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Leveraging Networks forLeveraging Networks forImproved PerformanceImproved PerformanceDr. Robin Teigland, akaDr. Robin Tei...
Who am I? (LinkedIn Inmaps)Who am I? (LinkedIn Inmaps)22SSEIFLSwedishIndustryResearchWhartonStanfordTietoMcKinsey
TodayToday’s discussion’s discussionBackgroundBackground Organizational network analysisOrganizational network analysis...
44Everyone is talking about networksEveryone is talking about networksNationalInnovationNetworksFormalNetworksEntrepreneur...
What is a network?What is a network?A set of actors connected by tiesA set of actors connected by ties•Ties/LinksTies/Link...
Social network analysis has a long historySocial network analysis has a long historyand is based on matrix algebra and gra...
Hidden influence of social networksHidden influence of social networks77http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/nicholas_christak...
””No one knows everything,No one knows everything,everyone knows something,everyone knows something,all knowledge resides ...
TodayToday’s discussion’s discussionBackgroundBackground Organizational network analysisOrganizational network analysis...
1010Uncovering networks in an organizationUncovering networks in an organizationFormal organization Informal organizationT...
1111Myths about networksMyths about networks I already know what is going on in my network.I already know what is going o...
What do you notice about the informal network?What do you notice about the informal network?1212Cross, Introduction to org...
Central connectors within one locationCentral connectors within one locationBottleneck Teigland 1998Surprise!!Stockholm1313
1414With which colleagues do you discuss everyday technical issues /work-related problems at least once a week?Schenkel & ...
1515With which colleagues do you discuss exciting new ideas andbetter ways of getting things done?Schenkel & Teigland 2011...
”Birds of a feather flock together”“Lika barn leka bäst”People find similar people attractive and developrelations with pe...
StockholmLondonBrusselsHelsinkiMadridCopenhagenBoundary spanners between locationsBoundary spanners between locationsTrans...
1919Proximal collaborationProximal collaborationWhen people are more than 50 feetWhen people are more than 50 feetapart, t...
2222What is the relationshipWhat is the relationshipbetween networks andbetween networks andperformance?performance?
2323BATwo individuals with the same number ofTwo individuals with the same number ofcontacts…contacts…
……but with very different access to resourcesbut with very different access to resourcesBA2424
Network structure affects performanceNetwork structure affects performance2525Division 1Division 1 Division 2Division 2Imp...
2828““Managing” networks in your organizationManaging” networks in your organizationBefore AfterAnklam & Welch 20051. Unco...
Informal networks in your organizationInformal networks in your organization Reflect on your organizationReflect on your ...
Conduct your own ONAConduct your own ONA1.1. Uncover strategically important networksUncover strategically important netwo...
Some questions to askSome questions to ask CommunicationCommunication: How often do you talk with the: How often do you t...
Analyze and visualize dataAnalyze and visualize data3333http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_network_analysis_software18
Analyze and visualize dataAnalyze and visualize data3434NodeXL: http://nodexl.codeplex.com/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/So...
Knowledge sharing across client teamsKnowledge sharing across client teams3535
Actions•Identifying overly connected people•Bridging invisible network silos•Creating awareness of expertisedistributed in...
Informal networks in your organizationInformal networks in your organization Reflect on your organizationReflect on your ...
3838Myths and reality checksMyths and reality checks I already know what is going on in my network.Those who think they ...
3939http://nodexl.codeplex.com/
Importing Email to NodeXLImporting Email to NodeXL4040http://www.slideshare.net/Marc_A_Smith/analyzing-social-media-networ...
Help with NodeXLHelp with NodeXL Analyzing Social Media Networks with NodeXL:Analyzing Social Media Networks with NodeXL:...
TodayToday’s discussion’s discussionBackgroundBackground Organizational network analysisOrganizational network analysis...
4343So, what does this mean for you? An actor’s position in a social network, i.e.,social capital, determines in part the...
Bridging unconnected groups brings advantagesBridging unconnected groups brings advantages•More rapid promotions•Greater c...
