Building the networked, innovative
organization

Dr. Robin Teigland, aka
Karinda Rhode in SL

                            ...
Today‟s discussion



Background

Building the Networked, Innovative
 Organization

Moving forward at your organization...
When Ideas Have Sex
             By Matt Ridley

http://www.ted.com/talks/matt_ridley_when_ideas_
                  have_s...
"...when the rate of change
 outside an organization is
  greater than the change
 inside, the end is near...."



       ...
Did You Know 3.0: Shift Happens
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cL9Wu2kWwSY

    What are the forces at work here?

What ...
Human capacity cannot keep up…

                                            Information
         Growth                   ...
”No one knows everything,
            everyone knows something,
       all knowledge resides in networks
                 ...
“When Ideas have Sex” by Matt Ridley




http://www.ted.com/talks/matt_ridley_when_ideas_have_sex.html   8
6 degrees of separation
Everybody is connected to everybody else by no
      more than six degrees of separation.

      ...
Leveraging external resources to find
solutions and solve unsolved problems




From problem solvers to solution finders

...
The wisdom of the crowd




                Closed                Open
              Expensive            Inexpensive
    ...
History tends to repeat itself….
Innovation, financial crisis, industrial revolution, …

                                 ...
A new workforce is appearing…
   “Digital Natives”                                “Digital Immigrants”




   Professional...
..using social media to learn, solve problems,
            and build relationships




                                 Ad...
Building skills in virtual environments
                                 My CV
                 •Leading a virtual team of...
Moving into the new economy




Craffiti 2010                                 16
Increasing pressure on
                       “traditional” organizations

        Formal organization/           Social o...
What is a network?

Actor
                       •Actors/Nodes
          Tie            −Individuals
                     ...
Network structure affects performance

Two divisions within Sundlink (Öresund Bridge)
      Division 1                Divi...
Network structure affects performance




Barsh et al 2007, McK Quarterly                     20
Comparing performance across firms




                           Teigland et al 2000   21
Hewlett-Packard

 Networking activities recognized and rewarded at
  individual and unit levels
 Management support for ...
Avoid creating insular networks




    http://www.enronexplorer.com/focus/19185#   23
Today‟s discussion



Background

Building the Networked, Innovative
 Organization

Moving forward at your organization...
Organizational forms

Hierarchy


      Matrix



            Network
Differences are substantial




Craffiti 2010                                 26
A new mindset: Knowledge networking

                        Connecting people
                              so that
     ...
A focus on innovation

          Incrementalin Small improvements to existing
          novation      products and operati...
IDEO: The Shopping Cart Project

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M66ZU2PCIcM



          What happened?
     What are th...
Building an innovative organization




Skarzynski& Gibson 2008                          30
What are communities of practice?


  Groups of people who come together to share and to
   learn from one anotherface-to...
DaimlerChrysler-
        Engineering technology clubs

                                 Engineering Tech Clubs



        ...
Organizations supporting communities


 Hewlett-Packard      British Petroleum
 World Bank           Ericsson
 Daimle...
Role of communities of practice

 Share ideas & insights
  − Share tacit, complex ideas & insights
  − Help each other so...
CPs are not teams or personal networks
                Personal
                 Personal             Community
          ...
Community membership and roles




                              Coordinator

                 Core Group


              ...
Communities cross all boundaries
                               Competitors




                                  Customer...
Examples of „communities of knowing‟ at
                     Ericsson
                                          Objectives...
5,000+          30,000+
       230+
eZ    Partners
                 Customers in      Community
                 130 count...
Innovation in the eZ ecosystem
New forms of organizing




Craffiti 2010                             41
Building an innovative organization




Skarzynski& Gibson 2008                          42
http://mediax.stanford.edu/docs/seminars/f09/IntuitBrainstorm.pdf
                                                        ...
Today‟s discussion



Background

Building the Networked, Innovative
 Organization

Moving forward at your organization...
What makes these organizations successful?
 1. IBM                4. Whirlpool
 2. Google             5. General Electric
...
Building an innovative organization




Skarzynski& Gibson 2008                          46
Some search tips
Search for
  Company name + innovation + organization
        eg “IBM innovation organization”




Ad...
Sharing and learning with one another on FB




 Post any links or relevant information that you find
 Start a discussio...
IBM‟s innovation landscape

