Islamic Azad University_Arak     A Study of Imagism in The Waste LandA Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requ...
DedicationThere was a Door to which I found no Key:There was a Veil through which I could not see:  Some little Talk awhil...
AcknowledgementIt is a pleasure to express my gratitude wholeheartedly to my supervisor Dr. SaeedYazdani whose encourageme...
Table of ContentsDedication .................................................................................................
2.2.4. F.H. Bradley..................................................................................48         2.2.5. T.E...
Chapter Five: Conclusion5.1. Conclusion......................................................................................
AbstractThis study is a significant endeavor in promoting relationship between images inThe Waste Land and the way that it...
CHAPTER I                               INTRODUCTIONIn the present study T.S. Eliot‘s novelty in juxtaposition of a set of...
bring modern speech into poetry due to the abandoning conventional poeticmaterials and versification and free will to choo...
and the haiku (Traditional Japanese poetic form) and the removal of allunnecessary poetic verbiage from poems.  The word I...
These principles my seem like rules to follow writing an Imagist poem , butmany imagist poems in fact violate at least one...
also served as a teaching assistant. He deepened his reading in anthropology andreligion and took almost many courses in S...
almost twice as much material as the final published version. The significant cutsare in part due to Ezra Pound‘s suggesti...
1.3. Introduction to The Waste LandThe Waste Land (1922) is a highly influential 434-line poem by Thomas StearnsEliot (188...
Water. The title of the fifth section could be a reference to the fifth element ofAether (As we have in line 416_ ―only at...
He further acknowledged a general indebtedness to Sir James Frazer‘s TheGolden Bough (12 volumes, 1890-1975), in which Fra...
Weston and used a great variety of mythological and religious material, bothOccidental and Oriental. Eliot has painted a s...
echoes can never sustain themselves in the face of the radical anxieties andfractured outer world of the modern age. So, f...
Land as a ―piece of rhythmical grumbling‖, we can say that it belongs to thelyrical tradition. On the other hand Pound def...
other works of literature. There is a kind of variety of narration in unity through thepoem. The usage of different langua...
Land. It does not matter how discrete these images may appear. They areexpressions of a single personality and as Eliot me...
1.7. Materials and MethodologyPrimary sources for information and data are taken from published books andarticles. Due to ...
1. IntroductionThis is a general introduction to what the study is all about. The ImagistMovement, Eliot’s Life and Career...
4. Analysis of some Images of The Waste Land   In this part some lines of the poem from imagist retrospect are analyzed an...
Haiku: Unrhymed Japanese poetic form. It consists of 17 syllables arranged inthree lines of 5, 7, and 5 syllables, respect...
CHAPTER II                        LITERATURE REVIEW2.1. Imagism; Definitions from Past to Present2.1.1. The Origins of Ima...
The principal forerunner of imagism was Symbolism. In 1860‘s, a group of Frenchpoets declared war on romanticism. These po...
content. There have been the Cubism, the Fantasism, the Unanimism, the Dadaismand the Surrealism. With the exception of th...
In that year Ezra Pound had become interested in modern French Poetry; He hadbroken away from his old manner; and he inven...
up with earth. He may jump, but always returns back; he never flies away into thecircumambient gas‖ (Speculations, 1924). ...
American poet, arrived in Europe and settled in London. She was known to Poundin Pennsylvania. Soon she made the acquainta...
On Claudia Homonoea       Author unknown       I Homonoea, who was far clearer-voiced than the Sirens, I who was more gold...
poetry, it was a great blow to modern English poetry. In the meantime they foundan outlet for their works in the ―poetry R...
Hueffer, Allen Upward, and John Cournos. It was not a homogeneous collection,but at least it had a spirit of revolt. It wa...
Pound). Eventually six poets who became the official imagist (F.S. Flint, RichardAldington, H.D, John Gould Fletcher, D.H....
_ To allow absolute freedom in the choice of subject. It is not good art to write badly aboutaeroplanes and automobiles; n...
We can say that although imagism as an idea goes back to 1908 in England, as amovement it dates back to the publication of...
Two years spent in the study of Sanskrit under Charles Lanman, and a year in the mazes       of Patanjalis metaphysics und...
with a different meaning. To the gods it means Damyata -control yourself; to themen in conveys Datta -give in; and to the ...
dimensions to Eliot‘s work. These works were subtle and pervasive and affectedthe form as well as the matter of his poetry...
