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Leveraging Networks And Social Media Teigland


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Presentation on networks and social media made for a group of international managers attending the International Management Program at IFL ( in May 2009.

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Leveraging Networks And Social Media Teigland

  1. 1. Leveraging Networks and Social Media in a Multinational Company May 2009 Dr. Robin Teigland Stockholm School of Economics [email_address] 1-
  2. 2. <ul><li>Introduction to networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why the interest? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are some network basics? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about power? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about performance? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does this mean for you? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creating value through social media and networks </li></ul>Today’s discussion – Networks & Social Media
  3. 3. Everyone is talking about networks National Innovation Networks Formal Networks Entrepreneurial Networks Ego Networks Regional Networks Infrastructure Networks Social Networks FAS.research Electronic Networks Informal Networks Networks of Practice Networked organization
  4. 4. <ul><li>Did You Know: Shift Happens </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>How are these trends affecting you and your organization? </li></ul>
  5. 5. A world of rapidly growing knowledge …. > A person’s lifetime in 18th century One week 2008 Fischbowl 2007
  6. 6. … that becomes quickly outdated …. 50% knowledge relevant 50% knowledge outdated First year of technical-based education Third year of education
  7. 7. Human capacity cannot keep up… Cohen & Levinthal 1989 Growth Time Information and knowledge Human absorptive capacity
  8. 8. Yet, the world is “shrinking” family local colleagues friends old colleagues colleagues at other offices Just a click away… virtual communities local networks old classmates avatars business contacts social media contacts referrals
  9. 9. A new workforce is appearing… Mahaley 2008, Merrill Lynch 1999, Beck and Wade, Prensky “ Digital Immigrants” “ Digital Natives” Company loyalty Work ≠ Personal Learning=Behind the desk Professional loyalty Work = Personal Learning=Fun and games
  10. 10. … with skills in using social media tools to reach out… Rey 2008 Communication Personal Media Self-expression Collective Intelligence Content Production
  11. 11. … to build relationships, find information and knowledge, solve problems, and learn Mahaley 2008
  12. 12. 6 degrees of separation Milgram 1967, DesAutels 2008
  13. 13. <ul><li>” No one knows everything, </li></ul><ul><li>everyone knows something, </li></ul><ul><li>all knowledge resides in humanity.” </li></ul>networks Adapted from Lévy 1997
  14. 14. History tends to repeat itself…. Steam engine Internal combustion engine Microelectronics Late 18 th C Late 19 th C Late 20 th C Schön 2008 Third industrial revolution?
  15. 15. Shifting sources of value <ul><li>Open business model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive advantage through leveraging external resources (Chesborough 2003) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permeable organizational boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redefinition of acceptable sources of value and knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential sources of value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users as organizational resource (von Hippel 1988, 2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User interactions with organizations creates value through user-generated content (Di Gangi & Wasko forthcoming) </li></ul></ul>Di Gangi 2008
  16. 16. <ul><li>Introduction to networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why the interest? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are some network basics? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about power? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about performance? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does this mean for you? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creating value through social media and networks </li></ul>Today’s discussion – Networks & Social Media
  17. 17. What is a network? A set of actors connected by ties <ul><li>Ties/Links </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge, trust, team, sit by, dislike, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alliance, customer, investment, etc. </li></ul></ul>Tie <ul><li>Actors/Nodes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams, organizations, etc. </li></ul></ul>Actor
  18. 18. Swedish hip hop artists Liljeros 2006 ?? Timbuktu
  19. 19. Networks of firms Dahlin 2007 Nocom Ericsson Telia Nokia TietoEnator
  20. 20. Uncovering networks in an organization Formal organization Teigland et al. 2005 R&D organization Informal organization
  21. 21. Individuals within a firm Mattsson 2004 < 1 yr 1-5 yrs 5-10 yrs 10-15 yrs > 15 yrs Time at firm
  22. 22. Central connectors within one location Bottleneck  Teigland 1998 Surprise!! Stockholm
  23. 23. Boundary spanners between locations Stockholm London Brussels Helsinki Madrid Copenhagen Transferred from Stockholm Teigland 1998 San Francisco
  24. 24. Proximal collaboration <ul><li>When people are more than 50 feet apart, the likelihood of them collaborating more than once a week is less than 10%. </li></ul>Allen 1984
  25. 25. Communication still occurs within formal silos <ul><li>US-based MNC with 30 product divisions </li></ul><ul><li>30,328 people for 3 months in 2006 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>> 114 mln emails and meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where does communication occur? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vast majority is within business unit and functional boundaries, not across them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who are the boundary spanners? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mid- to high-level executives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales & Marketing executives </li></ul></ul>Kleinbaum et al 2008
  26. 26. Trust & reciprocity are essential for knowledge exchange in networks
  27. 27. … and most importantly, management cannot mandate social relationships John Eva Hans Miguel Paul Jan Lars Pia Anna Nils Bill Erik Mike Al Alex
  28. 28. Peripheral players between organizations San Francisco Stockholm London Brussels Helsinki Madrid Copenhagen Teigland 1998 Other firms Electronic communities
  29. 29. Dual loyalties Loyalty Loyalty Organization Professional network Teigland 2003
  30. 30. Increasing job turnover Time Number of jobs in lifetime Estimated time at one organization in Silicon Valley: ~18 months CNET 2000
  31. 31. Individuals make choices about how they use their knowledge… <ul><li>Knowledge resides in the minds of individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals make own choices about knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Share openly for the benefit of the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect and use only in work practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perception that an individual’s value is diminished if share knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge is power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect and use only in external relationships for own benefit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge leakage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave the firm and take knowledge with them </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Individuals between business firms SEB Ray-Adams & Sandberg 2000 Interlocking directorates of Sweden’s 110 largest firms, 2000 ??
