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Teigland 3D Learning Online Education Conference


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My presentation at the Online Education Conference in Berlin on Dec. 2, 2009

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Teigland 3D Learning Online Education Conference

  1. 1. Learning in 3D: <br />Bringing a new dimension to enterprise learning and collaboration<br />Dr. Robin Teigland, aka<br />Karinda Rhode in SL<br />Associate Professor<br />Stockholm School of Economics<br /><br /><br />
  2. 2. Today’s discussion<br />Introduction and some facts and figures on virtual worlds<br />A look at education and collaboration in virtual worlds<br />Stepping into Second Life<br />Tony O’Driscoll on his new book, Learning in 3D<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />- You on Youtube?<br /><ul><li> No, Hulu and Itunes, but I lost the USB for my MP3. It’s MIA, so is my GPS.
  4. 4. This PDF won’t show up on my LCD.
  5. 5. Call your ISP.</li></ul>- I could send them an SMS or look it up on the cookie wiki. So you on Google now?<br />- No, Bing. <br />- You are such a Yahoo! Oh, just got poked on Facebook.<br /><ul><li> From?
  6. 6. My mom wants to know if she can use Paypal for Netflix.
  7. 7. Did she ever sell her Imac on Ebay?</li></ul>- No, but she got WiFi for the Xbox.<br /><ul><li> Can we have a real conversation now?</li></ul>- Sure, can we have it in Second Life?<br />NPR, Internet’s 40th Birthday, 2009<br />
  8. 8. 4<br />&quot;...when the rate of change outside an organization is greater than the rate of change inside, the end is near....&quot; <br />Jack Welch…<br />
  9. 9. Did You Know: Shift Happens<br /><br />What does this mean for organizations?<br />5<br />
  10. 10. Information and knowledge<br />Growth<br />Human absorptive capacity<br />Time<br />Human capacity cannot keep up…<br />Cohen & Levinthal 1989<br />6<br />
  11. 11. 7<br />”No one knows everything, <br />everyone knows something, <br />all knowledge resides in humanity.”<br />networks<br />Adapted from Lévy 1997<br />
  12. 12. 8<br />The wisdom of the crowd<br />Closed<br />Expensive<br />Complex<br />Accurate<br />Open<br />Inexpensive<br />Simple<br />Close enough<br />Accurate<br />Adapted from Hinton 2007<br />
  13. 13. History tends to repeat itself….Innovation, financial crisis, industrial revolution, … <br />Microelectronics<br />Internal combustion engine<br />Steam engine<br />Third <br />industrial <br />revolution?<br />Late 18th C<br />Late 19th C<br />Late 20th C<br />9<br />Schön 2008<br />
  14. 14. A new workforce is appearing…<br />10<br />“Digital Immigrants”<br />“Digital Natives”<br />Company loyalty<br />Work ≠ Personal<br />Learning=Behind the desk<br />Professional loyalty<br />Work = Personal<br />Learning=Fun and games<br />Mahaley 2008, Merrill Lynch 1999, Beck and Wade, Prensky<br />
  15. 15. A new workforce is appearing<br /><ul><li>Control
  16. 16. Community
  17. 17. Collaboration
  18. 18. Challenge
  19. 19. Creation</li></ul><br />11<br />
  20. 20. 12<br />Using the social web to build relationships, find information and knowledge, solve problems, and learn<br />
  21. 21. 13<br />Increasing pressure on “traditional” organizations<br />Formal organization/ <br />Hierarchy <br />Social organization /<br />Heterarchy<br />Teigland et al. 2005<br />
  22. 22. Where are the sources of sustainablecompetitiveadvantage?<br />#1<br />Brand & <br />Reputation<br />Innovation<br />FIRM<br />Networks of <br />relationships<br />Kay 1993<br />14<br />
  23. 23. Where are the sources of sustainablecompetitiveadvantage?<br />#1<br />Brand & <br />Reputation<br />Innovation<br />FIRM<br />Networks of <br />relationships<br />15<br />
