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Animationen und 3D-Content – was ist bei der Gestaltung zu berücksichtigen? (Slides: Prof. Dr. Stephan Schwan und Dr. Martin Lachmair)

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Animationen und dreidimensionale Darstellungen erzeugen Aufmerksamkeit und bieten viele Möglichkeiten, Lernende zu aktivieren. Im Vergleich mit anderen digitalen Darstellungsformaten stehen sie jedoch häufig nicht im Fokus von Lehrenden. Im Online-Event (http://bit.ly/2sh5jk1), zu dem diese Folien gehören, wurde vorgestellt, welches Potenzial damit verbunden ist, Lerninhalte nicht nur bewegt und realitätsnah, sondern auch interaktiv zu präsentieren. Dabei kam neben der (lern-)psychologischen auch die medientechnische Perspektive zur Sprache.

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Animationen und 3D-Content – was ist bei der Gestaltung zu berücksichtigen? (Slides: Prof. Dr. Stephan Schwan und Dr. Martin Lachmair)

  1. 1. Animationen in 3D Dr. Martin Lachmair & Prof. Dr. Stephan Schwan
  2. 2. ANIMATIONEN IN 3D •  Dreidimensional •  Komplexe Kamerabewegungen •  Komplexe Beleuchtungseffekte •  Wechselnde Betrachterperspektiven •  Wechselnde Betrachterdistanzen •  Zeitsprünge •  Sparsame Verwendung von Texteinblendungen (Immersion statt Multimedia) Quelle: yourgenome.org Quelle: teacher‘s pet
  3. 3. 3D ≠ 3D? 03.07.17 •  Screenshot vs. Clip
  4. 4. 3D ≠ 3D? 03.07.2017 •  Psychologische/Perzeptuelle Aspekte: •  Höhenkonstanz •  Farbkonstanz •  Komplexerer Inhalt => komplexere Schnittstellen? •  Gestenbasierte Interaktion durch neue Interfaces (touch) •  natürlicher/intuitiver, aber: was ist intuitiv? •  Höherer kognitiver Aufwand? •  2D Bildschirm ungeeignetes Medium für 3D ?
  5. 5. VIRTUAL REALITY •  Immersion: Gefühl “man ist da/ mittendrin!” •  Direkter Kontakt mit Inhalten => intensivere Erfahrung •  Benötigt wird: •  Hardware: •  VR-System (HTC, Oculus, GearVR, Daydream…) •  Evtl. Game-PC •  Raum •  Software: •  3D Modellierung •  Präsentationsplatform (game-engine) •  Skripting (z.B. C#, Visual Studio) •  Personal mit entsprechenden Skills 03.07.2017
  6. 6. 3D MODELLIERUNG (WINDOWS) •  Blender •  Open source •  Ungewöhnliches interface •  Steile Lernkurve? •  3ds max •  Sehr professionell •  Viele Optionen und Features •  teuer •  Dateiformat beachten! •  Generell: steile Lernkurven => Schulung empfohlen 03.07.2017
  7. 7. 3D MODELLIERUNG: 3DS-MAX 03.07.2017
  8. 8. PLATTFORM FÜR VR •  Verschiedene Spiele-Plattformen (game-engines): •  Unreal •  Unity •  Stingray •  Openvr (Schnittstelle) •  Unity weit verbreitet und für die meisten Anwendungen geeignet •  Plattform zur Darstellung der Modelle und Durchführung des Gameplay (Interaktionen, etc…) 03.07.2017
  9. 9. UNITY: PLATTFORM FÜR VR 03.07.2017
  10. 10. ANIMATIONEN IN 3D •  Dreidimensional •  Komplexe Kamerabewegungen •  Komplexe Beleuchtungseffekte •  Wechselnde Betrachterperspektiven •  Wechselnde Betrachterdistanzen •  Zeitsprünge •  Sparsame Verwendung von Texteinblendungen (Immersion statt Multimedia) Quelle: yourgenome.org Quelle: teacher‘s pet
  11. 11. ANIMATIONEN IN 3D 3D – neue Möglichkeiten der Darstellung •  Gegenstand / Prozess verläuft im Raum (mit fixer Kamera) •  Betrachterperspektive und -distanz (Kamera) ändern sich im Raum •  Kombination von bewegtem Sachverhalt und bewegter Kamera •  Interaktive Steuerbarkeit von Kamera und/oder Prozess •  Einzelne flächige Standbilder werden zum Vergleich im Raum angeordnet und interaktiv erschlossen Quelle: Visible Body – Muskulatur Premium
  12. 12. ANIMATIONEN IN 3D Dreidimensionalität •  Komplexere räumliche Beziehungen darstellbar (Raum statt Fläche) •  Verdeckungen und Verkürzungen entlang der Tiefenachse Wenn ohne Informationsverlust in Fläche darstellbar, dann 2D bevorzugen Mehrere Ansichten anbieten, um Verdeckungen / Verkürzungen zu kompensieren
  13. 13. ANIMATIONEN IN 3D Bewegte Kamera •  Funktionen: •  Vollständigkeit der Ansicht •  Optimierte Blickpunkte (kanonische Perspektiven) •  Aufmerksamkeitssteuerung •  Dekorativer „Augenkitzel“ Nur didaktisch sinnvolle Kamerabewegungen Kamerabewegungen statt Filmschnitte Auf Tempo und Prozessabstimmung achten
  14. 14. ANIMATIONEN IN 3D Lernerkontrolle der Animation •  Zeitliche Parameter: Start/Stopp, Vorwärts/Rückwärts, Abspielgeschwindigkeit •  Räumliche Parameter: Zoom-in/out, Kameraschwenk/fahrt, Auswahl definierter Blickpunkte •  Steuerungsmöglichkeiten werden von Lernern spontan genutzt •  Zusätzliche kognitive Belastung, Gefahr suboptimaler Blickpunkte •  Lernervoraussetzungen: hohes räumliches Vorstellungsvermögen, angemessene Nutzungsstrategien Sinnvoll beschränkte Auswahl an Kontrollmöglichkeiten in Abhängigkeit von Inhalt und Lernerkompetenzen
  15. 15. ANIMATIONEN IN 3D Monoskopische oder stereoskopische Darbietung? •  Differenz 2D-2.5D ist größer als Differenz 2.5D-3D •  Höhere Immersivität bei stereoskopischer Darbietung •  Nachteile: Aufwendigere Hardware-Technologie, Stereoblindheit, Augen/Kopfschmerzen •  Empirisch bisher nur geringe Unterschiede bei lernbezogenen Indikatoren Lernbezogene Kosten-Nutzen-Relation für stereoskopische Animationen beachten
  16. 16. ANIMATIONEN IN 3D Fazit •  Breits Spektrum von Typen und Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten •  Hoher technischer und zeitlicher Aufwand •  Weniger ist mehr: Von 2D zu 3D monoskopisch zu 3D stereoskopisch zu interaktiv muss jeweils didaktisch begründet sein •  Congruence Principle: Struktur und Inhalt einer Darstellung sollten der gewünschten Struktur der mentalen Repräsentation bei den Lernern entsprechen •  Apprehension Principle: Darstellung sollte angemessen wahrnehmbar und verstehbar sein
  17. 17. ANIMATIONEN IN 3D Vielen Dank für Ihre Aufmerksamkeit m.lachmair@iwm-tuebingen.de s.schwan@iwm-tuebingen.de

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