  33. 33. <ul><li>” Birds of a feather flock together” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Lika barn leka bäst” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People find similar people attractive and develop relations with people like themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Our networks tend to be homogeneous </li></ul><ul><li>and not heterogeneous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marsden 1987, Burt 1990 </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Introduction to networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why the interest? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are some network basics? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about power? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about performance? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does this mean for you? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creating value through social media and networks </li></ul>Today’s discussion – Networks & Social Media
  35. 35. <ul><li>What is the relationship between networks and power? </li></ul>Power: Access to and control over resources
  36. 36. How does informal power arise? Krebs 2004 Jack gains informal power, weakening the boss Lisa’s formal power… Jill Jack Bob Lars Anna Sue Lisa Mira Sam Fred
  37. 37. How does informal power arise? … and now Jack’s informal power is greater than the boss Lisa’s formal power Krebs 2004 Jill Jack Bob Lars Anna Sue Lisa Mira Sam Fred
  38. 38. Your network position is related to power <ul><li>Betweenness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control over what flows in the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How often are you on the shortest path between 2 individuals? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Closeness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to what flows in the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How quickly can you reach all others in the network? </li></ul></ul>Krebs 2004 Jill Jack Bob Lars Anna Sue Lisa Mira Sam Fred
  39. 39. <ul><li>Introduction to networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why the interest? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are some network basics? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about power? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about performance? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does this mean for you? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creating value through social media and networks </li></ul>Today’s discussion – Networks & Social Media
  40. 40. <ul><li>What is the relationship between networks and performance? </li></ul>
  41. 41. Two individuals with the same number of contacts… B A
  42. 42. … but with very different access to resources B A
  43. 43. Bridging unconnected groups brings advantages <ul><li>More rapid promotions </li></ul><ul><li>Greater career mobility </li></ul><ul><li>More adaptable to changing environments </li></ul>Brass, Burt, Podolny & Baron, Sparrowe et al, Gargiulo & Benassi
  44. 44. Performance differs based on one’s network Firm A Low on-time High Creative High on-time Low creative Teigland 2003 High creative Virtual community Firm B
  45. 45. When you hire someone,… … “hire” his or her network.
  46. 46. The strength of weak ties Network A’s knowledge Network D’s knowledge Network B’s knowledge Network C’s knowledge Granovetter 1973
  47. 47. Two divisions within Sundlink (Öresund Bridge) Section 1 Section 2 Improved efficiency over time Stagnant performance over time Schenkel & Teigland 2008
  48. 48. More social get-togethers and coffee breaks are not the solution
  49. 49. “ Managing” networks in your organization Before After Anklam & Welch 2005 1. Uncover networks 2. Analyze networks 3. Improve connectedness
  50. 50. Changing the physical layout Cross, Parise, Weiss 2006 <ul><ul><li>Open-space environment led to impromptu meetings and connections necessary for new ideas and innovations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy access to key individuals since no closed offices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased knowledge flow of customer and supplier needs since awareness of their visits </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Comparing performance across firms Teigland et al 2000
  52. 52. Hewlett-Packard (1990s) <ul><li>Networking activities recognized and rewarded at individual and unit levels </li></ul><ul><li>Management support for informal and formal networking activities across internal and external boundaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best practice task group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal initiatives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extensive socialization : personnel rotation, cross-office teams </li></ul><ul><li>A visionary organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly defined mission: ”To make technical contributions for the advancement and welfare of humanity” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting core values, e.g., teamwork, helpfulness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Company-wide goal of World’s Best Laboratory </li></ul></ul>Teigland et al 2000
  53. 53. Avoid creating insular networks
  54. 54. eZ Systems and the eZ ecosystem: #1 open source content management software eZ Partners Community Customers <ul><li>Enterprise open source – “Grow the cake” </li></ul><ul><li>60 Employees in 8 countries (Europe & Asia) </li></ul><ul><li>230+ Partners </li></ul><ul><li>5000+ Customers </li></ul><ul><li>30,000+ Community members </li></ul> Skien, Norway
  55. 55.