  24. 24. eZ Systems and its open source business model<br />The eZ ecosystem of relationships <br />eZ<br />Partners<br />Community<br />Customers<br /><ul><li>#1 open source content management software
  25. 25. Enterprise open source – “Grow the cake”
  26. 26. 60 Employees in 8 countries (Europe & Asia)
  27. 27. 230+ Partners
  28. 28. 5000+ Customers
  29. 29. 30,000+ Community members</li></ul><br />Skien, Norway<br />16<br />
  30. 30. Innovation in the eZ ecosystem<br />eZ Software development team<br />Jill<br />Jack<br />Rob<br />Alex<br />Who are the company employees? <br />Jim<br />Jason<br />Lisa<br />George<br />Jane<br />Doug<br />Mary<br />Bob<br />Sarah<br />Flåten et al, 2009<br />Bill<br />17<br />
  31. 31. From Brand owners to Brand advocates<br />18<br />“Organizations no longer own their brand…rather they should see their brand as a relay race baton that people should pick up and pass on to others.”<br />Berlin, CEO Silver, 2009<br />
  32. 32. What came first – the community or the company?<br />19<br /><br />
  33. 33. 20<br />eBay allowed people to sell<br />their personal items in a worldwide yard sale, the Immersive Internet will<br />allow people to sell their personal skills and abilities in much the same way.<br />Kapp & O’Driscoll, 2009<br />
  34. 34. Towards 3D Internet<br />SENSORY<br />3D Internet<br />Thinking<br />Connected<br />Web 2.0 Thinking<br />SecondLife, There Active Worlds,<br />Entropia, SimsOnline, Club Penguin,Habbo, ToonTown,<br />World of Warcraft, 3D planets, VSlide, Protosphere<br />Individual<br />Web 1.0 Thinking<br />Facebook, Friendster, Yahoo, Blogger, Wikipedia, eBay, Typepad, LinkedIn. Amazon, MySpace, Textamerica, Delicious, HubPages<br />Mosaic, Prodigy, Compuserve, AOL, Netscape<br />Level of Interaction<br />Time<br />Hamilton 2008<br />21<br />
  35. 35. Here Comes the Immersive Internet<br />O’Driscoll 2009<br />22<br />
  36. 36. A growing universe of Virtual Worlds<br /><br />23<br />
  37. 37. Around 150 virtual worlds<br /><ul><li>Q1 2009:
  38. 38. $68 mln invested in 13 virtual world companies</li></li></ul><li>VWS have many different models<br />25<br />Around 150 virtual worlds<br />
  39. 39. What are Virtual Worlds?<br /><ul><li>Persistent, computer-simulated, immersive environments
  40. 40. Shared space/co-presence with possibility for socialization and community
  41. 41. In some cases, ability to manipulate/create content
  42. 42. In some cases, virtual economy and currency</li></ul><br />26<br />
  43. 43. MMOs<br /><ul><li> Scripted narrative – created by game designers
  44. 44. Goals and objectives, ranking systems
  45. 45. Rules for gameplay, winners and losers
  46. 46. Entertainment only?</li></ul>Virtual Worlds<br /><ul><li> Open-ended–built by residents
  47. 47. Social environment, affinity groups
  48. 48. Boundaries for access and building
  49. 49. Commerce, education, innovation, and…?</li></li></ul><li>What financial crisis?<br />Increasing members<br />Increasing turnover<br />Increasing companies<br />Wonderland<br />28<br />
  50. 50. Number of Accounts-Age (Cumulative)<br />39% increase from Q1 2009 <br />29<br />
  51. 51.  <br />Two popular Kids & Tweens worlds<br /><ul><li>40 mln members
  52. 52. 135 mln members</li></ul>30<br />
  53. 53. Building skills in virtual environments<br />My CV<br /><ul><li>Leading a virtual team of 30 individuals from across the globe
  54. 54. Creating and successfully executing strategies under pressure
  55. 55. Managing cross-cultural conflict without face-to-face communication</li></ul>31<br />
  56. 56. “Clearly if social activity migrates to synthetic worlds, economic activity will go there as well.”Castranova<br /><br />32<br />
