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Peace Reconciliation and Sustainable Development PPT-PDF.ppt

Introduction In life, there are universal laws that govern everything we do. These laws are so perfect that if you were to align yourself with them, you could have so much prosperity that it would be coming out of your ears. This is because God created the universe in the image and likeness of him. It is failure to follow the universal laws that causes one to fail. The laws that were created consisted of the following: · Law of Gratitude: The Law of Gratitude states that you must show gratitude for what you have. By having gratitude, you speed your growth and success faster than you normally would. This is because if you appreciate the things you have, even if they are small things, you are open to receiving more. Law of Attraction: The Law of Attraction states that if you focus your attention on something long enough you will get it. It all starts in the mind. You think of something and when you think of it, you manifest that in your life. This could be a mental picture of a check or actual cash, but you think about it with an image. Law of Karma: the Law of Karma states that if you go out and do something bad, it will come back to you with something bad. If you do well for others, good things happen to you. The principle here is to know you can create good or bad through your actions. There will always be an effect no matter what. Law of Love: the Law of Love states that love is more than emotion or feeling; it is energy. It has substance and can be felt. Love is also considered acceptance of oneself or others. This means that no matter what you do in life if you do not approach or leave the situation out of love, it won't work. Law of Allowing: The Law of Allowing states that for us to get what we want, we must be receptive to it. We can't merely say to the Universe that we want something if we don't allow ourselves to receive it. This will defeat our purpose for wanting it in the first place. Law of Vibration: the Law of Vibration states that if you wish on something and use your thoughts to visualize it, you are halfway there to get it. To complete the cycle you must use the Law of Vibration to feel part of what you want. Do this and you'll have anything you want in life. For everything to function properly there has to be structure. Without structure, our world, or universe, would be in utter chaos. Successful people understand universal laws and apply them daily. They may not acknowledge that to you, but they do follow the laws. There is a higher power and this higher power controls the universe and what we get out of it. People who know this, but wish to direct their own lives, follow the reasons. Successful people don't sit around and say "I'll try," they say yes and act on it. Chapter - 1 The Law of Attraction The law of attraction is the most powerful force in the universe. If you work against it, it can only bring you pain and misery. Successful people know this but have kept it hidden from the lower class for centuries because th

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PEACE, RECONCILIATION AND
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
IN THE NIGER DELTA
Chika Onuegbu M.Sc Econs,ACA,ACTI,MIMC
Project Director,
Ikwerre Peace and Development Project
Niger Delta Youth Leaders’ Conference/Peace Summit
July 12th - 14th 2007, Calabar
2
" I appeal to all aggrieved communities,
groups and individuals to immediately
suspend all violent activities and respect the
law. Let us allow the impending dialogue to
take place in a conducive atmosphere. We
are all in this together and we will find a way
to achieve peace and justice".
Inaugural Speech
President Umaru Yar’Adua

A new window for dialogue and development
3
‘To promote development in the West
African Sub-region, there must be peace, not
just peace as defined by ‘the absence of war’
or some détente, but as an atmosphere of
tolerance, harmonious co-existence and
mutual development’
Professor Peter Okebukola
Executive Secretary,
National Universities Commission
Thinking the message
4
Peacebuilding requires a readiness to
change the operations and mandates of
existing political, security and development
establishments. Most importantly, it requires
the ability to make a difference on the
ground in preventing conflicts or
establishing the conditions for a return to
sustainable peace
Necla Tschirgi 2003
Thinking the message (Cont’d)
5
PEACE and RECONCILIATION provide the basis
for SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT; and
Sustainable development by meeting the needs of
the current generation without jeopardizing the
ability of the future generations to meet their own
needs is essential to guaranteeing peace. The
relationship between peace and sustainable
development is two way-there cannot be any
sustainable development without peace; and
peace without sustainable development is a time
bomb ticking to explode. DIALOGUE leveraged
on genuine reconciliation ,NOT VIOLENCE, is the
road that will take us to the desired destination of
Peace and Sustainable development.
Central message
6
What is Peace?
 People generally perceive peace as ‘the absence of war’ or
cessation of hostilities. This perception is grossly
inadequate and does not allow for a good understanding
of peace necessary for EFFECTIVE conflict resolution.
Peace is more than the absence of war .
 This definition only relates peace to the absence of war
(i.e. absence of direct violence)
 The definition ignores the role of structural violence in
violent conflicts .