  56. 56. The Enterprise Open Source Business Model Subscription-based business model
  57. 57. Some leadership challenges! <ul><li>When employees are more than 50 feet apart, the likelihood of them collaborating more than once a week is less than 10%. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is sticky within the firm, but flows easily across organizational boundaries within networks of practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Our networks tend to be homogeneous – we tend to develop relations with people like ourselves. </li></ul><ul><li>The higher the diversity of team members, the higher the potential for conflict and poor results. </li></ul><ul><li>Creating a knowledge sharing culture requires a holistic perspective </li></ul>Allen 1984, Burt 1992, Brown & Duguid 2002, Marsden 1987, Ruuska & Teigland 2009, Teigland 2003
  58. 58. <ul><li>Introduction to networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why the interest? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are some network basics? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about power? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about performance? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does this mean for you? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creating value through social media and networks </li></ul>Today’s discussion – Networks & Social Media
  59. 59. So, what does this mean for you? <ul><li>An actor’s position in a social network, i.e., social capital, determines in part the actor’s opportunities and constraints </li></ul>Casper & Murray 2002 German biotech scientists
  60. 60. Myths and reality checks about networks <ul><li>I already know what is going on in my network </li></ul><ul><li>We can’t do much to help informal networks </li></ul><ul><li>To build networks, you have to communicate more </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapted from Cross et al. 2002 </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. High performers leverage networks (in top 20% of organization’s HR ratings) <ul><li>Structural – Position themselves at key points in the network and leverage networks to get things done </li></ul><ul><li>Relational – Invest in relationships that extend expertise and that help to avoid learning biases and career traps </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral – Understand and cultivate the value of networks and focus on building high quality relationships, not just big networks </li></ul>Cross, Parise, & Weiss 2006
  62. 62. What is network leadership? <ul><li>Changing the order of things… </li></ul><ul><li>By inspiring others to see the possibilities and enabling them to act on them… </li></ul><ul><li>While having only a “blank business card” </li></ul>
  63. 63. Leading through networks <ul><li>Overcome forces for stability through developing a shared interest in your vision </li></ul><ul><li>Gain access to resources through strategically building your networks </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage diversity to develop the best solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Foster relationships through building trust and open communication </li></ul><ul><li>Continuously scan the environment for drivers of change </li></ul>I f you love knowledge, set it free …
  64. 64. Higher performers create energy in their interactions with others <ul><li>Those who energize others are higher performers while those who drain energy are lower performers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Get higher commitment from others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motivate others so get resources they need </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help others learn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How do they do this? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create a compelling vision – see the possibilities and not the roadblocks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enable others to contribute meaningfully to achieving the vision – allowing them to shape the road </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are trustworthy – honest and not driven by a hidden agenda </li></ul></ul></ul>Cross, Baker, & Parker 2003
  65. 65. Structural holes Advantages of position in information networks Bill Burt 1992, Baker 2003 Dept 3 Dept 4 Dept 1 Dept 2 Barb
  66. 66. Build relationships with people at all hierarchical levels Look for complementary skills while maintaining a balance! Cross, Parise, & Weiss 2006 Higher: Help with making decisions, acquiring resources, developing political awareness, explaining organizational activities beyond local setting Equal: Help brainstorm and provide specific help, support, and needed information Lower: Provide best sources of technical information and expertise
  67. 67. External networks are growing in importance! Other people around the world Other employes around the world Other employees in your country Co-Workers Friends Large portion of new ideas and formal collaboration relationships come from external contacts You Alex Eyal Your manager Rami’s manager Hila Yaron Yuval Eduardo Ed Muriel Peter Frequent e-mails Infrequent e-mails Web 2.0 Collaboration
  68. 68. Go meet someone different or far away Robin and Steve Mahaley from Duke CE in Second Life
  69. 69. Develop participation in a variety of networks Strong ties Weak ties Outside organization Inside organization SOCNET
  70. 70. Develop three forms of networking Ibarra & Hunter, HBR Jan 2007 Operational Personal Strategic Purpose Getting work done efficiently Enhancing personal and professional development Developing and achieving future priorities Members Mostly internal contacts and focused on current demands Mostly external contacts and focused on current and future interests Both internal and external contacts and focused on future Network attributes Depth through building strong working relationships Breadth through reaching out to contacts who can refer you to others Leverage through creating inside-outside links
  71. 71. What do your networks look like? <ul><li>Reflect on your networks </li></ul><ul><li>What is the balance between your operational, personal, or strategic networks? </li></ul><ul><li>Which networks would you like to strengthen? </li></ul><ul><li>What actions can you take to strengthen them? </li></ul>
  72. 72. Build relationships before you need them,…. … … while making sure you create value and foster trust.