  57. 57. Gartner’s hype cycle<br />Virtual Worlds today?<br />33<br />
  58. 58. Virtual world revenues<br />USD 3bln in 2009 <br />US spending on virtual goods passes USD 1 bln in 2009 <br />34<br />
  59. 59. Microtransactions business model<br />Zynga<br />- Majority revenues comes from 2% to 10% of users who pay $1 an hour to play premium games or buy virtual goods<br />- Annual sales of about USD 100 mln<br />Playdom<br /> - Estimated USD 50 mln in sales per year from virtual goods <br />Social Gaming Network<br /> - Estimated USD 50 mln sales mainly from virtual goods<br />Weeworld<br />- Estimated 2008 revenue USD 10 mln+ mainly from virtual goods<br />Habbo<br />- Estimated 2008 revenue USD 50 mln from virtual goods - 10% monthly players pay $10.30/month<br /> <br />35<br /><br />
  60. 60. <ul><li>800,000 users
  61. 61. USD 420 mln turnover 2008
  62. 62. Bank license from Swedish Government in March 2009 to MindArk Bank</li></ul>36<br />
  63. 63. Entropia Universe by MindArk<br /><ul><li>Virtual universe with real cash economy
  64. 64. Fixed exchange rate to US Dollar, 1 USD = 10 PED
  65. 65. Five banks auctioned for USD 404,000 in 2007
  66. 66. Real life bank license granted by Swedish Government to MindArk Bank in March 2009
  67. 67. Ability to develop skills and sell virtual goods
  68. 68. Asteroid space resort sold for USD 100,000 in 2005
  69. 69. Jon “Neverdie” Jacobs – Self-made millionaire
  70. 70. Clothes Against Violence – limited edition virtual jackets sold for more than same model of real world jackets</li></ul>37<br />
  71. 71. Second Life by Linden Lab<br /><ul><li>1.4 million residents logged in/60 day period
  72. 72. 71,200 logged on Monday, Nov 30
  73. 73. Average age=32, 43% female, 55% non-US
  74. 74. Grew 33% in one year to 126 mln at end of 2Q 2009
  75. 75. Economy grew by 94% 2Q 2008-2009
  76. 76. 270 Linden dollars ≅ USD 1
  77. 77. 350,000 hours of use per day
  78. 78. 68,000 people making profit</li></ul>IT Businessedge, Linden Lab, 2009 <br />38<br />
  79. 79. Self-made millionaires<br /><ul><li>Jon “Neverdie” Jacobs
  80. 80. Paid USD 100,000 for asteroid space resort
  81. 81. Bank owner in Entropia
  82. 82. Anshe Chung
  83. 83. Started with < USD 10
  84. 84. Community developer
  85. 85. Bank owner in Entropia</li></ul><br />39<br />
  86. 86. Redgrave – One virtual boutique<br /><ul><li>Numerous stores selling all kinds of wares and services in-world
  87. 87. International customer base
  88. 88. Easy payment scheme: Microtransactions
  89. 89. Global work force: Microemployees</li></ul>40<br />
  90. 90. Buying and selling Linden Dollars<br /><br /><br />41<br />
  91. 91. Virtual credit<br /><br />42<br />
  92. 92. Showcasing current products<br />IBM’s Green Data Center<br />43<br />
  93. 93. Co-creating solutions <br />Philips Design Group<br />Lead-user innovation workshops<br />44<br />
  94. 94. Facilitating the virtual workforce<br /><ul><li>Completely private virtual business worlds offering tools to conduct business and collaborate
  95. 95. Fortune 500: IBM, Intel, Johnson & Johnson, Motorola, Novartis, Unilever </li></ul>45<br />
  96. 96. Training and education<br />IFL at SSE and Duke CorporateEducation<br />Co-developing and running a virtual team buildingexercise<br />46<br />
  97. 97. Finding and recruiting talent globally<br /><ul><li> job fair
  98. 98. Benelux job fair
  99. 99. IBM island
  100. 100. Entrepreneurs
  101. 101. Microemployees</li></ul>47<br />
  102. 102. The future of 3D internet<br /> Before the first plate of aluminum is even bent for production, the passengers will have sat in the plane, the crew will have serviced the plane, and the pilots will have flown the plane.<br />CEO of Boeing supplier<br />48<br />
