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RT: Here is a quotation from Pierre Levy, a researcher who studies collective intelligence, or …. He says, ”No one knows……”, but I have adapted this to be that “all knowledge resides in networks”. What good is knowledge if you cannot access it? Knowledge is created and transferred through networks. How many of you have heard of six degrees of separation? (raise hands)…this means that we are collected to all other human beings on the face of the planet through six links, where a link is from me to person x in audience. Thus, each of us actually has access to all knowledge and resources that exist. (Next slide) Left and right screens: pictures of digital natives using different technologies: mobile phone, internet, here could have farmer in Asia, President Obama, Zlatan, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MbX_I2fuqJk&feature=PlayList&p=079F3CFE9701D083&index=0 Pierre Lévy, Collective Intelligence: Mankind's Emerging World in Cyberspace , 1997 My example of how this presentation was made. Asked a question on Socnet and received many good answers with people’s presentations and links to interesting sources
Ency picture from www.versandantiquariat-schmitz.de/Lexika-Brit... http://s3.amazonaws.com/ppt-download/architectures-for-conversation-ii-what-communities-of-practice-can-mean-for-information-architecture-5733.pdf An essential difference between britannica and wikipedia is >>britannica is a one-way medium, handed down from authorities, >> While wikipedia is conversational. It fulfills more of what human beings want in their daily life. That’s not to say that wikipedia is better than britannica, or that the old way is evil or irrelevant. It’s just to say that technology has tapped into a latent need people have to be part of conversations.
I always like to put things into perspective. I think that what is interesting and relevant here is that several economic historians had actually predicted the crisis that we are experiencing now. I don’t have time to go into all the details, but what we are seeing is a pattern repeating itself. As in the late 18 th and 19 th Centuries there was a technological innovation that led to a period first of transformation as the innovation began to be diffused, then a period of rationalization leading to an imbalance, and then to a financial crisis coming around 40 years after the innovation. However, in the past, these financial crises have then led to periods of great economic development – industrial revolutions, in which industry profitability has been restored through a redistribution of the value-added between capital and labor. But more importantly, these crises filtered out those organizations that could not adapt and change to stay competitive in the new industrial environment. And one of the most important things that is of interest for today’s discussion is that in one of the factors facilitating these new phases of economic growth following the crisis has been that a generation of people that had never experienced life without the innovation starts to enter the workforce – thus they are not restricted by old ways of thinking. experiencing now some economic historians claim to be due to the innovation of the microprocessor and microelectronics in the 1970s. Similar to what we experienced with the innovation of the steam engine in the late 18 th C and the internal combustion engine and electric motor in the late 19 th C, there was a subsequent crisis about due to various forces converging. We saw that as these basic innovations were diffused, people stopped investing in the existing industrial structure and instead focused on investing in a new generation of competitive machinery, which then led to an industrial revolution in both cases as the innovations became embedded in society. At the same time, the crisis served to release the negative pressure that had been built up as well as to restore industry profitability through the redistribution of value-added between capital and labor. Other notes Notes from article - Schön, L, Economic Crises and Restructuring in History A crisis is connected with changes in the long term or structural conditions built up during a rather long period of time and effects behavior for a long time to come Transformation – changes in industrial structure – resources are reallocated between industries and diffusion of basic innovations with industry that provides new bases for such reallocation Rationalization – concentration of resources to most productive units within the branches and measures to increase efficiency in different lines of production Shifts between transformation and rationalization have occurred with considerable regularity in structural cycle of 40 years – 25 years on transformation, and 15 years on rationalization. Crises been part of this cycle as well International crisis in 1840s – How go from crisis to expansion quickly – went quite rapidly in 1930s for Sweden – but Sweden in opposite corner in 1970s 1850s – upswing of industrial and infrastructural investments was linked to breakthrough of mechanized factories in Sweden, modernization of steel processes and construction of railways 1930s and more marked after WWII late 1940s - expansion of electrification and diffusion of automobiles, processing of electrosteel to small motors in handicraft and household – combination with motorcar – new styles in living and consumption Waves of investments around development of an infrastructure from basic innovation