 It also ignores the issues of cultural violence.Bakut notes
that cultural violence involves the practice of cultural
norms that create discrimination,injustice and human
suffering.For instance cultural practices that discriminates
against women,inflict suffering or even death on them(
just because they are women) .A good example is SOME
CULTURAL PRACTICES THAT CAUSE PAIN AND
SUFFERING TO WIDOWS.This is a form of violence.

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Peace Reconciliation and Sustainable Development PPT-PDF.ppt

  • 1. 1 PEACE, RECONCILIATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE NIGER DELTA Chika Onuegbu M.Sc Econs,ACA,ACTI,MIMC Project Director, Ikwerre Peace and Development Project Niger Delta Youth Leaders’ Conference/Peace Summit July 12th - 14th 2007, Calabar
  • 2. 2 " I appeal to all aggrieved communities, groups and individuals to immediately suspend all violent activities and respect the law. Let us allow the impending dialogue to take place in a conducive atmosphere. We are all in this together and we will find a way to achieve peace and justice". Inaugural Speech President Umaru Yar’Adua  A new window for dialogue and development
  • 3. 3 ‘To promote development in the West African Sub-region, there must be peace, not just peace as defined by ‘the absence of war’ or some détente, but as an atmosphere of tolerance, harmonious co-existence and mutual development’ Professor Peter Okebukola Executive Secretary, National Universities Commission Thinking the message
  • 4. 4 Peacebuilding requires a readiness to change the operations and mandates of existing political, security and development establishments. Most importantly, it requires the ability to make a difference on the ground in preventing conflicts or establishing the conditions for a return to sustainable peace Necla Tschirgi 2003 Thinking the message (Cont’d)
  • 5. 5 PEACE and RECONCILIATION provide the basis for SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT; and Sustainable development by meeting the needs of the current generation without jeopardizing the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs is essential to guaranteeing peace. The relationship between peace and sustainable development is two way-there cannot be any sustainable development without peace; and peace without sustainable development is a time bomb ticking to explode. DIALOGUE leveraged on genuine reconciliation ,NOT VIOLENCE, is the road that will take us to the desired destination of Peace and Sustainable development. Central message
  • 6. 6 What is Peace?  People generally perceive peace as ‘the absence of war’ or cessation of hostilities. This perception is grossly inadequate and does not allow for a good understanding of peace necessary for EFFECTIVE conflict resolution. Peace is more than the absence of war .  This definition only relates peace to the absence of war (i.e. absence of direct violence)  The definition ignores the role of structural violence in violent conflicts .  It also ignores the issues of cultural violence.Bakut notes that cultural violence involves the practice of cultural norms that create discrimination,injustice and human suffering.For instance cultural practices that discriminates against women,inflict suffering or even death on them( just because they are women) .A good example is SOME CULTURAL PRACTICES THAT CAUSE PAIN AND SUFFERING TO WIDOWS.This is a form of violence.
  • 7. 7 What is Peace? (Cont’d)  Structural violence is violence that does not hurt or kill through fists or guns or nuclear bombs, but through social structures that produce poverty, death and enormous suffering. Structural violence may be political, repressive, economic and exploitative, it occurs when the social order directly or indirectly causes human suffering and death.  Structural violence and direct violence are highly interdependent.
  • 8. 8 What is Peace? (Cont’d)  The interdependence between structural violence and direct violence can be understood with the aid of the Frustration-Aggression theory developed by John Dollard(1939) .The theory posits that aggression is not just undertaken as a natural reaction or instinct , but is the outcome of frustration. When the legitimate desires of an individual is denied either directly or by the consequence of the way society is structured, the feeling of disappointment may lead such a person to express his anger through violence that is directed at those he holds responsible or people who are directly or indirectly related to them.  Structural violence inevitably produces conflict and often direct violence .Research has shown that those who are chronically oppressed are often, for logical reasons, those who resort to direct violence
  • 9. 9 What is Peace? (Cont’d)  The fact remains that the level of deprivation, hunger, poverty and neglect of the Niger Delta, which produces the oil that sustains Nigeria ,is a structural violence that has led to the escalating direct violence now in the region.  A situation in which a man loses his land to oil exploitation because of the Land Use Act, his son loses her mother because of poverty and crumbling social infrastructure in the Niger Delta, his daughter cannot further her education because the surviving parent is poor, and yet by their poor house is an oil pipeline. When she manages to go to school by community effort she is told that there is no job for her. She becomes unemployed. The community becomes frustrated, and unable to sponsor others like her.  Meanwhile oil exploitation through oil spillages have destroyed their land and rivers; and the oil company officials call it sabotage and refuse to compensate them nor carry out necessary remediation.  The man and his son complain but no one to listen; they are even arrested and detained by the police  Their educated daughter out of hunger now submits to the immoral lust of the oil company officials.  Hunger , neglect, frustration and deprivation of this magnitude is a serious form of violence ; capable of pushing ( indeed has pushed) the man and his community into direct violence
  • 10. 10 What is Peace? (Cont’d) There is also the concepts of negative and positive peace developed by Johan Galtung:  Negative peace is when the peace in existence includes only the absence of direct violence (i.e. violence, war, and conflicts)  Positive peace is when the peace in existence, in addition to negative peace, also includes the absence of structural violence Registered User:
  • 11. 11 What is Peace? (Cont’d)  Again,  Structural violence is violence that does not hurt or kill through fists or guns or nuclear bombs, but through social structures that produce poverty, death and enormous suffering. Structural violence may be political, repressive, economic and exploitative, it occurs when the social order directly or indirectly causes human suffering and death.  Structural violence and direct violence are highly interdependent. Structural violence inevitably produces conflict and often direct violence including family violence, racial violence, hate crimes, terrorism, genocide, and war.  A deeper understanding of peace is therefore crucial in resolving conflicts.