  103. 103. 49<br />From the mobility of goods to the mobility of financial capital to … <br />...the “mobility” of labor?<br />
  104. 104. 50<br />Will the playing field for SMEs be leveled?<br />Innovation workshops bring together users from across the globe<br />Giovacchini et al. 2009<br />
  105. 105. What are the implications for traditional industries? <br />“Soon all fashion designers will be originating their designs and managing the production in virtual worlds….Why such a dramatic change? Economics, pure and simple.”<br />Shenlei Winkler, <br />Director Fashion Research Institute<br />Learn how to become an SL Fashion Designer at<br />51<br />
  106. 106. Which professions will be revolutionized?<br />52<br />
  107. 107. 53<br />DN<br />Aug 20, 1996<br />
  108. 108. Today’s discussion<br />Introduction and some facts and figures on virtual worlds<br />A look at education and collaboration in virtual worlds<br />Stepping into Second Life<br />Tony O’Driscoll on his new book, Learning in 3D<br />54<br />
  109. 109. A wide range of education and training efforts in VWs<br />55<br />
  110. 110. The University of Texas goes inworld<br />56<br /><br />
  111. 111. The last generation to “attend” college?<br />57<br /><br />
  112. 112. 58<br />The future of education & training with VWs?<br />Distributed<br />??<br />Participant<br />reach<br />Co-located<br />High<br />Low<br />Degree of <br />“co-creation”<br />
  113. 113. NEWSFLASH: The Book is FINALLY DONE!<br />59<br />
  114. 114. Slide: 60<br />Learning to change: The problem<br />Knowing<br />Formal<br />Content<br />Topic<br />Learning<br />Doing<br />Informal<br />Context<br />Task<br />Performing<br />O’Driscoll 2009<br />60<br /><br />
  115. 115. Where does learning take place?<br />Wenger 1998, Hinton 2007<br />61<br />
  116. 116. Slide: 62<br />Learning to change: History lesson<br />1585-1587<br />O’Driscoll 2009<br />62<br />
  117. 117. Learning 2.0=NetWORKing<br />Getting things done requires good connections, both the human kind and the Internet kind.<br />Schooling has confused us into thinking that learning was equivalent to pouring content into people’s heads.<br />. <br />It’s more practical to think of learning as optimizing our networks.<br />Jay Cross<br />63<br />
  118. 118. Learning to change: Mind the TRAP!<br />Now that we are moving from factory work to anytime, anyplace work, we need an anytime anyplace educational parallel.<br />- Alvin Toffler<br />O’Driscoll 2009<br />64<br />
  119. 119. Escaping FLATland<br />3D Learning Experience<br />2D Synchronous Learning<br />O’Driscoll 2009<br />65<br />
  120. 120. Immersive internet sensibilities<br />2D Synchronous Learning<br />3D Learning Experience<br />Sensibilities<br />Kapp & O’Driscoll 2009<br />66<br />
  121. 121. 3D Global Team Experience<br />July 16, 2009 @ 7:30 AM EDT <br /><br />Stockholm School of Economics<br />
  122. 122. Our innovation workshop area<br />Giovacchini, Teigland, Kuhler, & Helms 2009<br />68<br />
  123. 123. “Flow” leads to creativity<br />Four steps<br /><ul><li>Getting inspired
  124. 124. Knowledge sharing
  125. 125. Brainstorming
  126. 126. Voting</li></ul>Giovacchini, Teigland, Kuhler, & Helms 2009<br />69<br />
  127. 127. Training & education programs<br />Play2train<br /><ul><li>New employee training, eg policies, organizational culture
  128. 128. Skills training, eg sales
  129. 129. Virtual teaming</li></ul>70<br />
  130. 130. Other examples<br />Medical training by Forterra<br /><br />Virtual collaboration by ProtonMedia<br /><br />Workshop training by Teleplace (Qwaq)<br /><br />Disaster simulation by Play2Train<br /><br />71<br />Snapshots by Reynolds 2007<br />
