Tool
  108. 108. Next Steps • Resources: Handout • Northeastern Permaculture Wiki: • www.nepc.wikispaces.com • Forest Garden Immersion Series • www.appleseedpermaculture.com Northeast
  109. 109. Questions? Benneth G. Phelps, Mosaic Farm Ethan C. Roland, AppleSeed Permaculture
  110. 110. Permaculture for Farmers Ecological Production by Design Benneth G. Phelps, Mosaic Farm Ethan C. Roland, AppleSeed Permaculture Regenerative Apios Design Group Institute

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