  • 12. 12 What is Peace? (Cont’d) VIOLENCE AGAINST THE ECO-SYSTEM The Niger Delta is:  a coastal region of global environmental and economic significance  one of the world’s largest wetlands  the world’s largest mangrove forest  Africa’s largest and the world’s third largest delta  West and Central Africa’s most extensive freshwater swamp forest  a mosaic of diverse and sensitive ecosystems that traverse four vegetation zones  Nigeria’s last remaining pristine rain forests  one of the continent’s few remaining habitats of unique biological species  one of the world’s major hydrocarbon provinces LEADING TO INTENSE INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES COEXISTING WITH SENSITIVE ECOSYSTEMS Niger Delta Environmental Survey
  • 13. 13 What is Peace? (Cont’d) VIOLENCE AGAINST THE ECO-SYSTEM:The Effects Officials in Nigeria say tens of thousands of people have been made homeless by what they say are the worst floods in at least thirty years.A spokesman for the governor of Rivers State in the Niger Delta said crops had been destroyed and there was a danger of disease(BBC World Service Friday, November 12, 1999) .Suffice it to say that the flood in 2006 in Port Harcourt was unprecedented. ‘Between 1976 and 1997, there have been 5334 reported cases of crude oil spillages releasing about 2.8 million barrels of oil into the land, swamp, estuaries and coastal waters of Nigeria (Dublin-Green et al. 1998). ZABBEY (2004 ) Oil spillage in Nigeria occurs as a result of sabotage, corrosion of pipes and storage tanks, carelessness during oil production operations and oil tankers accidents. In Nigeria, fifty percent (50%) of oil spills is due to corrosion, twenty eight percent (28%) to sabotage and twenty one percent (21%) to oil production operations.Nwilo & Badejo (2001)
  • 14. 14 What is Peace? (Cont’d) VIOLENCE AGAINST THE ECO-SYSTEM:The Effects Bakut notes that ‘’environmental degradation, if it is continued unchecked, would lead to disasters in the world with great consequences.For example, the impact of global warming caused primarily by pollution linked to industrialisation and development , has led to the emergence of new forms of cardiac related diseases and the rising of the sea levels.This in turn results into flood,washing away of coastal cities or countries(islands),destroying lives or rendering the inhabitants refugees. It is estimated that with a sea level rise of 30cm, about 1 to 2 million people will be affected. In all this, it is predicted that Nigeria will lose about $9 billion as a result of the sea level rise while at least 80% of the people of the Niger Delta will be displaced due to the low level of the region.(Uyigue E. and Agho M. 2007 )
  • 15. 15 What is Peace? (Cont’d) VIOLENCE AGAINST THE ECO-SYSTEM The violence against the eco-system and the environment of Niger Delta through environmental pollution and degradation,gas flaring,oil spillages,emission of green house gases,uncoordinated dredging and land reclamations, indiscriminate dumping of refuse, building of structures on the water ways, etc is about the greatest threat to the future generations of the region.The truth is that we can only pay attention to this threat through dialogue in an atmosphere of positive peace.We need positive peace through dialogue and reconciliation to collectively agree and resolve the issues at stake and save our future generations.