  131. 131. Creating a successfulVirtual Learning Environment (VLE)<br />Pragmatic<br />Experience of achieving learning objectives<br />Sociability<br /> Perception of being a member of a group/community<br />Usability<br /> Quality of human-computer interactions<br />Hedonic<br /> Feeling of being mentally stimulated or entertained<br />72<br />Flow<br /> State of mind leading to intrinsic reward, one of main drivers of creativity<br />Adapted from Nambisan & Nambisan 2008<br />
  132. 132. Some 3DLE tips<br />Initial design<br />Ensure objectives align with overall organizational strategy: knowledge, attitudes, behaviors<br />Ensure learning objectives drive design and not technology<br />Understand the participant profile, eg demographics, learning style<br />Aim to match between objectives, participants, and context of VW platform<br />Design<br />Think freely and do not be restricted by real world<br />Design based on four VLE components: pragmatic, sociability, usability, hedonic<br />Keep it simple, do not overdesign<br />73<br />Giovacchini et al 2009, Mahaley & Teigland 2009, Kapp & O’Driscoll 2010<br />
  133. 133. Some 3DLE tips (cont’d)<br />Preparation<br />Separate learning of technology from learning related to program objectives<br />Do not underestimate technical challenges, eg running software on various computers, accessing networks<br />Do not assume younger generation is tech-savvy<br />Plan for contingencies<br />Running the event<br />Ensure adequate time for set-up and initial introduction phase<br />Have coaches to help solve last minute technical challenges<br />Overcommunicate logistics to participants<br />Ensure adequate debriefing <br />After the event<br />Conduct follow-up, eg survey or interviews, of participants<br />Conduct After Action Review<br />74<br />Mahaley & Teigland 2009, Kapp & O’Driscoll 2010<br />
  134. 134. Building the business case<br />Microsoft conducted virtual Global Inclusion Summit<br />Travel and lodging cost avoidance of $1,617,000<br />Negative productivity avoidance of 900 Days<br />Environmental impact avoidance of 450,000 pounds CO2 equivalent<br />Mercedes-Benz simulated the manufacture of aluminum component<br />Cost reductions of up to 30% in several areas of vehicle planning<br />IBM held virtual conference and annual meeting<br />Savings of USD 250,000 in travel and venue costs<br />USD 150,000 in productivity gains<br />Canadian Border Patrol conducted officer training inworld<br />Grades increased by 37%<br />75<br />Kapp & O’Driscoll 2010<br />
  135. 135. 76<br />What are the challenges going forward?<br />What skills and roles are required?<br />For academics, coaches, program managers, and of course the participants?<br />How do we get over the “digital immigrant” hurdle?<br />What does content look like?  <br />Creation in real world for in-world? Or in-world for real world? <br />Created by program or participants? Or co-created? <br />How do we escape our real world thinking?<br />How is the process best facilitated?<br />Embedding a 3D internet experience in the flow of the learning program?<br />How do we ensure seamlessness?<br />Mahaley & Teigland 2009<br />
  136. 136. Improving performance<br />77<br />Exploitation<br />Exploration<br />Productive<br /> learning<br />Generative<br /> learning<br />How do we move from productive learning to generative learning?<br />March 1991, Kapp & O’Driscoll 2010<br />
  137. 137. Today’s discussion<br />Introduction and some facts and figures on virtual worlds<br />A look at education and collaboration in virtual worlds<br />Stepping into Second Life<br />Tony O’Driscoll on his new book, Learning in 3D<br />78<br />