            Identify the   Brainstorm, s   Incubate and    Validate and      Implement,
      ...
Inside IBM, we are all innovators.
                                      ThinkPlace
     ThinkPlace fuels innovation acros...
We want to innovate with our clients.
                  Jams                               Lotus Greenhouse               ...
Innovation…the Whirlpool way
 Makinginnovationcentraltopic in leadershipdevelopmentprograms.
 Settingaside substantial s...
Designing innovation networks




         Barsh et al 2007, McK Quarterly   53
Proximal collaboration




When people are more than 50
feet apart, the likelihood of them
 collaborating more than once a...
“Managing” networks in your organization
        Before                          After




1. Uncover networks

          ...
Conduct your own network analysis




http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_network_analysis_software18
                    ...
Conduct your own network analysis




                                    57
Conduct your own network analysis




                                    58
Trust & reciprocity
 are essential for
    knowledge
   exchange in
     networks




                      59
Use social media to strengthen relationships



     •#1 Applications Lifecycle
  Management (ALM) & business
            ...
Improving internal operations while increasing
            organizational loyalty (Intuit)




http://mediax.stanford.edu/...
"E-connection is
                                  processed in the brain like
                                  an in-per...
Build relationships
   before you need them,….
               …




…while making sure you create
   value and foster trus...
Build relationships with people
    at all hierarchical levels
                 Higher: Help with making decisions,
      ...
”Birds of a feather flock together”
          “Lika barn leka bäst”
People find similar people attractive and develop
    ...
Creating a competence management system
 Standardization
  − Create common structure and terminology
  − Define professio...
Creating competence charts at Ericsson
          Professional – Operations, financial, etc.
           Business – Markets,...
What gets measured, gets done..




                       Chan et al, 2008, McKinsey
                                    ...
Where are the sources of
            sustainable competitive advantage?




                Networks of
                  ...
Where are the sources of
                sustainable competitive advantage?




                  Networks of
            ...
Exploitation    Exploration
      Improving existing   Developing new
        value creation      value creation
         ...
Threadless:
What came first –
the community or
  the company?
Leadership moving forward……
           Hierarchy                       Heterarchy
    Linear, static, process-          Dy...
Thanks and
                             see you in world!

                              Karinda Rhode

                  ...
Appendix




           76
1. Build an understanding of this
         “new” organizational form

What is a Community?
A new and old kind of organizat...
2. Focus on relevance and define scope

 Business Relevance
  − Choose a topic that is core to the business
  − Community...
Different types of community purpose




                     Helping


                       Best-practice
             ...
3. Connect, connect, connect
 Build human relationships
 Ensure an active coordinator –This is crucial!
 Develop an act...
Public & private community space


                     Public Space
                           Events:          ~ 30% in ...
4. Communities are living things

 Design from the inside
   − Involve community leaders in design
 Design for different...
5. Ensure technology fits

 Use familiar technology
 Integrate sharing technology with
  everyday work
 Customize techn...
6. Track community value

 Have early discussions of value
 Use a conservative evaluation method
  −Who needs to know & ...
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Building the Networked, Innovative Organization

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A presentation that I used for a one day workshop with a large Swedish organization.

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Building the Networked, Innovative Organization

