Theories Of Interpersonal Relationship


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Social Reduction Theory and Uncertainty Reduction Theory

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Theories Of Interpersonal Relationship

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Theories of Interpersonal Relationships :- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attachment Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Exchange Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equity Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertainty Reduction Theory </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY <ul><li>Theory by: George Caspar Homans (1958) </li></ul><ul><li>Social behavior is an exchange of goods, material goods but also non-material ones, such as the symbols of approval or prestige. </li></ul><ul><li>Persons that give much to others try to get much from them, and persons that get much from others are under pressure to give much to them.  </li></ul><ul><li>All relationships have give and take, although the balance of this exchange is not always equal. </li></ul>
  4. 4. SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY <ul><li>Social Exchange theory explains how we feel about a relationship with another person as depending on our perceptions of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The balance between what we put into the relationship and what we get out of it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The kind of relationship we deserve. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The chances of having a better relationship with someone else. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. CONCEPTS <ul><li>COST vs REWARDS </li></ul><ul><li>In deciding what is fair, we develop a  comparison level   (CL) against which we compare the give/take ratio. </li></ul><ul><li>We also have a comparison level for the alternative relationships (Cl al ) . </li></ul>
  6. 6. CONCEPTS <ul><li>OUTCOME LEVEL (OL) OL = Rewards - Costs </li></ul><ul><li>COMPARISON LEVEL (CL) Subjective standard </li></ul><ul><li>COMPARISON LEVLE OF ALTERNATIVES (CL ALT ) CL of Next-Best Alternative </li></ul>
  7. 7. CONCEPTS <ul><li>OL > CL Satisfied with the group OL < CL Dissatisfied with the group </li></ul><ul><li>OL > CL ALT Remain in the group OL < CL ALT Leave the group </li></ul>
  8. 8. PROPOSITIONS <ul><ul><li>Actors in a situation will choose whichever behavior maximizes profit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actors in situations where there are no rewards will seek to minimize costs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When immediate profits are equal, actors look at long term profits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When long term profits are equal, actors look at short term profits </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. UNCERTAINTY REDUCTION THEORY 7 Axioms & 21 Theorems <ul><li>Theory By: Charles R. Berger and Richard J. Calabrese (1975) </li></ul><ul><li>  It was proposed to predict and explain relational development (or lack thereof) between strangers. </li></ul><ul><li>Strangers, upon meeting, go through certain steps and checkpoints in order to reduce uncertainty about each other and form an idea of whether one likes or dislikes the other. </li></ul>
  10. 10. STAGES OF RELATIONAL DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>ENTRY PHASE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by use of Behavioral Norms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contents are Demographic & Transactional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PERSONAL PHASE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strangers explore Attitude & Belief of the other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Values, Morals & Personal issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional Involvement tends to increase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EXIT PHASE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Future Interaction decided </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship Negotiation </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. AXIOMS OF URT <ul><li>AXIOM 1: As strangers begin to talk to one another, the level of uncertainty decreases. In turn, as the uncertainty decreases, the interactants will talk more. </li></ul><ul><li>AXIOM 2: As nonverbal expressive communication increases, uncertainty levels decrease, and vice versa. </li></ul>
  12. 12. AXIOMS OF URT <ul><li>AXIOM 3: High levels of uncertainty prompt strangers to ask more questions of the other. As uncertainty decreases, so does the posing of questions. </li></ul><ul><li>AXIOM 4: High levels of uncertainty in a relationship lead to less sharing and emotional intimacy. Low levels of uncertainty allow for more sharing and emotional intimacy. </li></ul>
  13. 13. AXIOMS OF URT <ul><li>AXIOM 5: High levels of uncertainty lead to more symmetrical question exchanges in interaction. As uncertainty decreases, so does the need for an equal exchange of talk. </li></ul><ul><li>AXIOM 6: Personal similarity will decrease uncertainty about another, while dissimilarity will produce higher levels of uncertainty. </li></ul>
  14. 14. AXIOMS OF URT <ul><li>AXIOM 7: An increase in uncertainty will lead to a decrease in liking. A decrease in uncertainty will lead to an increase in liking. </li></ul><ul><li>Berger and Calabrese formulated 21 theorems deductively from their axioms… </li></ul>
  15. 15. MATERIALIZED BY:- <ul><li>Subhasis Hazra </li></ul><ul><li>Surabhi Bharti </li></ul><ul><li>Suraj Singh </li></ul><ul><li>Swabhi Singh </li></ul><ul><li>Swati Kasera </li></ul><ul><li>Tushar Bahl </li></ul><ul><li>Umesh Kr. Gupta </li></ul><ul><li>Varun Agrawal </li></ul><ul><li>Varun Baisawar </li></ul><ul><li>Vivek Singh </li></ul>