  138. 138. Some things to do in SL<br />Take a guided tour at the IBM Business Center<br />Visit a nuclear power power plant at Science School (Univ of Denver)<br />Experience a tsunami at Meteora (NOAA)<br />Learn and experience the holocaust at the Holocaust Museum<br />Test your health literacy at Healthinfo Island (Group owned)<br />Diagnose patients at the Respiratory Ward at Imperial College<br />Fly a plane at Boyington Airfield (Group owned)<br />Experience schizophrenia at UC Davis<br />Learn English at ESL (English as a Second Language)<br />Help make the world greener at Univ of Innsbruck<br />Join the innovation team at Philips<br />Play basketball at Ballers City (Group owned)<br />79<br />
  139. 139. Today’s discussion<br />Introduction and some facts and figures on virtual worlds<br />A look at education and collaboration in virtual worlds<br />Stepping into Second Life<br />Tony O’Driscoll on his new book, Learning in 3D<br />80<br />
  140. 140. 81<br />Tony O’Driscoll, aka<br />Wada Tripp in SL<br />Duke University<br /> Professor of the Practice Fuqua School of Business<br />
  141. 141. NEWSFLASH: The Book is FINALLY DONE!<br />82<br />
  142. 142. Immersive Internet Sensibilities<br />Sensibilities<br />3D Learning Experience<br />2D Synchronous Learning<br />83<br />
  143. 143. Seven activities or archetypes…. to date<br />84<br />Avatar Persona<br />Role Play<br />Scavenger Hunt<br />Guided Tour<br />Operational Application<br />Conceptual Orienteering<br /><ul><li>Critical Incident
  144. 144. Co-creation
  145. 145. Small Group Work
  146. 146. Group Forums
  147. 147. Social Networking</li></ul>Kapp & O’Driscoll 2010<br />
  148. 148. 3DLE Design Principles<br />85<br />
  149. 149. Case Studies: The Power of Positive Example<br />86<br />
  150. 150. Case Study: Experiencing Kristallnacht<br />Challenge/Objectives<br />Why 3D?<br /><ul><li>Experiment with 3D installation design to avoid having to make costly physical mock ups
  151. 151. Engage people outside the museum in a co-create installation design process
  152. 152. Explore feasibility of leveraging 3D technologies to stage virtual exhibitions
  153. 153. The Museum’s narrative exhibition must affect visitors not only intellectually, but also emotionally
  154. 154. Wanted to explore whether or not virtual installations could create visceral experiences for participants</li></ul>Solution<br />Benefit/Result<br /><ul><li>The Kristallnacht exhibition succeeded in delivering a kinetic, intellectual and visceral learning experience for participants.
  155. 155. Experience drove participants to ask how they should go about donating to the museum</li></ul>87<br />
  156. 156. 3DLE Design Points<br /><ul><li>Build around specific OBJECTIVES
  157. 157. Create the right CONTEXT
  158. 158. Provide MINIMAL GUIDELINES
  159. 159. Allow opportunities to DEMOSTRATE LEARNING
  160. 160. Build in INCENTIVES</li></ul>88<br />
  161. 161. New Rules!<br /><ul><li>RULE 1: Change the NAME Game
  162. 162. RULE 2: Build a Grass Roots Community
  163. 163. RULE 3: Begin with Business Issues
  164. 164. RULE 4: Connect to Core Motivation
  165. 165. RULE 5: Select the Right Pilots
  166. 166. RULE 6: Pilot Early and Often
  167. 167. RULE 7: Focus on the First Hour
  168. 168. RULE 8: Begin with the Familiar
  169. 169. RULE 9: Build an Evidence Base
  170. 170. RULE 10: Prime the Scale Pump</li></ul>89<br />
  171. 171. Back to the Future!<br />90<br />
  172. 172. Some helpful sources<br /><br /><br /><br />Books<br />Wankel & Kingsley, Higher Education in Virtual Worlds<br /><br />Kapp & O’Driscoll, Learning in 3D<br />Blogs<br /><br />SLED list<br /><br />91<br />
  173. 173. Tremendous <br />opportunities!!!!<br />92<br />
  174. 174. Thanks and <br />see you in world!<br />Karinda Rhode<br />aka Robin Teigland<br /><br /><br /><br />Photo: Lindholm, Metro<br />93<br />