  1. 1. Building the networked, innovative organization Dr. Robin Teigland, aka Karinda Rhode in SL Photo: Lundholm, Metro IFL at Stockholm School of Economics Associate Professor www.knowledgenetworking.org www.slideshare.net/eteigland August 2010
  2. 2. Today‟s discussion Background Building the Networked, Innovative Organization Moving forward at your organization 2
  3. 3. When Ideas Have Sex By Matt Ridley http://www.ted.com/talks/matt_ridley_when_ideas_ have_sex.html What is the key message here? 3
  4. 4. "...when the rate of change outside an organization is greater than the change inside, the end is near...." Jack Welch… 4
  5. 5. Did You Know 3.0: Shift Happens http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cL9Wu2kWwSY What are the forces at work here? What does this mean for your organization? 5
  6. 6. Human capacity cannot keep up… Information Growth and knowledge Human absorptive capacity Time Adapted from Cohen & Levinthal 1989
  7. 7. ”No one knows everything, everyone knows something, all knowledge resides in networks humanity.” Adapted from Lévy 1997
  8. 8. “When Ideas have Sex” by Matt Ridley http://www.ted.com/talks/matt_ridley_when_ideas_have_sex.html 8
  9. 9. 6 degrees of separation Everybody is connected to everybody else by no more than six degrees of separation. “Small World Phenomenon” by sociologist Stanley Milgram, 1967
  10. 10. Leveraging external resources to find solutions and solve unsolved problems From problem solvers to solution finders 10
  11. 11. The wisdom of the crowd Closed Open Expensive Inexpensive Complex Simple Accurate Close enough Accurate Hinton 2007
  12. 12. History tends to repeat itself…. Innovation, financial crisis, industrial revolution, … Microelectronics Internal combustion engine Steam engine Third industrial revolution? Late 18th C Late 19th C Late 20th C Schön 2008
  13. 13. A new workforce is appearing… “Digital Natives” “Digital Immigrants” Professional loyalty Company loyalty Work = Personal Work ≠ Personal Learning=Fun and games Learning=Behind the desk Prensky 2001, Beck and Wade 2004, Mahaley 2008
  14. 14. ..using social media to learn, solve problems, and build relationships Adapted from FredCavazza.net
  15. 15. Building skills in virtual environments My CV •Leading a virtual team of 30 individuals from across the globe •Creating and successfully executing strategies under pressure •Managing cross-cultural conflict without face-to-face communication Teigland 2010 15
  16. 16. Moving into the new economy Craffiti 2010 16
  17. 17. Increasing pressure on “traditional” organizations Formal organization/ Social organization / Hierarchy Heterarchy Teigland et al. 2005 17
  18. 18. What is a network? Actor •Actors/Nodes Tie −Individuals −Teams, organizations, etc. •Ties/Links −Knowledge, trust, tea m, sit by, dislike, etc. −Alliance, customer, inv estment, etc. A set of actors connected by ties 18
  19. 19. Network structure affects performance Two divisions within Sundlink (Öresund Bridge) Division 1 Division 2 Stagnant performance Improved efficiency over time over time Schenkel&Teigland 2008 19
  20. 20. Network structure affects performance Barsh et al 2007, McK Quarterly 20
  21. 21. Comparing performance across firms Teigland et al 2000 21
  22. 22. Hewlett-Packard  Networking activities recognized and rewarded at individual and unit levels  Management support for informal and formalnetworking activities across internal and external boundaries  Best practice task group  Personal initiatives  Extensivesocialization: personnel rotation, cross- office teams  A visionary organization − Clearly defined mission:”To make technical contributions for the advancement and welfare of humanity” − Supporting core values, e.g., teamwork, helpfulness − Company-wide goal of World‟s Best Laboratory Teigland et al 2000 22
  23. 23. Avoid creating insular networks http://www.enronexplorer.com/focus/19185# 23
  24. 24. Today‟s discussion Background Building the Networked, Innovative Organization Moving forward at your organization 24
  25. 25. Organizational forms Hierarchy Matrix Network
  26. 26. Differences are substantial Craffiti 2010 26
  27. 27. A new mindset: Knowledge networking Connecting people so that collaborate, share ideas, and create knowledge
  28. 28. A focus on innovation Incrementalin Small improvements to existing novation products and operations Architectural Technological or process advances to innovation fundamentally change component or element of the business Discontinuous Radical advances that may profoundly innovation alter basis for competition in an industry O‟Reilly & Tushman 2004 28
  29. 29. IDEO: The Shopping Cart Project http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M66ZU2PCIcM What happened? What are the keys for success? 29
  30. 30. Building an innovative organization Skarzynski& Gibson 2008 30