Avoid creating insular networksAvoid creating insular networkshttp://www.enronexplorer.com/focus/19185#http://www.enronexp...
Develop three forms of networkingDevelop three forms of networking4646OperationalOperational PersonalPersonal StrategicStr...
Build relationships with peopleBuild relationships with peopleat all hierarchical levelsat all hierarchical levelsLook for...
Tools to analyze one’s networksTools to analyze one’s networks FacebookFacebook− TouchGraph Facebook BrowserTouchGraph Fa...
Analyze your networksAnalyze your networkshttp://inmaps.linkedinlabs.com/network
Leadership moving forward……Leadership moving forward……HierarchyHierarchyLinear, static, process-Linear, static, process-ba...
Karinda RhodeKarinda Rhodeaka Robin Teiglandaka Robin Teiglandrobin.teigland@hhs.serobin.teigland@hhs.sewww.knowledgenetwo...
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Leveraging Networks May2013 for Skanska

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My slides used in an afternoon presentation on social networks and social network analysis for a group of managers at Skanska.

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Leveraging Networks May2013 for Skanska

  1. 1. Leveraging Networks forLeveraging Networks forImproved PerformanceImproved PerformanceDr. Robin Teigland, akaDr. Robin Teigland, akaKarinda Rhode in SLStockholm School of EconomicsStockholm School of Economicswww.knowledgenetworking.orgwww.knowledgenetworking.orgwww.slideshare.net/eteiglandwww.slideshare.net/eteiglandRobinTeiglandRobinTeigland May 2013May 2013www.hhs.sewww.hhs.se
  2. 2. Who am I? (LinkedIn Inmaps)Who am I? (LinkedIn Inmaps)22SSEIFLSwedishIndustryResearchWhartonStanfordTietoMcKinsey
  3. 3. TodayToday’s discussion’s discussionBackgroundBackground Organizational network analysisOrganizational network analysis Personal network analysisPersonal network analysis33
  4. 4. 44Everyone is talking about networksEveryone is talking about networksNationalInnovationNetworksFormalNetworksEntrepreneurialNetworksFacebook.LinkedIn,Twitter RegionalNetworksInfrastructureNetworksSocialNetworksFAS.researchElectronicNetworksInformalNetworksNetworksof PracticeNetworkedorganization
  5. 5. What is a network?What is a network?A set of actors connected by tiesA set of actors connected by ties•Ties/LinksTies/Links−Knowledge, trust,Knowledge, trust,team, sit by, dislike, etc.team, sit by, dislike, etc.−Alliance, customer,Alliance, customer,investment, etc.investment, etc.Tie•Actors/NodesActors/Nodes−IndividualsIndividuals−Teams,Teams,organizations, etc.organizations, etc.Actor55
  6. 6. Social network analysis has a long historySocial network analysis has a long historyand is based on matrix algebra and graph theoryand is based on matrix algebra and graph theory66http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_network
  7. 7. Hidden influence of social networksHidden influence of social networks77http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/nicholas_christakis_the_hidden_influence_of_social_networks.htmlHappy peopleIn between peopleUnhappy peopleChristakis & Fowler, 2011
  8. 8. ””No one knows everything,No one knows everything,everyone knows something,everyone knows something,all knowledge resides in humanity.all knowledge resides in humanity.””networksnetworksAdapted from Lévy 1997Six degrees ofSix degrees ofseparationseparation- Milgram, 1967- Milgram, 1967
  9. 9. TodayToday’s discussion’s discussionBackgroundBackground Organizational network analysisOrganizational network analysis Personal network analysisPersonal network analysis99
  10. 10. 1010Uncovering networks in an organizationUncovering networks in an organizationFormal organization Informal organizationTeigland et al. 2005
  11. 11. 1111Myths about networksMyths about networks I already know what is going on in my network.I already know what is going on in my network. We canWe can’’t do much to help informal networks.t do much to help informal networks. To build networks, you have to communicateTo build networks, you have to communicatemore.more.Adapted from Cross et al. 2002