Cowley and others belong to the Elizabethan tradition and not to any school. Thedominant characteristics of Donne‘s poetry...
unite thought and feeling , which can fuse into the varied and disparate, oppositeand contradictory, experiences. The Eliz...
dissociation of sensibility set in, from which we have never recovered (The Metaphysical       Poets, 1921).  Eliot then p...
A GAME OF CHESS  The title of second part of the poem suggests two plays by Thomas Middleton(1580 _ 1627): A Game at Chess...
Sweet Thames, run softly till I end my song. (line 176)  ―V. Spenser, Prothalamion―(Eliot‘s note).Eliot‘s line is the refr...
Co co rico co co rico (line 393)  Cited from Hamlet, the crowing of the cock signals the departure of ghosts andevil spiri...
Eliot here referred to Arthur William Symons (1865 –1945) and his book ―TheSymbolist Movement in Literature―(1899).Eliot h...
In reading Yeats backwards from the point of final development to the earliestbeginning , Eliot is following a Yeatsian pr...
Kristian Smidt considered Bradleys influence on Eliot and writes:      We are not surprised to find that the philosophy wh...
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  1. 1. Islamic Azad University_Arak A Study of Imagism in The Waste LandA Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in English Literature By: Ehsun Mohammadi Supervisor: Dr. Saeed Yazdani Advisor: Dr. Mostafa Mirzaee Department of M.A English Literature Islamic Azad University_Arak December, 2009 1
  2. 2. DedicationThere was a Door to which I found no Key:There was a Veil through which I could not see: Some little Talk awhile of Me and TheeThere seemed -- and then no more of Thee and Me. ( Omar Khayyam / Translated by Edward FitzGerald )This thesis is dedicated to my parentsfor their love, endless supportand encouragement. 2
  3. 3. AcknowledgementIt is a pleasure to express my gratitude wholeheartedly to my supervisor Dr. SaeedYazdani whose encouragement, guidance and support from the initial to the finallevel enabled me to develop this study.I would also like to acknowledge the enormous debt of gratitude I owe to Dr.Mostafa Mirzaee for his guidance, perpetual energy, and sound advices in thisstudy.I should like to thank Dr. Shahram Afrooghe and Dr. Fatemeh Aziz Mohammadifor their constant support and encouragement during the writing of this thesis.I would like to take the opportunity to express my profound gratitude to mybeloved teacher Dr. Maryam Jahanmardi for broadening my horizons when skieswere gray. 3
  4. 4. Table of ContentsDedication ................................................................................................................IIAcknowledgements.................................................................................................IIIAbstract..................................................................................................................VIIChapter One: Introduction1.1. Introduction to Imagism....................................................................................81.2. A Short Look on T.S. Eliot‘s Life and Career.................................................111.3. Introduction to The Waste Land.......................................................................141.4. Statement of the Problem.................................................................................191.5. Research Questions...........................................................................................201.6. Significance of Study........................................................................................201.7. Materials and Methodology..............................................................................221.8. The Thesis Structure.........................................................................................221.9. Definition of the Key Terms.............................................................................24Chapter Two: Literature Review2.1. Imagism, the Definitions from Past to Present 2.1.1. The Origins of Imagism......................................................................26 2.1.2. Imagism as a Movement.....................................................................302.2. Theoretical and Methodological Considerations 2.2.1. Indian Thought.................................................................................37 2.2.2. The Metaphysical Poets..................................................................40 2.2.3. Symbolist Poets............................................................................46 4