  • 16. 16 What is Peace? (Cont’d)  Peace is generally defined as the absence of war, fear, conflict, anxiety, suffering and violence, and about peaceful coexistence (Francis).  It is primarily concerned with creating and maintaining a just order in society and the resolution of conflict by non-violent ways (Howard )  It must be founded on respect for nature,universal human rights, economic justice, a culture dialogue(NOT VIOLENCE) , mutual understanding and respect for our neighbours.  It has been subdivided into six different meanings( Miall).
  • 17. 17 What is Peace? (Cont’d) The Six Meaning Of Peace  Peace as the absence of war-(absence of direct violence)  Peace as justice and development- (absence of structural violence)  Peace as respect and tolerance between people  Peace as harmony or balance in, and with, the ecosystem-ecosphere  Tranquillity or Inner Peace-Spiritual Peace  Peace as wholeness-making whole/being complete
  • 18. 18 The Niger Delta Crises  In order to appreciate the current violence in the Niger Delta and the need for genuine reconciliation, it will be necessary to understand the root causes  The Niger Delta Crises is mainly a response to the structural violence that has existed over the years.  The Sir Henry Willink’s Commission recommended that the Niger Delta be made a special area to be developed directly by the Federal Government in 1958, even before crude oil became the mainstay of the Nigerian economy.  50 years later ,despite contributing some US$370bn to Nigeria, the Niger Delta is still a place suffering from administrative neglect, crumbling social infrastructure and services, high unemployment, social deprivation, abject poverty, filth and squalor, and endemic conflict
  • 19. 19 The Niger Delta Crises (Cont’d)  THE MAJOR VICTIMS of the conflicts and violence in the Niger Delta is the Niger Delta and her people. The structural violence has led to extreme poverty, hunger ,frustrated expectations and deep-rooted mistrust  The hitherto resort to direct violence in the past by successive Nigerian governments-re Umuechem disaster, Odi Massacre and Choba rape and destruction etc have left deep scars in the minds of the people; increased hatred, aggravated the pain of the already crying people , increased their resilience and survival instincts , and created the monster of SOCIAL DISINTEGRATION in the communities and families.  It has worsened the poverty, underdevelopment , and frustration in the region.  Led to so many communal crises and endemic conflicts ;  And more worrisome is the entrenchment of violence as a means of resolving conflicts. Now even little misunderstandings lead to violence and the destruction of whole community
  • 20. 20 Peace and Reconciliation in the Niger Delta  But Violence beget Violence, and then we are all in a cycle of violence and underdevelopment. Hatred , frustration, and deep seated mistrust.  It becomes imperative that we must refocus our strategy on our main goal-which ultimately is the development of the Niger Delta and the creation of an atmosphere of brotherhood through the elimination of all forms of violence- both direct and structural.  We must reconcile with ourselves, our brothers and embrace dialogue as the way forward.  POSIVE PEACE IS A NECCESSITY.We must seek it with ALL seriousness.  We must build an atmosphere of tolerance and love, co-exist harmonious with our neighbours and treat others with respect
  • 21. 21 Peace and Reconciliation in the Niger Delta(Cont’d) Consequently ,the open call by President Umaru Yar'Adua for a dialogue on the Niger Delta situation in his inaugural speech, when he said - “…Let us allow the impending dialogue to take place in a conducive atmosphere. We are all in this together and we will find a way to achieve peace and justice". is indeed a rare opportunity for bringing development to the Niger Delta Region through dialogue and reconciliation. There is need to reciprocate and be part of the dialogue and reconciliation especially since this is coming from our new President; and our brother is his Vice President.
  • 22. 22 Peace and Reconciliation in the Niger Delta(Cont’d)  We must embrace the non-violent transformation of conflict. We need to begin to use non- violence as a strategy to resist oppressive power relations and unjust structures.  Moreso, the abandonment of violent confrontation does not mean that we will stop the struggle for the sustainable development of Niger Delta. Rather, it means we will welcome dialogue and use non- violent means of confrontation which can be even more effective in the present circumstance.  Dialogue is essential for reconciliation, and reconciliation is a good start point for post –conflict reconstruction and development
  • 23. 23 Peace and Reconciliation in the Niger Delta(Cont’d)  It is however important to inform that the state must play the role of an unbiased arbiter for dialogue and reconciliation to be effective. And as noted by Ibrahim : ‘The legitimacy of the modern state is linked to its capacity to present itself as a provider of public good and , more important, a neutral arbiter that guarantees the security of all sections of the society. when the state is generally perceived as serving the particularistic interests of one group, it starts losing its legitimacy and , indeed, its authority. As state capacity declines, fear of the other rises and people resort to other levels of solidarity-religious, ethnic and regional- in search of security’ Ibrahim 1999  The state and the international community must play the role of a neutral arbiter for genuine reconciliation to take place in the Niger Delta.