  31. 31. What are communities of practice?  Groups of people who come together to share and to learn from one anotherface-to-face and/or virtually.  They are held together by a common interest in a body of knowledge and are driven by a desire and need to share problems, experiences, insights, templates, tools, and best practices.  Members deepen their knowledge by interacting on an ongoingbasis.  This interaction leads to continuous learning and innovation 31
  32. 32. DaimlerChrysler- Engineering technology clubs Engineering Tech Clubs Management Program Development Vehicle Body Interior Chassis Electronics Electrical/ Platform Jeep Truck Minivan Large Car Small Car
  33. 33. Organizations supporting communities  Hewlett-Packard  British Petroleum  World Bank  Ericsson  DaimlerChrysler  Siemens  Shell Oil  CapGemini  McKinsey & Co.  IBM  British Telecom  Schlumberger  Xerox  European Commission Source: McDermott., 2001 33
  34. 34. Role of communities of practice  Share ideas & insights − Share tacit, complex ideas & insights − Help each other solve problems & find innovations  Connect people across boundaries − Who knows what − Home in changing organization & an uprooted society  Develop & manage materials − Develop tools, guidelines, templates − Manage databases  Own & develop knowledge − Develop & manage good practice − Build organizational competence 34
  35. 35. CPs are not teams or personal networks Personal Personal Community Community Team Team Network Network of Practice of Practice Purpose Purpose -Share information -Share information -Solve problems -Solve problems -Accomplish goal -Accomplish goal -Friendship -Friendship -Share info. & ideas -Share info. & ideas -Expand knowledge -Expand knowledge Members Members -Friends & -Friends & -Mostly volunteers -Mostly volunteers -Assigned -Assigned acquaintances acquaintances -Permeable boundary -Permeable boundary -Defined boundary -Defined boundary -No boundary -No boundary Activity Activity -One-on-one -One-on-one -Meetings -Meetings -Organize tasks -Organize tasks -Informal -Informal communications communications Value Value -Serendipitously -Serendipitously -Actively discovered -Actively discovered -Planned -Planned Creation Creation discovered discovered Glue Glue - -Friendship Friendship -Value -Value -Obligation -Obligation -Commitment -Commitment -Job requirement -Job requirement Source: McDermott., 2001 35
  36. 36. Community membership and roles Coordinator Core Group Active Peripheral 36
  37. 37. Communities cross all boundaries Competitors Customers Suppliers Company 37
  38. 38. Examples of „communities of knowing‟ at Ericsson Objectives Communication Community Type and Members channel eRelationship -Inter-organizational -Use internet to design -Virtual Vodafone -1400 members in 10 joint e-business platform countries Competence -Intra-organizational -Ensure sharing of best - Primarily face- Groups -200 members in 14 practices and to-face countries commonality Ericsson - Inter-organizational - Think tank on emerging - Virtual and Foresight including universities, trends in society, face-to-face experts, & institutions technology, & consumers - 600 with core of 40 Ericsson - Intra-organizational -Facilitate inter-project Primarily face- System - 20 members from 14 learning and innovation to-face Architect countries -Retain key individuals Program, ESAP 38
  39. 39. 5,000+ 30,000+ 230+ eZ Partners Customers in Community 130 countries members • #1 open source content management software • Customers include UN, Vogue, Hitachi, 3M, MIT • 75 employees in 9 countries (US, Europe & Asia)
  40. 40. Innovation in the eZ ecosystem
  41. 41. New forms of organizing Craffiti 2010 41
  42. 42. Building an innovative organization Skarzynski& Gibson 2008 42
  43. 43. http://mediax.stanford.edu/docs/seminars/f09/IntuitBrainstorm.pdf 43
  44. 44. Today‟s discussion Background Building the Networked, Innovative Organization Moving forward at your organization 44
  45. 45. What makes these organizations successful? 1. IBM 4. Whirlpool 2. Google 5. General Electric 3. Procter & Gamble In groups, prepare max 10 min pptpresentation Describe the company‟s innovative organization: 1. Leadership and organization 2. Culture and values 3. People and skills 4. Process and tools Show examples from the company. Provide specific examples of what you could do at your organization. 45
  46. 46. Building an innovative organization Skarzynski& Gibson 2008 46
  47. 47. Some search tips Search for Company name + innovation + organization  eg “IBM innovation organization” Additional sites −Company homepage −www.slideshare.net −www.wikipedia.org −www.youtube.com 47
  48. 48. Sharing and learning with one another on FB  Post any links or relevant information that you find  Start a discussion with your colleagues  Invite others inside and outside your organization to participate 48