  5. 5. 2.2.4. F.H. Bradley..................................................................................48 2.2.5. T.E. Hulme...................................................................................51 2.2.6. Haiku (A Threshold for Objective Correlative).......................................55 2.2.7. Cubism (A New Cognitive Order)......................................................61Chapter Three: Structure and Strategy in The Waste Land3.1. Structure of the Poem 3.1.1. The Epigraph and Dedication......................................................67 3.1.2. The Burial of the Dead.................................................................67 3.1.3. A Game of Chess..........................................................................69 3.1.4. The Fire Sermon...........................................................................71 3.1.5. Death by Water.............................................................................74 3.1.6. What the Thunder Said.................................................................753.2. Objective Correlative in The Waste Land..................................................793.3. Via Negative in The Waste Land...............................................................843.4. Impact of Imagism, Haiku, and Cubism in The Waste Land 3.4.1. Impact of Imagism in The Waste Land.........................................85 3.4.2. Impact of Haiku in The Waste Land.............................................88 3.4.3. Impact of Cubism in The Waste Land...........................................89Chapter Four: Analysis of Some Images in The Waste Land4.1 The Epigraph....................................................................................................934.2. The Burial of the Dead.....................................................................................944.3. A Game of Chess..............................................................................................964.4. The Fire Sermon...............................................................................................994.5. Death by Water...............................................................................................1004.6. What the Thunder Said...................................................................................101 5
  6. 6. Chapter Five: Conclusion5.1. Conclusion..............................................................................................1055.2. Limitations and Delimitations.................................................................1065.3. Suggestions for Further Research...........................................................107Bibliography............................................................................................109Persian Abstract.................................................................................................117 6
  7. 7. AbstractThis study is a significant endeavor in promoting relationship between images inThe Waste Land and the way that it conveys the meaning and structure of thepoem. The goal is to determine how a collection of images in The Waste Land canadd up anything more than simply a list of images. In fact, it is going to unify astyle in the poem that assembles a series of haiku like fragments. As Ezra Poundproclaimed that ―the image is itself the speech‖ (Vorticism, 1914), Eliot also usesclear, objective, precise, and concentrated images in The Waste Land. It does notmatter how discrete these images may appear. They are expressions of a singlepersonality ,Tiresias.There are multiplicity of voices in a variety of languages andstyles. In this regard, this study is helpful to convey the relationship betweenimagism as a movement in realm of literature and cubism as an avant-gardemovement in realm of painting in the 20th century. As Imagist poets haveinfluenced by Haiku, there are also footsteps of this traditional poetic form in TheWaste Land. There are also comparisons between elements, structure, and essenceof Haiku and imagist poems and also analysis of some haiku like lines in TheWaste Land. This study is beneficial to gain a better understanding of the poem‘sstructure and meaning through different vistas. Most of researches on The WasteLand has dedicated to the more significant aspects of poem such as it‘s symbolism,it‘s metaphysics, it‘s mythological and technical aspects. The Waste Land mayseems like a prism. It has the potentiality for heterogeneous or homogeneousinterpretations. In this study, the most significant concern is upon solving thestructure of these abstruse images and finding the proper way to analyse itsenigmatic arrangements. 7
  8. 8. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTIONIn the present study T.S. Eliot‘s novelty in juxtaposition of a set of disorderedimages in a series of haiku-like fragments lines in the most important poem of the20th century, The Waste Land, is argued. This thesis provides documentaryevidences in support of the existence of Imagist credo in The Waste Land. At thevery beginning, a general overview of the Imagist Movement and The Waste Landis presented. Literature Review is followed by Definitions, Theoretical andMethodological Considerations, and The Significance of the Study. Next,Structure, Strategy, and impacts of Imagism, Haiku, and Cubism on the poem aretaken in to consideration. Finally, the accuracy of Imagism is examined throughthe poem. Moreover, the scope of the study and its delimitations are established. 1.1. Introduction to ImagismImagism was a movement in early years of the 20th- century of Anglo-Americanpoetry. It was a revolt against the sentimentalism and discursiveness of muchRomantic and Victorian poetry and as Joseph Frank claims, Imagism ‖opened theway for later developments by it‘s clean break with sentimental Victorianverbiage―(Toward a Cognitive Rhetoric of Imagism, 2004, p. 1). Imagism aims to 8
