ESWC SS 2013 - Wednesday Keynote Kieron O'hara: The Information Spring

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ESWC SS 2013 - Wednesday Keynote Kieron O'hara: The Information Spring

  1. 1. The Information Spring The Semantic Web, Linked Data, Open Data and the Quiet Revolution in Government Kieron O’Hara 04 September 2013
  2. 2. Structure of the talk •  E-government •  Semantic e-government •  Challenges to the standard model •  Transparency •  (Linked) open data •  The revolutionary potential 2
  3. 3. E-Government •  Digital interactions between government and citizen –  G2C, G2B, G2G, C2G, B2G •  Use of IT •  Use of business process re-engineering •  Transformational government –  Use of IT and BPR to improve delivery of public services 3
  4. 4. Information Flow •  “If we examine the kind of information that executives use we find that a large proportion of it is simply natural language text. … [Computers could be] initial filters for most of the information that enters the organisation from outside.” Herbert Simon, ‘Applying Information Technology to Organization Design’, 1973 •  30+ years before this insight was acted upon 4
  5. 5. Semantic e-Government Challenges and Opportunities •  Complex politics, multiple targets –  Lack of efficiency or market discipline in gov’t –  Many other drivers –  Perceptions of SW –  Change management •  Information management –  Heterogeneity –  Search/discovery –  From services to Web services –  Privacy/access –  Standards 5
  6. 6. EU Examples •  Access e-Gov (Access to e-Government services employing semantic technologies) •  FIT (Adaptive portals and processes in e-Government) •  LD-CAST (Local development cooperation actions enabled by semantic technology) •  OntoGov (Ontology-enabled e-Government services) •  SAKE (Semantic-enabled agile knowledge-based e-Government) •  SEEMP (Semantic interoperability infrastructure for e-Government services in the employment sector) •  SemanticGov (Semantic Web services for public administration) •  Terregov (Impact of e-Government on territorial government) 6
  7. 7. Example Approaches •  Life event ontologies –  Moving house, dealing with a death, registering to vote 7From Sanati & Lu, Electronic Government, 2010
  8. 8. Example Approaches •  SemanticGov architecture (Vitvar et al 2010) 8
  9. 9. Issues •  Incremental change or big bang? –  Vast amount of restructuring needed •  Lack of expertise among major suppliers –  Lack of in-house expertise –  Lack of ability to manage major upgrades •  Multiple standards •  Finding partners and building networks •  Ontological commitment 9
  10. 10. The Problem of Prescription •  Standards to be agreed by governments –  Followed by citizens •  Services defined by governments –  Whether in-house, outsourced or privatised •  The right solution for a pluralistic society? 10 From Sanati & Lu, Electronic Government, 2010
  11. 11. The Transparency Agenda •  Citizens’ access to information –  To facilitate understanding of decision-making –  To hold governments to account –  To reduce opportunities for corruption •  Dates from ICT and WWW revolutions, late 1990s •  Examples from 1990s –  Andhra Pradesh (e-government: cf. Naidu, Plain Speaking) –  South Africa (procurement) –  Mexico (electoral reform) –  Lithuania (neutral civil service) 11
  12. 12. From Medicine to Opportunity •  The agenda moves on –  No longer a corrective for poorly functioning systems –  Now an opportunity to improve government –  From emerging nations to the rich democracies •  The technology is in place –  World Wide Web (Web of Linked Documents) –  Web of Linked Data –  Massive number-crunching power –  Democratisation of analysis –  Ideology of serendipitous reuse 12
  13. 13. Stage 1: AKTive PSI •  Alani et al 2007 (ISWC), 2008 (IEEE Intelligent Systems) •  The possibilities of data, the pragmatics of the SW 13 Camden food premises data + PointX (Ordinance Survey’s addresses and points of interest dataset)
  14. 14. Open Data •  Use of technology to maximise reuse of data –  Online –  Machine readable –  Open licence –  Ideally non-proprietary open formats (CSV, RDF etc) •  No restrictions on use –  No access/query controls –  No Ts & Cs 14
  15. 15. Open Government Data •  Lots of data •  Good provenance •  Fair quality •  Relevant to people’s concerns •  Serve accountability •  Right to data 15