  73. 73. Foster trust to build relationships Coleman 2006 Practices and discipline build trust, not who you are in the formal organization
  74. 74. People understand the game We do have certain individuals who …blast out FYI emails…… I think a lot of it is positioning within the organization….. I would say that 99% of those emails/articles are irrelevant…. are deleted. If I find something interesting …… I would send it to relevant people, but I certainly wouldn’t send it to everyone. Whelan, Teigland, & Donnellan 2008 R&D Scientist
  75. 75. The positive spiral of social networks tschaut’s photos Contribution Reciprocity Accumulation Value
  76. 76. Myths and reality checks about networks <ul><li>I already know what is going on in my network </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Those who think they know their network the best are usually the ones who know the least </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>We can’t do much to help informal networks </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Informal networks can be “managed” through changing the organizational context </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>To build networks, you have to communicate more </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Networks can be strategically developed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapted from Cross et al. 2002 </li></ul></ul>
  77. 77. <ul><li>Introduction to networks </li></ul><ul><li>Creating value through social media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do they mean for multinational corporations? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are some benefits? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are some challenges? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stepping into the internet – A look at VWs </li></ul>Today’s discussion – Social Media & VWs
  78. 78. Tomorrow’s workers building skills today <ul><li>World of Warcraft </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborating and leading across geographies, demographics, and cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Creating and executing strategies in self-organizing teams </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative decision making under pressure </li></ul><ul><li>All virtually with no face-to-face interaction </li></ul>
  79. 79. Traditional media vs social media
  80. 80. The speed of information: The power of social media Fortune, Rey 2008
  81. 81. Microfinancing: Taking on Wall Street <ul><li>>$30 mln raised to date </li></ul><ul><li>5 year projections: $130M – 280M USD </li></ul><ul><li>On track to be one of largest microfinance funds (Citibank = $100M) </li></ul>
  82. 82. <ul><li>Creating value through social media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do they mean for multinational corporations? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are some benefits? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are some challenges? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stepping into the internet – A look at VWs </li></ul>Today’s discussion – Social Media & VWs
  83. 83. Organizing in MNCs Network picture from Hierarchy Linear, static, process-based organization Heterarchy Dynamic, integrated collaboration networks
  84. 84. Why does the multinational exist? <ul><li>Specializes in creation and transfer of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Superior to market as organizational vehicle to transfer knowledge across geographical borders </li></ul><ul><li>The more tacit the knowledge, the more likely to be transferred within the firm </li></ul>Kogut & Zander 1993 A social community?
  85. 85. Hinton 2007 Knowledge flows through communities of practice
  86. 86. Web 2.0/3.0 and social media help overcome knowledge challenges <ul><li>Finding and connecting with people internally and externally </li></ul><ul><li>Building communities </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing information & knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Solving problems & finding solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Learning informally </li></ul><ul><li>Overcoming diversity challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>through creating collective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared language and norms </li></ul></ul>Communication Personal Media Self-expression Collective Intelligence Content Production
  87. 87. How can social networking sites be leveraged?
  88. 88. Serena Software: Strengthening internal and external relationships through Facebook <ul><li>#1 Applications Lifecycle Management (ALM) & business mashup </li></ul><ul><li>96 of Fortune 100 as customers </li></ul><ul><li>800 employees in 18 countries across globe </li></ul><ul><li>Facebook Fridays: One hour every Friday on Facebook to find fun and connect with co-workers, customers, family, and friends </li></ul><ul><li>Average employee age: 46 </li></ul><ul><li>27 year old Silicon Valley company </li></ul><ul><li>>90% of employees on FB </li></ul>
  89. 89. eZ Systems and the eZ ecosystem: Creating value through its open source business model eZ Partners Community Customers <ul><li>#1 open source content management software </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise open source – “Grow the cake” </li></ul><ul><li>60 Employees in 8 countries (Europe & Asia) </li></ul><ul><li>230+ Partners </li></ul><ul><li>5000+ Customers </li></ul><ul><li>30,000+ Community members </li></ul> Skien, Norway
  90. 90. eZ Wire enables global conversations
  91. 91. IBM – “A marketplace for projects” for its 390,000 employees worldwide
  92. 92. IBM – A company reinventing itself <ul><li>$98 bln in sales 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Ca. 355,000 employees </li></ul><ul><li>New values developed by employees in jam sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Dedication to every client's success </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation that matters, for our company and for the world </li></ul><ul><li>Trust and personal responsibility in all relationships </li></ul>
  93. 93. At IBM, “BlueIQ” facilitates several functions Communities Create, find, join, and work with communities of people who share a common interest, responsibility, or area of expertise Blogs Use a weblog to present your idea and get feedback from others; learn from the expertise and experience of others who blog Dogear Save, organize and share bookmarks; discover bookmarks that have been qualified by others with similar interests & expertise Activities Organize your work, plan next steps, and easily tap your expanding professional network to help execute your everyday deliverables, faster Profiles Quickly find the people you need by searching across your organization using keywords that help identify expertise, current projects and responsibilities Poole 2008
  94. 94. Management cannot mandate social relationships Stockholm London Brussels Helsinki Madrid Copenhagen Transferred from Stockholm Teigland 1998 San Francisco
  95. 95. IBM’s Atlas shows the social network of a topic and how to get to someone Poole 2008
  96. 96. Ericsson blogs for internal communication <ul><li>Community blogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge development within one area, eg technical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals who want to drive their ideas and gather support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management blogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers blog for their own organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals or management groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More of an informal nature, visit to China </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual blogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engage people in one’s interests </li></ul></ul>
  97. 97. The future manager portal at Cisco