  9. 9. bring modern speech into poetry due to the abandoning conventional poeticmaterials and versification and free will to choose any subject to create its ownrhymes. Imagism uses common speech and presents an image or vivid sensorydescription which is hard, clear, and concentrated. Imagism focuses on the thing as thing .This characteristic mirrors contemporarydevelopments in avant-garde art, especially Cubism. Although imagism isolatesobjects through the use of what Ezra Pound (1885_ 1972) called luminous details,Pound‘s Ideogrammic Method of juxtaposing concrete instances to express anabstraction is similar to Cubism‘s manner of synthesizing, multiple perspectivesinto a single image. Imagist writers believed that Romantic art was over-subjective and argued for arenewed emphasis on the object-like nature of the art work. In fact, Imagism was areaction against what Ezra Pound called the ―rather blurry, messy...sentimentalistic mannerish‖ (A Glossary of Literary Terms, 1999, p.122) poetry atthe turn of the century. It was a return to what were seen as more classical values,such as directness of presentation and economy of language, as well as awillingness to experiment with non-traditional verse forms. As Imagism succeedssymbolism and also precedes surrealism, it is situated at the dawn of Classicalliterary Modernism. Most of the poets who were involved in imagism were based in London between1912 and 1918.Three British poets (Richard Aldington, F.S. Flint, and D.H.Lawrence) and four American poets (Ezra Pound, Hilda Doolittle (who had startedsigning her work H.D), Amy Lowell, and John Gould Fletcher) were more or lesscore group members. T.E. Hulme, a British writer who died in 1917 in World War1, was an influentialfigure for the Imagists before 1914. He was a student of Mathematics andPhilosophy. He had been involved in the setting up of the Poet’s Club in 1908 .In1908 he presented his paper A Lecture on Modern Poetry that was first publishedin 1938. He established the theoretical core for imagism. Hulme left the Poet‘sClub In 1909 and started meeting Flint and other poets in a new group whichHulme referred to as the Secession Club .They met at the Eiffel tower restaurant inLondon‘s Soho to discuss plans to reform contemporary poetry through free verse 9
  10. 10. and the haiku (Traditional Japanese poetic form) and the removal of allunnecessary poetic verbiage from poems. The word Imagist used publicly for the first time in 1912, when Pound wroteHD, Imagiste at the bottom of Hermes of the Ways before sending H.D.‘s poem toHarriet Monroe at Poetry in Chicago. In 1915 F.S Flint also claimed that Hulmehad actually used the term first at his Poet’s Club meeting before 1912. He claimedthat the origins of Imagism are to be found in two poems entitled, Autumn and ACity Sunset by T.E. Hulme. These two poems were published in January 1909 bythe Poet‘s Club in London in a booklet called For Christmas MDCCCCVIII. So,the origin of the term remains in dispute. Four Imagist anthologies were published between 1914 and 1918. Poundpublished an anthology under the title of Des Imagistes. It was published in 1914in London and soon became one of the most important and influential Englishlanguage collections. It was included thirty-seven poems. The other threeanthologies were edited by American Imagist Amy Lowell in April 1915, May1916, and April 1917, respectively. There is also another anthology that was published by Aldington in 1930 underthe title of Imagist Anthology. It was including all the contributors to the fourearlier anthologies with the exception of Lowell, Cannell, and Pound. It wasfollowed by critical debates about the place of the Imagists in the history of 20th-century poetry. The famous principles of imagism in which were illustrated by Pound in 1913,were the following: _ Direct treatment of ―thing‖, whether subjective of objective (The use of concrete imagery). _ To use absolutely no word that does not contribute to the presentation (A rigorous economy of language). _ As regarding rhythm: to compose in the sequence of the musical phrase, not in the sequence of the metronome (The use of vers libre). 10
  11. 11. These principles my seem like rules to follow writing an Imagist poem , butmany imagist poems in fact violate at least one principle or more. Therefore, asmany Imagist poems do not follow all the rules, an Imagist poem can not bedefined simply according to adherence to every principle. Despite the short life of movement, Imagism would deeply influence the courseof modernist poetry in the 20th-century, and as John Fuller mentioned, although―Imagism seems absurdly provincial, it‘s aims were at the centre of the wholeModernist programme in poetry‖ (Toward a Cognitive Rhetoric of Imagism, 2004, p. 1). 1.2. A Short Look at T.S. Eliot’s Life and CareerThomas Stearns Eliot (26 Sept. 1888 _ 4 Jan.1965), poet, critic, and editor, wasborn in St. Louis, Missouri. He was the seventh and youngest child of adistinguished family of New England origin. He was son of Henry Ware Eliot,president of the Hydraulic-Press Brick Company, and Charlotte Champe Stearns, aformer teacher and an amateur poet with a taste for Emerson. Both his parents‘families had emigrated from England to Massachusetts in the seventeenth century.His paternal grandfather William Greenleaf Eliot had moved to St. Louis in the1830‘s where he became a Unitarian Minister. As a young boy Eliot attended Miss Locke‘s primary school and Smith AcademyRecord. He graduated high school in 1905.In late September 1906 he began tostudy at Harvard University. He took classes from professors such as Paul ElmerMore, Irving Babbitt and George Santayana. They would later become Eliot‘s maininfluence in his reform mindedness. He attained a B.A at Harvard in 1909.He also stayed to earn a Master‘s Degree inEnglish literature. In the beginning of the fall in 1910, he went off to Paris to spenda year taking courses at the Sorbonne. When he returned to America, he alsoreturned to Harvard and continued on to take graduate courses in philosophy and 11