  12. 12. What do you notice about the informal network?What do you notice about the informal network?1212Cross, Introduction to organizational network analysisCross, Introduction to organizational network analysis
  13. 13. Central connectors within one locationCentral connectors within one locationBottleneck Teigland 1998Surprise!!Stockholm1313
  14. 14. 1414With which colleagues do you discuss everyday technical issues /work-related problems at least once a week?Schenkel & Teigland 2011Red=MaleBlue=Female=Left org
  15. 15. 1515With which colleagues do you discuss exciting new ideas andbetter ways of getting things done?Schenkel & Teigland 2011Red=MaleBlue=Female=Left org
  16. 16. ”Birds of a feather flock together”“Lika barn leka bäst”People find similar people attractive and developrelations with people like themselvesOur networks tend to be homogeneousand not heterogeneousMarsden 1987, Burt 1990Marsden 1987, Burt 1990 1717
  17. 17. StockholmLondonBrusselsHelsinkiMadridCopenhagenBoundary spanners between locationsBoundary spanners between locationsTransferred fromStockholmTeigland 1998San Francisco1818
  18. 18. 1919Proximal collaborationProximal collaborationWhen people are more than 50 feetWhen people are more than 50 feetapart, the likelihood of themapart, the likelihood of themcollaborating more than once acollaborating more than once aweek is less than 10%.week is less than 10%.- Allen 1984
  19. 19. 2222What is the relationshipWhat is the relationshipbetween networks andbetween networks andperformance?performance?
  20. 20. 2323BATwo individuals with the same number ofTwo individuals with the same number ofcontacts…contacts…
  21. 21. ……but with very different access to resourcesbut with very different access to resourcesBA2424
  22. 22. Network structure affects performanceNetwork structure affects performance2525Division 1Division 1 Division 2Division 2Improved efficiencyover timeStagnant performanceover timeSchenkel & Teigland 2008Schenkel & Teigland 2008Two divisions within Sundlink (Öresund Bridge)Two divisions within Sundlink (Öresund Bridge)
  23. 23. 2828““Managing” networks in your organizationManaging” networks in your organizationBefore AfterAnklam & Welch 20051. Uncover networks2. Analyze networks3. Improve connectedness
  24. 24. Informal networks in your organizationInformal networks in your organization Reflect on your organizationReflect on your organization− What informal network would you like to learn more about?What informal network would you like to learn more about? What do you think this informal network looks like?What do you think this informal network looks like?− Overarching structure?Overarching structure?− Key players: Central connectors, boundary spanners,Key players: Central connectors, boundary spanners,peripheral players?peripheral players? What do you think needs to be done to improveWhat do you think needs to be done to improveperformance, e.g., knowledge flows?performance, e.g., knowledge flows?− How would you like to do this?How would you like to do this?3030
  25. 25. Conduct your own ONAConduct your own ONA1.1. Uncover strategically important networksUncover strategically important networks− Where is collaboration generally poor?Where is collaboration generally poor?AcrossAcross functional, physical, hierarchical, organizational lines?functional, physical, hierarchical, organizational lines?− What relationships would you like to uncover?What relationships would you like to uncover?Information flow, knowledge sharing, trust, decision-making?Information flow, knowledge sharing, trust, decision-making?1.1. Collect and analyze dataCollect and analyze data− How would you like to collect data?How would you like to collect data?E.g., email, survey, interview, observationE.g., email, survey, interview, observation− How often do you plan to collect data?How often do you plan to collect data?1.1. Improve connectednessImprove connectedness− How would you like to provide feedback to theHow would you like to provide feedback to theorganization?organization? 3131Cross, Introduction to organizational network analysisCross, Introduction to organizational network analysis