  98. 98. Tomorrow’s meeting <ul><li>Telepresence by Cisco </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  99. 99. Companies are turning to virtual worlds to facilitate the virtual workforce – “Immernets” <ul><li>Public and completely private virtual business worlds (immernets) to recruit, train, collaborate, and innovate </li></ul><ul><li>Accenture, Cisco, IBM, Intel, Johnson & Johnson, Motorola, Novartis, Philips, Sun, Unilever, ….. </li></ul>
  100. 100. Improving virtual teaming and cross-cultural skills Task: To build a bridge in your virtual team Designed by Duke CE and Stockholm School of Economics
  101. 101. Improving global collaboration <ul><li>Creating immersive workspaces in virtual worlds </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>By 2012, Gartner estimates that 70% of organizations will have their own private virtual worlds. (May 2008)
  102. 102. IBM - Convergence in virtual spaces mentoring Green Data Center SOA Training Play is how we principally learn and principally create &quot; Ray Kurzweil many to choose from IBM Lotus Tools BMW Training Media Brain Thinking Hamilton, 2009
  103. 103. IBM’s jam sessions in Second Life
  104. 104. External networks are growing in importance! Other people around the world Other employes around the world Other employees in your country Co-Workers Friends Large portion of new ideas and formal collaboration relationships come from external contacts You Alex Eyal Your manager Rami’s manager Hila Yaron Yuval Eduardo Ed Muriel Peter Frequent e-mails Infrequent e-mails Web 2.0 Collaboration
  105. 105. Improving recruiting efforts Job Fairs Accenture recruits in Second Life since 2006 – this recruiting has since paid for itself A manager at a high-tech multinational recruits senior level employees through Orkut, resulting in reduced turnover and headhunter fees 2008, Hustad & Teigland 2008
  106. 106. Using wikis at Target (Retail chain in USA) <ul><li>Purchasers work with vendors all over the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have seasonal deadlines to purchase items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Email did not facilitate interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A purchasing agent set up wiki-based GroveSite (took only 20 minutes to set up) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invited her vendors to be part of the team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posted drawings and requirements for next season’s fashions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Got much better response from vendors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vendors felt much more part of process and more of a partner of Target </li></ul></ul>Coleman 2006
  107. 107. Creating new knowledge sources… Closed Expensive Complex Accurate Open Inexpensive Simple Close enough Hinton 2007
  108. 108. Crowdsourcing: Capturing the wisdom of crowds <ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer participation in business and business development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why the interest? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ownership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engagement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loyalty </li></ul></ul>Brayrie 2007
  109. 109. What can organizations do? Innovation Product development Content generation Decision making Funding Sales & marketing Distribution Brayrie 2007
  110. 110. Innovations -
  111. 111. Problem solutions - The Goldcorp Challenge
  112. 112. From organization-generated content (OGC) to user-generated content (UGC) Content created by a user to be used by a user Content created by an organization to sell to a user Di Gangi 2008
  113. 113. Rapid growth of UGC Web Sites Organizations increasingly introducing UGC websites (e.g., social networking, electronic communities) as organizational resources Deloitte 2008, DiGangi 2008
  114. 114. Why are organizations using UGC websites? Deloitte 2008
  115. 115. GE Healthcare on Twitter
  116. 116. GE Healthcare on LinkedIn
  117. 117. Examples at Dell DiGangi 2008, Brayrie 2007 Self-support Product development
  118. 118. Building the Dell community Brayrie 2007
  119. 119. Motorola Q – Creating content
  120. 120. Scania Social Media Newsroom “ One of the best B2B newsrooms I have seen.” -Bodnar, May 10, 2009
  121. 121. Scania Social Media Newsroom – Blog comments <ul><li>Content is clearly something that Scania has made a priority….aggregate, categorized, and tagged. </li></ul><ul><li>But only written content is traditional product releases. …no white papers, case studies, or other written documents that could add additional value for a site visitor </li></ul>
  122. 122. Engaging readers in content creation
  123. 123. Suggestions for Scania’s Internet Communications Manager <ul><li>Include sales materials for sales team to download and allow comments to help generate feedback from customers. </li></ul><ul><li>Showcase more customer experiences: written case studies, testimonials, videos with customers, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on search add content that is focused on your key search terms as a way to build awareness with a new audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Add a live chat function to answer customer questions or media questions in real-time. </li></ul>
  124. 124. Social media at your company? <ul><li>How are social media used internally and externally at your company? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any benefits? </li></ul><ul><li>What could you do to better leverage social media? </li></ul><ul><li>Some search words for search engines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social media, Social networking, Web 2.0, Enterprise 2.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Company homepage blogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  125. 125. Match the tool to the purpose Tool Purpose Example Blogs/Microblogs Conversation Relationship building Information sharing Getting customer and employee feedback Sun Microsystems Ericsson GE Healthcare Discussion forums Self-support Solution finding Customer engagement Dell Wikis Collaboration Mutual problem solving Engagement Motorola Swedbank Social networking sites Community development Relationship building Building loyalty Solution finding Serena Software Victoria’s Secret Jeep Virtual worlds Collaboration Innovation Engagement Knowledge accidents Nokia Philips IBM
  126. 126. <ul><li>Creating value through social media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do they mean for multinational corporations? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are some benefits? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are some challenges? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stepping into the internet – A look at VWs </li></ul>Today’s discussion – Social Media & VWs
  127. 127. Why use these new social media tools? Melcrum 10/07
  128. 128. What about business results? <ul><li>Driving innovation into products faster </li></ul><ul><li>Enabling employees to be more productive, more knowledgeable, faster </li></ul><ul><li>Harnessing the knowledge of the wise , before they retire </li></ul><ul><li>Being more responsive to customers, with knowledge from subject experts you may or may not know </li></ul>Poole 2008
  129. 129. <ul><li>Profitable growth through higher efficiency and innovation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preventing the waste of valuable resources - avoid reinventing the wheel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring the use of leading-edge technology and thinking across the firm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing customer satisfaction through shorter lead-times and consistent behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating a competitive cost structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitating breakthrough and incremental innovations through combination of technologies and ideas from across and outside the firm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An attractive workplace that encourages cross-functional co-operation across the globe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attracting and retaining key individuals </li></ul></ul>What about business results?