  12. 12. also served as a teaching assistant. He deepened his reading in anthropology andreligion and took almost many courses in Sanskrit and Hindu literature as well asphilosophy. In the academic year of 1914_1915, Eliot was awarded a traveling fellowship. Hechose to study in Germany, but the out break of First World War in August 1914caused him to leave Germany. He then went to London, where he would spend theremaining years of his life. Through a classmate of his from Harvard, Eliot metEzra Pound on September 22, 1914. This acquaintance was a transition in Eliot‘swork and literary career. Via his old Harvard friend, Scofield Thayer, Eliot was introduced to VivienHaigh Wood, a dancer and a friend of Thayer‘s sister. She was the polar oppositeto everything he had grown and used to be in his life. After only two months, hemarried Vivien on Jun 26, 1915.Eliot‘s parents were shocked. The marriage causeda family break, but it also marked the beginning of Eliot‘s English life. To pleasehis parents, he finished his doctoral dissertation, ―Experience and the Object ofKnowledge in the Philosophy of F.H. Bradley ―. In 1915 Eliot published his poemThe Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock in the June issue of the Chicago MagazinePoetry. This was Eliot‘s first major publication. The love song of J. AlfredPrufrock became the central piece of Prufrock and other Observations (1917), acollection that only contained twelve poems. He finished his dissertation in April1916, but did not receive his degree because he was reluctant to take a trip toAmerica during the War. He then became assistant editor of the avant-gardemagazine the Egoist. In spring 1917 he found steady employment in the foreignsection of Lloyds Bank. Eliot founded The Criterion, a journal where he would write and publish essaysand volumes of literary and social criticism , in 1922.He would not achievefinancial security until he joined the publishing firm of Faber and Gwyer (later tobe Faber and Faber ) in 1925.Eliot‘s years of literary maturation wereaccompanied by increasing family tensions. His father died in January 1919. At thesame time Vivien‘s emotional and physical health became worse. These tensionsled to a nervous break down in 1921. On his physician‘s advice, he recuperated ina sanitarium in Lausanne, Switzerland. During his stay he finished writing of TheWaste Land. The drafts of the poem reveal that the poem originally contained 12
  13. 13. almost twice as much material as the final published version. The significant cutsare in part due to Ezra Pound‘s suggestions, although Eliot himself was alsoresponsible for removing sections. Eliot would later dedicate the poem to EzraPound, il maglior fabbro. He returned from Lausanne in early January 1922.In June 1927 Eliot became aBritish citizen and a member of the Church of England. In 1928 he collected agroup of politically conservative essays under title of For Lancelot Andrews. It wasprefaced with a declaration that Eliot considered himself a ―Classicist in literature,Royalist in politics, and Anglo-Catholic in religion‖. From this point onwards,religious themes became a vital part of Eliot‘s poetry, going from Journey of TheMagi (1927), to Ash Wednesday (1930) and Murder in the Cathedral (1939). Hislast major work of non-dramatic poetry was Four Quartets (1943), which werefour previously published poems in which gathered into one volume. Eliot‘s earlier writings were mostly influenced by his inspiration from Dante, buthis later poetry was mainly influenced by the Church of England and his dedicationin Christianity. In 1948 Eliot received the Noble Prize for literature. By 1950 hisauthority had reached a level that seemed comparable to figures like SamuelJohnson and Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Vivien died in January 1947.In January of 195, Eliot surprised every one whoknew him, when he married Valeria Fletcher, his secretary at Faber and Faber.Eliot enjoyed his second marriage in the last years of his life. He gained thephysical closeness with Valeria that he never had with his first wife. Due to hisailing health, his happiness was short lived. After fighting emphysema for severalyears, he died in his home in London on January 4, 1965, just six days before hiseighth wedding anniversary. According to his own instructions, his ashes were interred in the Church of St.Michael‘s in East Coker. A commemorative plaque on the church wall bears hischosen epitaph lines chosen from Four Quartets: In my beginning is my end. In myend is my beginning (East Coker, No. 2 of ‗Four Quartets‘, 1943). 13