of preceding cycle mid 1970s – microprocessor – knowledge and information in production of goods and services It is not the basic innovation itself – but the diffusion of the innovation that counts! When invented, then expensive to implement, have a narrow range of application – Following generalization – A structural crisis (that has been preceded by an early development of basic innovations) has put an end to old directions of investments mainly in rationalization of existing industrial structure and given rise to investments in ne and devt of new tech that after one decade (the length of the classical Juglar cycle of machinery investments) has created a new generation of economically competitive machinery Reallocation of labor occurs approx 15-30 years after the structural crisis Development of markets – distribution of value added between capital and labour is one mirror of these changes Diffusion of innovations leads to expansion of markets and arrival of new competitors – Structural crises – release negative pressure and restored profitability in industry – get rid of those who not competitive
(1) teaching people how to do things we already know how to do and (2) creating collaborative environments that allow people to develop new ideas and concepts to address unanticipated opportunities or challenges. Productive learning focuses mostly on the individual and on helping that individual to adopt a pattern of behavior that improves productivity. Generative learning, by contrast, is a collaborative endeavor. Shared meaning and insights are developed at the group level, and these insights drive enterprise transformation to ensure growth and sustainability. Today, the learning function is focused primarily on productive learning. As a result, it appears that trainers are more likely to want to maintain the status quo, rather than challenge it. Learning is a far more complicated phenomenon than can ever be limited to the classroom context. If we convey knowledge about tasks we already know how to do, we call it productive learning . If we share knowledge about tasks that are new and different, we call it generative learning . Productive learning serves largely to maintain the status quo within an enterprise by conveying what is already known, while generative learning involves not only absorbing existing information but also creating new solutions to unanticipated problems. Information age learning requires that individuals and organizations change the way they think about and act on what is known and what needs to be known in order to innovate, change, and win.
I can’t find the source for this, it would be great if someone could point this out to me.
RT: the 3D internet characterized by …. (next slide)
http://www.protonmedia.com/ www.qwaq.com VOIP Chatrooms Wikis, blogs Social networking avatars
Teigland 3rd Industrial Revolution
<ul><li>The Third Industrial Revolution? </li></ul><ul><li>--------- </li></ul><ul><li>Challenging our assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Robin Teigland, aka </li></ul><ul><li>Karinda Rhode in SL </li></ul><ul><li>Stockholm School of Economics </li></ul><ul><li>www.knowledgenetworking.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.slideshare.net/eteigland </li></ul>November 2010 ww.sse.edu
<ul><li>” No one knows everything, </li></ul><ul><li>everyone knows something, </li></ul><ul><li>all knowledge resides in humanity.” </li></ul>networks Adapted from Lévy 1997 Six degrees of separation - Milgram, 1967
The wisdom of the crowd Closed Expensive Complex Accurate Open Inexpensive Simple Close enough Hinton 2007 Accurate
History tends to repeat itself…. Innovation, financial crisis, industrial revolution, … Steam engine Internal combustion engine Microelectronics, Internet Late 18 th C Late 19 th C Late 20 th C Schön 2008 Third industrial revolution?
<ul><li>Work and private life are separate </li></ul><ul><li>Work should be serious </li></ul><ul><li>Roles and responsibilities are appointed </li></ul><ul><li>Learning occurs behind the desk </li></ul><ul><li>Value is created by firm’s employees </li></ul><ul><li>Firms are primary source of value creation </li></ul><ul><li>Competition is a zero-sum game </li></ul><ul><li>Etc….. </li></ul>Breaking free from “industrial chains”?
Exploitation Improving existing value creation activities Exploration Developing new value creation activities Adapted from March 1991
30% profit margin +32% net income USD 1.2 mln in 14 months in 135 cities
But some things do not change…. Interaction Relationships Relationships Trust Trust Exchange Exchange Innovation Innovation Awareness
Here comes the Immersive Internet O’Driscoll 2009
Building skills in virtual environments <ul><li>My CV </li></ul><ul><li>Leading a virtual team of 30 individuals from across the globe </li></ul><ul><li>Creating and successfully executing strategies under pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Managing cross-cultural conflict without face-to-face communication </li></ul>Teigland 2010
Avapreneurs and emergent organizations Teigland 2010
Innovation and co-creation with global users Teigland et al. 2010
From the mobility of goods to the mobility of financial capital to … ...the “mobility” of labor? Teigland 2010
Interested in learning more about Virtual Worlds?
Karinda Rhode aka Robin Teigland [email_address] www.knowledgenetworking.org www.slideshare.net/eteigland www.nordicworlds.net RobinTeigland Photo: Lindholm, Metro Photo: Nordenskiöld Photo: Lindqvist If you love knowledge, set it free…