  130. 130. Are there any numbers to back this? <ul><li>Among the clients surveyed by Select Minds, corporate social networking resulted in: </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity Contributions: Increase in productivity by an average of 10% </li></ul><ul><li>Retention Contributions: Increase in retention by an average of 9% </li></ul><ul><li>Increases in New Business: Increase new business by an average of 12% </li></ul><ul><li>Rehiring Former Employees: On average, rehires made through their Corporate Social Networking program…. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>become fully productive 49% faster than all experienced hires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>became Star Performers (66%), versus 26% of experienced hires </li></ul></ul>Select Minds 2008: &quot;Corporate Social Networking: Increasing the Density of Workplace Connections to Power Business Performance&quot;
  131. 131. Are there any b enefits from social media, or is it all hype? Poole 2008: IBM Global Technical Services Knowledge Community of Practice Business Impact Survey 2007, completed by approximately 2,300 respondents
  132. 132. <ul><li>Creating value through social media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do they mean for multinational corporations? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are some benefits? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are some challenges? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stepping into the internet – A look at VWs </li></ul>Today’s discussion – Social Media & VWs
  133. 133. However, there are challenges…. <ul><li>Resistance from top management </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty to measure and validate value of web 2.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge trading and leakage outside of firm </li></ul><ul><li>Social overload and role conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Poor organizational stewardship </li></ul>Web 2.0 and social networking are typically of a more grassroots nature – their implementation in more traditional hierarchical organizations may result in tension between employees and management Hustad & Teigland 2008
  134. 134. Fear of loss of power at the top Cross, Parise, & Weiss 2006
  135. 135. Is knowledge trading good or bad for a firm? We pass over the nondisclosure agreements of different companies and trade company secrets all the time.
  136. 136. Who owns the knowledge? Organizational information vs. Personal expertise
  137. 137. Social overload and role conflict Loyalty Loyalty Organization Professional network Teigland 2003
  138. 138. Do employees know how to represent the company when using external social media? Statoil-Hydro Love at 150 m below sea level!
  139. 139. IBM’s blogging policy & guidance, created by the employees Policies based on IBM’s Business Conduct Guidelines Apply internally and externally Available on “ blogging guidelines” Adapted from Poole 2008
  140. 140. Company guidelines for using social media internally and externally <ul><li>Trust your employees, and don’t ban social media </li></ul><ul><li>Use wikis to enable employees to create the company guidelines, eg IBM </li></ul><ul><li>Yahoo’s best practice guidelines for blogging ( </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be respectful of your colleagues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get your facts straight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide context to your argument </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engage in private feedback </li></ul></ul>When trusted, employees feel empowered to do the right thing!
  141. 141. Promoting an open innovation attitude Not all the smart people work for us. We need to work with smart people inside and outside the company. The smart people in our field work for us. If you create the most and the best ideas in the industry, you will win. If you make the best use of internal and external ideas, you will win. Closed attitude Open attitude Chesborough 2003
  142. 142. Users create their own meanings Wesch 2008
  143. 143. There is nowhere to hide Fortune, Rey 2008 Monitor social media sites and react in a timely fashion
  144. 144. Treat like any change project Kotter 1996 2. Form a powerful guiding coalition 1. Establish a sense of urgency 3. Create a vision 8. Anchor new approaches 4. Communicate the vision 5. Empower others to act on the vision 6. Plan for and create short-term wins 7. Consolidate improvements and produce more change
  145. 145. <ul><li>Creating value through social media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do they mean for multinational corporations? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are some benefits? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are some challenges? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stepping into the internet – A look at VWs </li></ul>Today’s discussion – Social Media & VWs
  146. 146. Watch out! Forces converging…. <ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><li>Net generation </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroplasticity </li></ul><ul><li>New demands </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Social software (Web 2.0) </li></ul><ul><li>Broadband access </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Business Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization </li></ul><ul><li>Pace and change </li></ul><ul><li>Information load </li></ul>Mahaley 2008
  147. 147. What one listener emailed me after…. When I got home last night, my 17 year old son was doing what he usually does – sitting at the computer online with his friends…But after hearing this presentation, I couldn’t help but be interested in what he really was doing. So, when I looked more closely, I saw that he was involved in three separate conversations - all at the same time, and not only that, he was also following the discussions on one of the school’s forums. Then he said, “Mom, you grown-ups are sooooo behind…..think how much you could get done if you worked like this!”