  14. 14. 1.3. Introduction to The Waste LandThe Waste Land (1922) is a highly influential 434-line poem by Thomas StearnsEliot (1888-1965). Eliot worked on The Waste Land for several years precedingits first publication in 1922.The poem was first published in England , withoutEliot‘s notes , in the first issue (October 1922) of The Criterion ( a literarymagazine started and edited by Eliot himself ). Although there are several signs ofsimilar adjustments made by Eliot, the most significant editorial input is made byEzra Pound. The original title for The Waste Land was ―He do the police in different voices‖.The line, comes from Charles Dickens‘ novel Our Mutual Friend (1864-65). It isalso describe that widow Betty Higden, says of her adopted foundling son Sloppy‖You might not think it , but Sloppy is a beautiful reader of a newspaper. He do thepolice in different voices.‖ As The Waste Land is composed of many voices, this would help us tounderstand that, while there are many different voices in the poem, there is onecentral consciousness. The poem is preceded by a Latin epigraph from TheSatyricon of Petronius. It is a dedication for Ezra Pound: il miglior fabbro (thebetter crafts man).The Waste Land is consists of five parts: 1) The Burial of the Dead 2) A Game of Chess 3) The Fire Sermon 4) Death by Water 5) What the Thunder Said The first four sections of the poem are corresponded to the Greek classicalelements of Earth (Burial), Air (title for this section was ―In the Cage‖. An imageof hanging in air and element of Air also comes to the mind), Fire (Passion), and 14
  15. 15. Water. The title of the fifth section could be a reference to the fifth element ofAether (As we have in line 416_ ―only at night fall aetherial rumours ―). The text of the poem is also followed by several pages of notes, purporting toexplain his metaphors, references, and allusions. The first three parts coverdifferent aspects of modern life which present a barren land. In the last two partsEliot essays out the possibility of the rebirth of this waste land through thecultivation of true spiritual values. The Waste Land is a poem about spiritual dryness, about the kind of existence inwhich no regenerating belief gives significance. It is describing a mood ofdisillusionment as consequences of experiences of the First World War and alsofrom Eliot‘s personal life. It has embodiment of barrenness of a post _ war worldin which human sexuality diverge from its normal course and the natural worldbecome infertile. This is a new industrialized society in which suffers from lack oftraditional structures of authority and belief in a barren land. This modern wasteland is fulfilled with sense of destruction of the sensitive individual by the sordidsurrounding and by the perversion of ancient values. The Waste Land has structured on five motifs: the nightmare journey, the Chapel, the Quester, the Grail Legend , and the Fisher King. Eliot himself gives one ofthe main clues to the theme and structure of the poem in a note: Not only the title, but the plan and a good deal of the incidental symbolism of the poem were suggested by Miss Jessie L. Westons book on the Grail legend: From Ritual to Romance (Macmillan). Indeed, so deeply am I indebted, Miss Westons book will elucidate the difficulties of the poem much better than my notes can do; and I recommend it (apart from the great interest of the book itself) to any who think such elucidation of the poem worth the trouble. To another work of anthropology I am indebted in general, one which has influenced our generation profoundly; I mean The Golden Bough; I have used especially the two volumes Adonis, Attis, Osiris. Anyone who is acquainted with these works will immediately recognize in the poem certain references to vegetation ceremonies (Eliot‘s note).Weston‘s study traced the relationship of these myths and rituals to Christianityand most especially to the legend of the Holy Grail. She found an archetypalfertility myth in the story of the Fisher king. 15
  16. 16. He further acknowledged a general indebtedness to Sir James Frazer‘s TheGolden Bough (12 volumes, 1890-1975), in which Frazer deals with ancientvegetation myths and fertility ceremonies. The Waste Land springs from an oldCeltic belief in which the fertility of the land depend on the potency and virility ofthe king. In The Golden Bough, James Fraser (1854 _ 1941) identifies a similarritual in various cultures round the world. The King‘s life or spirit is so sympathetically bound up with the prosperity of thewhole country. The King‘s death, infirmity, or impotence will bring drought anddesolation to the land. It is also led to failure of the power to give birth to bothhumans and beasts. The disasters of the land are the direct result of sickness of theFisher King. When his power wanes, the land plagued with barrenness andsterility.In From Ritual to Romance (1920), Jessie Weston mentioned that: In the Grail king we have a romantic literary version of that strange mysterious figure whose presence hovers in the shadowy background of the history of our Aryan race; the figure of a divine or semi-divine ruler, at once god and king, upon whose life, and unimpaired vitality, the existence of his land and people directly depends (From Ritual to Romance, 1920, p.58).This barren land can be revived only if a ―questing Grail Knight‖ goes to thechapel perilous, and there asks certain ritual questions about the Grail and theLance, symbolically, female and male fertility symbols. The proper asking of thesequestions revives