  49. 49. IBM‟s innovation landscape Identify the Brainstorm, s Incubate and Validate and Implement, challenge hare ideas collaborate iterate go to market IBM lines of IBM internal ThinkPlace BizTech TAP INSIDE business stakeholders Emerging Communities business of practice opportunities Global Technology Jams Extreme Blue alphaWorks Clients OUTSIDE Outlook Global Lotus First of a Kind Innovation Partners Greenhouse (FOAK) Outlook IBM Corporation, 2009
  50. 50. Inside IBM, we are all innovators. ThinkPlace ThinkPlace fuels innovation across the ecosystem by being IBM's global idea marketplace. It enables every IBMer to be an innovator by providing a common forum for sharing, refining and recognizing ideas. Ideas + Collaboration = Innovative solutions Open, 24x7 system Ideas discussed and Deliver financial benefits to for submission of refined by communities IBM, and grow a culture of ideas innovation by recognizing innovators Technology Adoption Program TAP is the singular, global destination for pilots and prototypes at IBM. We make it fun and easy to adopt new technology! Innovators + Early Adopters = Successful innovation Create and share Try Innovators’ creations Reduce the time, cost and risk to innovative and provide feedback to transfer successful ideas into IBM’s technology improve them products, services and internal tools IBM Corporation, 2009
  51. 51. We want to innovate with our clients. Jams Lotus Greenhouse alphaWorks A platform for innovation through A live community website where Makes promising software that is not enterprise-wide clients can try out new Lotus yet commercialized available to the brainstorming, connecting a large collaboration products. IBMers and early adopter audience outside IBM. population of individuals across clients exchange ideas, collaborate Forty percent of technologies on the boundaries to develop ideas around with others, and share information site graduate into IBM products or business-critical or urgent societal on innovation and collaborative industry standards! issues. products. First of a Kind (FOAK) Global Innovation Outlook Global Technology Outlook A collaboration among Openly sharing IBM’s business and Early identification of Research, Sales, Clients and Partners technology forecasting processes for significant, disruptive trends, offering to test innovations on real business the first time, to collaboratively the potential to create new problems and growth opportunities. pursue opportunities with clients and businesses. Attempts to understand Seventy-five percent of projects drive the world. how technology can impact or influence additional business. customers, and directly influences IBM’s strategy. IBM Corporation, 2009
  52. 52. Innovation…the Whirlpool way  Makinginnovationcentraltopic in leadershipdevelopmentprograms.  Settingaside substantial share of capitalspendingeveryyearfortruly innovative projects.  Requiringeveryproduct-development plan to containsizablecomponent of new-to- marketinnovation.  Training morethan 600 innovationmentorschargedwithsupportinginnovationthroughoutcompany.  Enrollingeveryemployee in online course on businessinnovation.  Establishinginnovation as large component of topmanagement„slong-termbonus plan.  Settingaside time in quarterlybusinessreviewmeetingsforin-depthdiscussion of eachunit„sinnovationperformance  Creating Innovation Board to review and fast- trackcompany„smostpromisingideas.  Building innovationportal to giveemployeesaccess to aompendium of innovationtools, data on company„s global innovationpipeline, and chance to inputtheirideas.  Developingmetrics to trackinnovationinputs, throughputs, and outputs. Gary Hamel „The Future of Management“ Harvard Business School Press 2007, page 30
  53. 53. Designing innovation networks Barsh et al 2007, McK Quarterly 53
  54. 54. Proximal collaboration When people are more than 50 feet apart, the likelihood of them collaborating more than once a week is less than 10%. Allen 1984 54
  55. 55. “Managing” networks in your organization Before After 1. Uncover networks 2. Analyze networks 3. Improve connectedness Anklam& Welch 2005 55
  56. 56. Conduct your own network analysis http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_network_analysis_software18 56
  57. 57. Conduct your own network analysis 57
  58. 58. Conduct your own network analysis 58
  59. 59. Trust & reciprocity are essential for knowledge exchange in networks 59
  60. 60. Use social media to strengthen relationships •#1 Applications Lifecycle Management (ALM) & business mashup •96 of Fortune 100 as customers •800 employees in 18 countries across globe •Facebook Fridays: One hour every Friday on Facebook to find fun and connect with co- workers, customers, family, and friends •Average employee age: 46 •29 year old Silicon Valley company •>90% of employees on FB 60
  61. 61. Improving internal operations while increasing organizational loyalty (Intuit) http://mediax.stanford.edu/docs/seminars/f09/IntuitBrainstorm.pdf http://billives.typepad.com/portals_and_km/2009/10/intuit-brainstorm-offers-innovation-management.html