  148. 148. Discussion – Some questions to ponder <ul><li>What defines the boundaries of the MNC? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From nonporous to porous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecosystems and “open source” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What defines an employee of the MNC? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From binary membership to fuzzy membership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microemployees and community members </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where is the MNC located? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From the physical to the blended (physical & virtual) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor “mobility” </li></ul></ul>Are we stuck in a traditional mindset? <ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge creation and transfer in MNCs superior to the market…..but is it superior to networks? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  149. 149. <ul><li>“ Leading by values is very different …..It is empowering .. Rather than burden our people with excessive controls, we are trusting them to make decisions and to act based on values... </li></ul><ul><li>In today's world, where everyone is so interconnected and interdependent …. If we're going to solve the biggest, thorniest and most widespread problems in business and society, we have to innovate in ways that truly matter. And we have to do all this by taking personal responsibility for all of our relationships - with clients, colleagues, partners, investors and the public at large. </li></ul><ul><li>This is IBM's mission as an enterprise, and a goal toward which we hope to work with many others, in our industry and beyond. </li></ul>Samuel Palmisano, IBM Chairman, President, and CEO
  150. 150. So, what does all this mean? <ul><li>Organizations have to develop their networks globally - both inside and out </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations have to leverage social media such as virtual worlds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To win the war for talent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To innovate for competitive advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizations have to cultivate an open, knowledge sharing culture </li></ul>I f you love knowledge, set it free …
  151. 151. <ul><li>Creating value through social media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do they mean for multinational corporations? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are some challenges? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the benefits? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stepping into the internet – A look at VWs </li></ul>Today’s discussion – Social Media & VWs
  152. 152. Interested in a tour? Stepping into the Internet: A tour of Second Life
  153. 153. Within five years, the 3-D Internet will be as important for work as the Web is today. January 2008 By the end of 2011, 80 percent of active Internet users (and Fortune 500 enterprises) will have a “second life”, but not necessarily in Second Life. Steve Prentice Gartner
  154. 154. Towards 3-D Internet Level of Interaction Time Hamilton 2008 Individual - Web 1.0 Thinking Mosaic, Prodigy, Compuserve, AOL, Netscape Connected Web 2.0 Thinking Facebook, Friendster, Yahoo, Blogger, Wikipedia, eBay, Typepad, LinkedIn. Amazon, MySpace, Textamerica, Delicious, HubPages SENSORY 3D Internet Thinking SecondLife, Active Worlds, There, SimsOnline, Club Penguin, World of Warcraft, 3D planets, ToonTown, Habbo, VSlide, Protosphere
  155. 155. No financial crisis in VWs? <ul><li>Increasing members </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing companies </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing turnover </li></ul>Wonderland
  156. 156. 780,000 users USD 420 mln turnover 2008
  157. 157. Entropia Universe by MindArk <ul><li>Ability to develop skills and sell virtual goods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Island sold for USD 26,500 in 2004 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asteroid space resort sold for USD 100,000 in 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clothes Against Violence – limited edition virtual jackets sold for more than same model of real world jackets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virtual universe with real cash economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed exchange rate to US Dollar, 1 USD = 10 PED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Five banks auctioned for USD 404,000 in 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real life bank license granted by Swedish Government to MindArk Bank in March 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A business model like the real world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw materials and skills needed to build </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goods deteriorate and need to be replenished </li></ul></ul>
  158. 158. Second Life – one example of a virtual world <ul><li>Machinama film by Duke CE on SSE MBA </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  159. 159. “ Clearly if social activity migrates to synthetic worlds, economic activity will go there as well.” Castranova Joe Miller, Linden Lab <ul><li>16 Million members </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 Million active residents </li></ul><ul><li>350,000 Hours of use per day </li></ul><ul><li>87,500 Hours development time/day </li></ul><ul><li>$1.6 Billion worth of free work per year </li></ul><ul><li>163 Virtual square miles (5X Boston) </li></ul><ul><li>520,000 Unique items traded/month </li></ul>
  160. 160.