the King and restores fertility to the land. The relation of thisoriginal Grail myth to fertility cults and rituals are found in many differentcivilizations. It is also represented by stories of a dying god who is laterresurrected. It shows their common origin in a response to the cyclical movementof the seasons, with vegetation dying in winter to be resurrected again in the spring(That corpse you planted last year in your garden / Has it began to sprout? Will itbloom this year? / Or has the sudden frost disturbed it‘s bed?, lines 71_ 73). The Fisher king is related to the use of the fish symbol in early Christianity.Weston states that ― with certainty that the Fish is a life symbol of immemorialantiquity , and that the title of Fisher has , from the earliest ages , been associatedwith the Deities who were held to be specially connected with the origin andpreservation of life ‖ ( From Ritual to Romance , 1920 , p.90 ). Eliot also followed 16
  17. 17. Weston and used a great variety of mythological and religious material, bothOccidental and Oriental. Eliot has painted a symbolic picture of the modern wasteland and show the need for regeneration. The critic I.A. Richards (1893 _ 1979) influentially praised Eliot for describingthe shared post-war sense of desolation, of uncertainty, of futility, of thegroundlessness of aspirations and of the vanity of endeavors. This need forregeneration and presentation of European society‘s rebirth after the world war canalso symbolizes the renewal of poetic tradition in modernism. Eliot‘s use ofcomplex symbols and intricate imagery adds richness and variety to the texture ofthe poem. It is replete with luxuriant allusions to myths, rituals, religions, andhistory of past and present. One of The Waste Land‘s outstanding characteristic is it‘s role in rejection oftraditional meter, rhyme, and stanza form. Eliot makes use of a wide range ofmetrical patterns and rhyme schemes, as well as use of different techniques forstructuring his free verses. Seems chaotic, The Waste Land has fulfilled Pound‘sdictum that ―Rhythm must have meaning―. The Waste Land made use of allusion, quotation in different languages, a collageof poetic fragments to create the sense of speaking and variety of verse forms for aculture in crisis. Allusions in The Waste Land disperse clear meaning into othercontexts, undermine the notion of authentic speaking, and blur boundaries betweentexts. The Waste Land is an amalgam of quotations and of collection of fragments. Atthe opening there are the snatches of conversations. Then the poem goes on withthe addition of fragment to fragment, until all the broken images are assembled into the heap which is the poem itself. There is a concern with the possibility of anew kind of thinking in images, a logic of images that is multi-dimensioned in TheWaste Land. The method of assembling ―fragments‖ or ―broken images‖ from thepast in to a sort of mosaic allows Eliot to suggest parallels between contemporaryproblems and earlier historical situations. It has aimed to turn the reading processin to a model of modern, urban bewilderment. This method parallels the Cubist useof collage. There are constant echoes in The Waste Land of sorts of traditional forms ofdiscourse like Biblical utterance, blank verse, and formal lyric grace. But these 17
  18. 18. echoes can never sustain themselves in the face of the radical anxieties andfractured outer world of the modern age. So, for instance, the apparently formalpresentation of the lady (deliberately reminiscent of Shakespeares description ofCleopatra) in the second part of poem, A Game of Chess ―The Chair she sat in, likea burnished throne, Glowed on the marble―(77_79), cannot sustain emotionalstability and later breaks into the neurotic conversation of an anxious pair fightingoff images of rats eating up the dead: "My nerves are bad to-night. Yes, bad. Stay with me."Speak to me. Why do you never speak. Speak. "What are you thinking of? What thinking? What?"I never know what you are thinking. Think." I think we are in rats alleyWhere the dead men lost their bones. (lines 111 _ 116) The personality is by no means unified in the poem. We have a multiplicity ofvoices, male and female, young and old, in a variety of languages and styles. Theshifts are unannounced, so that often we do not even know who is speaking. Butthe unity of the poem emerges from the fact that these all merge into a singlepersonality, something we might call the voice of the modern consciousness. Thefact that this modern consciousness cannot settle into a fixed perception of thingsor even into a consistent language helps to convey sense of the strain of modernliving. In fact, what emerges from the poem as a principal concern is the inabilityof the modern consciousness either to see unity in the world outside or to bring to adisordered world any sense of inner integrity. Part of this sense of the totality of themodern self adding up to a fractured variety emerges, not just from the shiftingsense of the images and the speaking voice, but also from the variety in the versestyle. Its as if in the modern age, there cannot be a single authoritative way ofexpressing how one feels. There is not enough confidence in the forms of languageitself. Just as the traditional community has become the unreal city, a vision of amodern inferno. So, the traditional language of the community in the modernpersonality has become a multiplicity of contrasting styles in the poem. The poemalso contains both lyric and epic elements. Eliot once described The Waste Landas ―the relief of a personal and wholly insignificant grouse against life... just apiece of rhythmical grumbling‖ (Community, religion, and literature: essays, 1995, p.98).Eliot has also defined the lyric as ―the voice of the poet talking to himself, or tonobody‖ (The Three Voices of Poetry, 1954). If we accept his description of The Waste 18