  62. 62. "E-connection is processed in the brain like an in-person connection." http://slideshare.net/missrogue 62
  63. 63. Build relationships before you need them,…. … …while making sure you create value and foster trust. 63
  64. 64. Build relationships with people at all hierarchical levels Higher: Help with making decisions, acquiring resources, developing political awareness, explaining organizational activities beyond local setting Equal: Help brainstorm and provide specific help, support, and needed information Lower: Provide best sources of technical information and expertise Look for complementary skills while maintaining a balance! Cross, Parise, & Weiss 2006 64
  65. 65. ”Birds of a feather flock together” “Lika barn leka bäst” People find similar people attractive and develop relations with people like themselves Our networks tend to be homogeneous and not heterogeneous Marsden 1987, Burt 1990 65
  66. 66. Creating a competence management system  Standardization − Create common structure and terminology − Define professional, business, and human competencies related to global strategy and KM goals  Don‟t underestimate this task!  Analysis − Personal development discussions − Mapping of present and future target competence levels for individuals and then for business units − Defining competence gap at both levels  Planning and implementation − Prepare competence development plan − Implement and evaluate 66
  67. 67. Creating competence charts at Ericsson Professional – Operations, financial, etc. Business – Markets, core business, strategy, etc. Human – Interpersonal, communication, KM attitudes, etc. Individuals in one unit Comparison of units 5 5 4.5 4.5 4 4 3.5 3.5 3 3 2.5 2.5 2 2 1.5 1.5 1 1 Ind 1 Ind 2 Ind 3 Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3
  68. 68. What gets measured, gets done.. Chan et al, 2008, McKinsey 68
  69. 69. Where are the sources of sustainable competitive advantage? Networks of Innovation relationships FIRM #1 Brand & Reputation Kaye 1993
  70. 70. Where are the sources of sustainable competitive advantage? Networks of relationships Innovation FIRM #1 Brand & Reputation Teigland 2010
  71. 71. Exploitation Exploration Improving existing Developing new value creation value creation activities activities Adapted from March 1991
  72. 72. Threadless: What came first – the community or the company?
  73. 73. Leadership moving forward…… Hierarchy Heterarchy Linear, static, process- Dynamic, integrated based organization collaboration networks If you love knowledge, set it free… Teigland 2010 73
  74. 74. Thanks and see you in world! Karinda Rhode aka Robin Teigland Photo: Lindholm, Metro robin.teigland@hhs.se www.knowledgenetworking.org www.slideshare.net/eteigland
  75. 75. Appendix 76
  76. 76. 1. Build an understanding of this “new” organizational form What is a Community? A new and old kind of organizational form Old=organic, value-driven New= to understand dynamics of community processes and to intentionally develop communities 77
  77. 77. 2. Focus on relevance and define scope  Business Relevance − Choose a topic that is core to the business − Community projects should add value to the business  Personal Passion − Real, current problems − Find people who care about the topic  Define focus and scope − What is the purpose of the community? 78
  78. 78. Different types of community purpose Helping Best-practice Knowledge stewarding 79
  79. 79. 3. Connect, connect, connect  Build human relationships  Ensure an active coordinator –This is crucial!  Develop an active core group  Allow time to participate  Combine virtual connections with face-to-face events − Conferences, electronic conferences, discussion boards  Work the public & private community space It‟s all about relationships! 80
  80. 80. Public & private community space Public Space Events: ~ 30% in the Meetings, website, t elecons public space Private Space Person to person: Phone, email, f2f McDermott., 2001 81
  81. 81. 4. Communities are living things  Design from the inside − Involve community leaders in design  Design for different & fluid levels of participation − Not all must participate to the same degree  Design for evolution − Communities evolve in their own direction  Maintain creative disequilibrium − Avoid too much management support − Prevent competency traps 82
  82. 82. 5. Ensure technology fits  Use familiar technology  Integrate sharing technology with everyday work  Customize technology to fit the community  Change functionality as community discovers what is valuable 83
  83. 83. 6. Track community value  Have early discussions of value  Use a conservative evaluation method −Who needs to know & for what purpose? −Collect data & tell stories linking activities, knowledge assets & value  Broadcast results Value is always for someone! 84

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