  161. 161. “ We think it has potential as a way of doing business. We’re just experimenting with it ourselves but we see massive potential in the human interaction you can bring. It’s a big browsing environment in many ways.” - IBM Director
  162. 162. Recruiting Job Fairs
  163. 163. Improving internal effectiveness Unilever is running an extensive pilot in SL
  164. 164. In-house training and education IFL at SSE and Duke Corporate Education Co-developing and running virtual team building exercise
  165. 165. Co-creating solutions for today… Philips Design Group Lead-user innovation workshops
  166. 166. … as well as for tomorrow HSB: Building the house of the future in a competition with KTH and Chalmers architecture students
  167. 167. Increasing effectiveness in traditional industries “ Soon all fashion designers will be originating their designs and managing the production in virtual worlds ….Why such a dramatic change? Economics, pure and simple .” Shenlei Winkler, Director Fashion Research Institute
  168. 168. 3D internet Before the first plate of aluminum is even bent for production, the passengers will have flown, the crew will have serviced, and the pilots will have flown the plane. CEO of Boeing supplier
  169. 169. China is making big efforts in virtual worlds! <ul><li>“ Virtual economy district – a world where millions will work, communicate, and be in love” </li></ul><ul><li>Reaching out to the 150 mln overseas Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>7 million inworld at same time </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to borrow money to finance operations through Mind Bank </li></ul>, “ The real China is only a piece of land. We believe that there must be a China in the virtual world and the real world.” Robert Lai, Chief Scientist, CRD
  170. 170. MMOGs still dominate <ul><li>World of Warcraft </li></ul><ul><li>374,000 hours played each day or 50,000 man days each day </li></ul><ul><li>8.5 mln players worldwide </li></ul>, <ul><li>Korean Free to Play (F2P) </li></ul><ul><li>4 of top 10 MMOGs in Western world </li></ul><ul><li>Silkroad Online #1 in West </li></ul><ul><li>MapleStory with >50 mln players </li></ul>
  171. 171. The opportunities are endless…….
  172. 172. Where are we today with virtual worlds? <ul><li>Business opportunities limited? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many real world firms have virtual world presence, but difficulty turning it into an effective, profitable sales channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Few RoI success stories for real world firms - disconnect between real world companies/products and SL fantasy avatars? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multinationals now turning to internal focus, i.e., how can VWs be used to improve effectiveness (intraverses)? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IBM signs agreement with Linden Lab </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited number of individual success stories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>~150 other individuals making >$5000 per month </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Trapped” in real world activities? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But educational and training uses are taking off! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools and universities across the globe are experimenting across all disciplines </li></ul></ul>
  173. 173. What should you do in virtual worlds? Experiment, “play”, and learn Stay on the look-out Consider creating independent operations Don’t forget other emerging media
  174. 174. We digitized audio and video, why can’t we just digitize, you know, Earth” Philip Rosedale, Chairman Linden Lab
  175. 175. “ I think there’s a world market for maybe five computers.” Thomas Watson, Chairman of IBM, 1943 “ There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home.” Ken Olson, President, Chairman and Founder of Digital Equipment Corporation, 1977 “ Heavier-than-air flying machines are impossible.” Lord Kelvin, President, Royal Society, 1895
  176. 176. Thanks and see you in world! Karinda Rhode aka Robin Teigland [email_address]
  177. 177. Sources and acknowledgements <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barabási, Linked: The New Science of Networks . Perseus, 2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burt, Structural Holes, 1992 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Castells, The Rise of the Network Society . Blackwell, 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross & Parker, The Hidden Power of Social Networks . Harvard Business School, 2004 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gladwell, The Tipping Point . Abacus, 2001 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scott, Social Network Analysis . Sage, 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teigland, Knowledge Networking , SSE, 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teten & Allen, The Virtual Handshake . American Management Assoc., 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Homepages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wayne Baker, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stephen Bird, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steve Borgatti, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rob Cross, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Network for Social Network Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>David Krackhardt, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valdis Krebs, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fredrik Liljeros, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steve Mahaley, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>James Moody, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giancarlo Oriani, (In Italian) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barry Wellman, </li></ul></ul>
  178. 178. Sources and acknowledgements (cont’d) <ul><li>Articles and Research Papers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross, Baker, & Parker, “What creates energy in organizations?”, Sloan Management Review , Summer 2003. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross, Parise, & Weiss, “Driving Strategic Change with a Network Perspective”, Network Roundtable working paper, 2006. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kleinbaum, Stuart, Tushman, Communication (and Coordination?) in a Modern, Complex Organization, HBS working paper, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ibarra & Hunter, “How Leaders Create and Use Networks”, HBR, 2007. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coleman, D. Virtual Team Spaces, 2006. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connaughton, SL & Daly, JA, “Leading from Afar: Strategies for Effectively Leading Virtual Teams” in Virtual Collaborative Teams: Process, Technologies, & Practice (S. H. Godar & S. P. Ferris, Eds.). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipnack, J. & Stamps, Virtual Teams: Reaching Across Space, Time, and Organizations with Technology . John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York, 1997. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maznevski, M. High performance from global virtual teams, 2001. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruuska, I. & Teigland, R. 2009 (Forthcoming). “Ensuring Project Success through Collective Competence and Conflict Management in Public-private Partnerships: A Case Study of a Swedish Triple Helix e-government Initiative”. International Journal of Project Management . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schermerhorn, Jr., J., Management , 2004. </li></ul></ul>
  179. 179. Sources and acknowledgements (cont’d) <ul><li>Online sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bodnar, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gurteen, Online Information 2007: KM goes Social, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poole, IBM: Web 2.0 goes to work, </li></ul></ul>