  26. 26. Some questions to askSome questions to ask CommunicationCommunication: How often do you talk with the: How often do you talk with thefollowing people regarding (topic x)?following people regarding (topic x)? InformationInformation: Who do you typically seek work-related: Who do you typically seek work-relatedinformation from?information from? Problem-solvingProblem-solving: Who do you typically turn to for: Who do you typically turn to forhelp in thinking through a new or challenginghelp in thinking through a new or challengingproblem?problem? KnowKnow: How well do you understand this person: How well do you understand this person’s’sknowledge and skills?knowledge and skills? AccessAccess: Who is generally accessible to you within a: Who is generally accessible to you within asufficient amount of time to help solve a problem?sufficient amount of time to help solve a problem?3232Cross et al 2002Cross et al 2002
  27. 27. Analyze and visualize dataAnalyze and visualize data3333http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_network_analysis_software18
  28. 28. Analyze and visualize dataAnalyze and visualize data3434NodeXL: http://nodexl.codeplex.com/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_network_analysis_software18
  29. 29. Knowledge sharing across client teamsKnowledge sharing across client teams3535
  30. 30. Actions•Identifying overly connected people•Bridging invisible network silos•Creating awareness of expertisedistributed in the network•Identifying and drawing in peripheralnetwork membersU.S.BrazilAngolaSaudiArabiaCanadaU.K.NigeriaU.S.Gulf ofMexicoBrazilAngolaUKCanadaSaudi ArabiaNigeriaU.S.BrazilAngolaSaudiArabiaCanadaU.K.NigeriaU.S.Gulf ofMexicoBrazilAngolaUKCanadaSaudi ArabiaNigeriaU.S.BrazilAngolaSaudiArabiaCanadaU.K.NigeriaU.S.BrazilAngolaSaudiArabiaCanadaU.K.NigeriaU.S.Gulf ofMexicoBrazilAngolaUKCanadaSaudi ArabiaNigeriaObtaining benefits of scale and lateral coordinationObtaining benefits of scale and lateral coordinationthrough communitiesthrough communitiesGulf ofMexicoBrazilAngolaUKCanadaSaudiArabiaNigeriaGulf ofMexicoBrazilAngolaUKCanadaSaudiArabiaNigeriaBusiness results•Lowered customer dissatisfaction by 24%•Reduced cost of poor quality by 66%•Increased new product revenue by 22%•Improved operational productivity bymore than 10%ONA results•Cohesion – average # steps for eachperson to get to another – improvedby 25%Cross 2010Cross 2010
  31. 31. Informal networks in your organizationInformal networks in your organization Reflect on your organizationReflect on your organization− What informal network would you like to learn more about?What informal network would you like to learn more about? What do you think this informal network looks like?What do you think this informal network looks like?− Overarching structure?Overarching structure?− Key players: Central connectors, boundary spanners,Key players: Central connectors, boundary spanners,peripheral players?peripheral players? What do you think needs to be done to improveWhat do you think needs to be done to improveperformance, e.g., knowledge flows?performance, e.g., knowledge flows?− How would you like to do this?How would you like to do this?3737
  32. 32. 3838Myths and reality checksMyths and reality checks I already know what is going on in my network.Those who think they know their network thebest are usually the ones who know the least. We can’t do much to help informal networks.Informal networks can be “managed” throughchanging the organizational context. To build networks, you have to communicate more.Networks can be strategically developed.Adapted from Cross et al. 2002
  33. 33. 3939http://nodexl.codeplex.com/
  34. 34. Importing Email to NodeXLImporting Email to NodeXL4040http://www.slideshare.net/Marc_A_Smith/analyzing-social-media-networks-with-nodexl-chapter-08-images