  16. 16. Rights to Data •  Government legitimacy •  Government funding •  Freedom of Information •  Data Protection •  Form of data •  EU PSI Directive –  “Member States shall ensure that, where the re-use of documents held by public sector bodies is allowed, these documents shall be re-usable for commercial or non- commercial purposes in accordance with the conditions set out in Chapters III and IV. Where possible, documents shall be made available through electronic means.” 16
  17. 17. The Berners-Lee Progression 17
  18. 18. Linked Data Machinery •  URIs as authoritative identifiers •  Linkable vocabularies –  INSPIRE (spatial data) –  DataCube (statistics) 18
  19. 19. Stage 2: EnAKTinG •  Shadbolt et al 2012, IEEE Intelligent Systems •  Web of linked data •  Ontology building and reuse •  Scalable query methods •  Visualisation/browsing •  Populate LDW to provide network effects 19
  20. 20. Quick Wins •  Departments can consume their own linked data •  Standard-setting •  Needn’t let go of the narrative –  Release at 1* and 3*/5* at the same time •  Questioning task bias •  Crowdsourcing quality 20
  21. 21. Example: legislation.gov.uk 21
  22. 22. Example: Lambeth in Numbers 22 Mashup of Lambeth council public health data with national government statistics
  23. 23. Crowdsourcing Data Quality 23
  24. 24. Open Government Data Infosphere 24
  25. 25. Linked Open Data 25By Anja Jentzsch (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
  26. 26. Stage 3: Midata •  Shadbolt, in Hildebrandt, O’Hara & Waidner (eds), 2013 •  Gives personal data back to the consumer –  Secure private-sector cooperation –  Let consumers access data safely –  Develop innovative services •  TACT –  Transparency –  Access –  Control –  Transfer 26
  27. 27. Digital Era Governance 27 Change of public management regime Level of autonomous citizen competence Level of institutional and policy complexity Level of social problem- solving From Dunleavy et al, Digital Era Governance, 2006 Cf. Scott, Seeing Like a State, 1999 +ve influence -ve influence
  28. 28. Stage 4: A New Vision of Government •  Shadbolt & O’Hara 2013, IEEE Internet Computing •  Publishing, not managing •  Decentralising service design •  Allow mashups with personal data •  Avoid prescription •  Leverage autonomous citizen competence 28
  29. 29. Institutions for technology •  Transparency Board •  Departmental Transparency Sector Panels •  Local Government Data Panel •  Open Data Institute •  Transparency Unit in the Cabinet Office 29
  30. 30. The Effect of Linked Open Government Data? 30 Decentralise public management regime Level of autonomous citizen competence Level of institutional and policy complexity Level of social problem- solving
  31. 31. Lessons for Governments •  Regulation: open licences needed •  Accurate catalogues •  Generic metadata standards •  Minimise temporal/geographical/methodological gaps •  Plan for essential join points 31
  32. 32. Lessons for Techies •  User interfaces for interrogating linked data •  Identify join points –  Geography –  Time –  Provenance –  Life events •  Lightweight and pragmatic •  Coreference resolution •  Quick consumption wins –  E.g. CoPs on data.gov 32
  33. 33. Discussion: Bottlenecks •  Discovery of open gov’t data •  Ontological alignment •  Interfaces •  Consumption •  Quality •  Accountability mechanisms •  Privacy 33
  34. 34. The Information Spring •  Information can be set free •  Need to make sure technology does not get in the way •  Need to avoid prescription •  Decentralise service specification 34
  35. 35. Disclaimer •  Texts, marks, logos, names, graphics, images, photographs, illustrations, artwork, audio clips, video clips, and software copyrighted by their respective owners are used on these slides for non-commercial, educational and personal purposes only. Use of any copyrighted material is not authorized without the written consent of the copyright holder. Every effort has been made to respect the copyrights of other parties. If you believe that your copyright has been misused, please direct your correspondence to: kmo@ecs.soton.ac.uk stating your position and I shall endeavour to correct any misuse as early as possible. 35

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