  • 24. 24 Peace and Reconciliation in the Niger Delta(Cont’d)  Reconciliation involves justice, recognition and healing. It’s about helping all Niger Deltans move forward with a better understanding of the past and how the past affects the lives of her people today.  Reconciliation is necessary to resolve the underlying conflict, rather than settle the immediate dispute episode. It requires the parties to reconcile their underlying differences and transform their relationship to that of "normalcy". This is a long, slow process involving trust-building, apology, forgiveness, and a variety of other peace-building measures.  The Nigerian government , the International Oil Companies and the International Community need to re-build the trust of the Niger Deltans. There is the need to tell ourselves the truth and move forward. Reconciliation should be transparent , genuine and without any form of deceit and /or manipulation.
  • 25. 25 CONCLUSION Remember, PEACE and RECONCILIATION provide the basis for SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT; and Sustainable development by meeting the needs of the current generation without jeopardizing the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs is essential to guaranteeing peace. The relationship between peace and sustainable development is two way-there cannot be any sustainable development without peace; and peace without sustainable development is a time bomb ticking to explode. DIALOGUE leveraged on genuine reconciliation ,NOT VIOLENCE, is the road that will take us to the desired destination of Peace and Sustainable development.
  • 26. 26 CONCLUSION(Cont’d) Remember You have a role to play: “People say, what is the sense of our small effort? They cannot see that we must lay one brick at a time, take one step at a time. A pebble cast into a pond causes ripples that spread in all directions. Each one of our thoughts, words, and deeds is like that. No one has the right to sit down and feel hopeless. There is so much work to do!” Dorothy Day(American reformer and Journalist 1897-1980)
  • 27. 27 THANK YOU and ‘let brotherly love continue’ Heb13:1
  • 28. 28 SYNDICATE EXERCISE  Explain the current situation of the Niger Delta conflicts and its impact on the development of the region?  How can genuine reconciliation take place in the Niger Delta?  How can peace return to the Niger Delta and her communities?  What role can the Niger Delta youth play in the peace , reconciliation and sustainable development of the Niger Delta ?
  • 29. 29 References and further Reading 1. Bakut,Bakut. ‘’The Environment, Peace and Conflict in Africa.’’In Shedrack Gaya Best: Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies in West Africa 2. David F,Murithi,T et al(2004) ‘Peace and Conflict Studies: An African Overview of Basic Concepts’ 3. Douglas O,Kemedi V,et al (2003)Alienation and Militancy in the Niger Delta: A Response to CSIS on Petroleum, Politics,and democracy in Nigeria.FPIF Special Report 4. Galtung, Johan (1990)’Cultural Violence’ Journal of Peace Research , 1990 5. Galtung, Johan(1996). Peace by Peaceful Means: peace and conflict, development and civilization. Oslo: International Peace Research Institute, 6. Howard M ‘Peace Studies’: The Hard Questions in E. Kaye Peace Studies: The Hard Question: Oxford Peace lectures 1984-5 7. Miall,H(2000), ‘What do peace studies contribute distinctively to the study of peace?The Richardson Institute,Lancaster University,Paper Presented at BISA Conference,Bradford 2000 8. Miller ,(2003), A Glossary of Terms and Concepts in Peace and conflict studies, Geneva: University for Peace not dated)pp29-30 9. Nwilo & Badejo (2001) ‘Impacts of Oil Spills Along the Nigerian Coast 10. Okebukola, P, Foreword to Introduction to peace and conflict studies in West Africa 11. Shedrack Gaya Best: Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies in West Africa: A Reader.University for Peace and Nigerian Universities Commission 12. Tschiri,N.(2003) Peace building as the link between Security and Development:Is the window of Opportunity Closing? NewYork;International Peace Academy Studies in Security and Development 13. United Nations (1990)AFRICAN CHARTER for Popular Participation in Development and Transformation 14. Uyigue E. and Agho M. 2007 Coping with Climate Change and Environmental Degradation in the Niger Delta of Southern Nigeria, Community Research and Development Centre (CREDC) Nigeria 15. ZABBEY (2004) Impacts of Extractive Industries on the Biodiversity of the Niger Delta