  35. 35. Help with NodeXLHelp with NodeXL Analyzing Social Media Networks with NodeXL:Analyzing Social Media Networks with NodeXL:Insights from a Connected WorldInsights from a Connected World− Book: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0123822297?Book: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0123822297?ie=utf8&tag=conneactio-ie=utf8&tag=conneactio-20&linkcode=as2&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeasin=01220&linkcode=as2&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeasin=01238222973822297 Online: http://nodexl.codeplex.com/wikipage?Online: http://nodexl.codeplex.com/wikipage?title=NodeXL%20Teaching%20Resourcestitle=NodeXL%20Teaching%20Resources− Slides: http://www.slideshare.net/Marc_A_SmithSlides: http://www.slideshare.net/Marc_A_Smith4141
  36. 36. TodayToday’s discussion’s discussionBackgroundBackground Organizational network analysisOrganizational network analysis Personal network analysisPersonal network analysis4242
  37. 37. 4343So, what does this mean for you? An actor’s position in a social network, i.e.,social capital, determines in part the actor’sopportunities and constraintsCasper & Murray 2002Casper & Murray 2002Germanbiotechscientists
  38. 38. Bridging unconnected groups brings advantagesBridging unconnected groups brings advantages•More rapid promotions•Greater career mobility•Higher salaries•More adaptable to changing environmentsBrass, Burt, Podolny & Baron, Sparrowe et al, Gargiulo & BenassiBrass, Burt, Podolny & Baron, Sparrowe et al, Gargiulo & Benassi 4444
  39. 39. Avoid creating insular networksAvoid creating insular networkshttp://www.enronexplorer.com/focus/19185#http://www.enronexplorer.com/focus/19185# 4545
  40. 40. Develop three forms of networkingDevelop three forms of networking4646OperationalOperational PersonalPersonal StrategicStrategicPurpose Getting work doneefficientlyEnhancing personaland professionaldevelopmentDeveloping andachieving futureprioritiesMembers Mostly internalcontacts andfocused on currentdemandsMostly externalcontacts andfocused on currentand future interestsBoth internal andexternal contactsand focused onfutureNetworkattributesDepth throughbuilding strongworkingrelationshipsBreadth throughreaching out tocontacts who canrefer you to othersLeverage throughcreating inside-outside linksIbarra & Hunter, HBR Jan 2007Ibarra & Hunter, HBR Jan 2007
  41. 41. Build relationships with peopleBuild relationships with peopleat all hierarchical levelsat all hierarchical levelsLook for complementary skillsLook for complementary skillswhile maintaining a balance!while maintaining a balance!Cross, Parise, & Weiss 2006Cross, Parise, & Weiss 2006Higher: Help with making decisions,Higher: Help with making decisions,acquiring resources, developing politicalacquiring resources, developing politicalawareness, explaining organizationalawareness, explaining organizationalactivities beyond local settingactivities beyond local settingEqual: Help brainstorm and provideEqual: Help brainstorm and providespecific help, support, and neededspecific help, support, and neededinformationinformationLower: Provide best sources of technicalLower: Provide best sources of technicalinformation and expertiseinformation and expertise4747
  42. 42. Tools to analyze one’s networksTools to analyze one’s networks FacebookFacebook− TouchGraph Facebook BrowserTouchGraph Facebook Browserhttp://www.touchgraph.com/facebookhttp://www.touchgraph.com/facebook LinkedInLinkedIn− http://inmaps.linkedinlabs.com/http://inmaps.linkedinlabs.com/4848
  43. 43. Analyze your networksAnalyze your networkshttp://inmaps.linkedinlabs.com/network
  44. 44. Leadership moving forward……Leadership moving forward……HierarchyHierarchyLinear, static, process-Linear, static, process-based organizationbased organizationHeterarchyHeterarchyDynamic, integratedDynamic, integratedcollaboration networkscollaboration networksTeigland 2010
  45. 45. Karinda RhodeKarinda Rhodeaka Robin Teiglandaka Robin Teiglandrobin.teigland@hhs.serobin.teigland@hhs.sewww.knowledgenetworking.orgwww.knowledgenetworking.orgwww.slideshare.net/eteiglandwww.slideshare.net/eteiglandwww.nordicworlds.netwww.nordicworlds.netRobinTeiglandRobinTeiglandPhoto: Lindholm, MetroPhoto:NordenskiöldPhoto:LindqvistIf you love knowledge,set it free…

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