  19. 19. Land as a ―piece of rhythmical grumbling‖, we can say that it belongs to thelyrical tradition. On the other hand Pound defined epic as a ―poem includinghistory‖. The Waste Land also contains history. It has contained bothcontemporary history and the history of the world in mythological terms. The Waste Land is a poem about the proper and the improper. It‘s respect fortradition, order in social propriety, and also jealous guarding of boundaries, arewhat we call the proper side of the poem. The poem also returns to impropersexual desire, temptations, use of quick juxtapositions, blurring boundariesbetween things, and confusingly different characters and voices are also what wemight call improper side of poem. In fact, much of incidents of poem come frominterweaving of sterile propriety and fertile impropriety. 1.4. Statement of the ProblemThe aim of this thesis is to consider the multiplicity of dissolving images in TheWaste Land and its relationship in enrichment of content and meaning in the poem.While Eliot juxtaposed so many perspectives in seemingly set of disjointed images,there is ―painful task of unifying .., jarring and incompatible perspectives― in TheWaste Land. Although The Waste Land may be the most analyzed poem of the20th century, certain passages and scenes remain elusive. The Waste Land isworked in the pattern of a collage as Eliot mentioned in his own phrase "a heap ofbroken images "(line 22). These set of "broken images" added up to the sum totalof the ruinous waste land, which is the most conspicuous meaning in The WasteLand. Eliot forces multiperspectivism upon his readers. He juxtaposes so manyimages and object by so many characters and multiplicity of narration. It let us tobe aware of the limits of every perspective and of the desirability of moving fromone perspective to another. Like a Cubist painting, it let us to comprehend themultiple perspectives at once. Eliot‘s real novelty was his deliberate elimination ofall merely connective and transitional passages and building up of the total patternof meaning through the immediate juxtaposition of images without overtexplanation of what they are doing, together with his use of oblique references to 19
  20. 20. other works of literature. There is a kind of variety of narration in unity through thepoem. The usage of different languages and narrations in the poem helps to conveysense of the strain of modern living in modern waste land. 1.5. Research Questions_ How can a collection of images add up to anything more than simply a list ofimages in The Waste Land ?_ What is going to unify a style which assembles a series of haiku-like fragmentsin The Waste Land ?_ There are multiplicity of voices and narrations in The Waste Land. What is theaccumulation point for unifying of the voices, narrations, and images in The WasteLand ? 1.6. Significance of the StudyThis study is a significant endeavor in promoting relationship between images inThe Waste Land and the way that it conveys the meaning and structure of thepoem. The goal is to determine how a collection of images in The Waste Land canadd up anything more than simply a list of images. In fact, it is going to unify astyle in the poem that assembles a series of haiku like fragments. As Ezra Pound proclaimed that ―the image is itself the speech‖ (Vorticism, 1914),Eliot also uses clear, objective, precise, and concentrated images in The Waste 20
  21. 21. Land. It does not matter how discrete these images may appear. They areexpressions of a single personality and as Eliot mentioned ‖Tiresias, although amere spectator and not indeed a character, is yet the most important personage inthe poem, uniting all the rest‖ (Eliot’s note). There are multiplicity of voices in a variety of languages and styles. In thisregard, this study is helpful to convey the relationship between imagism as amovement in realm of literature and cubism as an avant-garde movement in realmof painting in the 20th century. In cubist art works, objects are broken up and thenreassembled in an abstracted form. The outcome represents itself in multitude ofview points. In this respect, the poem will be conveyed to find proper comparisonbetween imagism‘s ideogrammic method of juxtaposed images and cubism‘smanner of synthesizing multiple perspectives through a single image. These brandnew techniques in imagism are equiponderant in essence with these contemporarydevelopments in cubism. As Imagist poets have influenced by Haiku, there are also footsteps of thistraditional poetic form in The Waste Land. There are also comparisons betweenelements, structure, and essence of Haiku and imagist poem and also analysis ofsome haiku like lines in The Waste Land. This is beneficial to gain a better understanding of the poem‘s structure andmeaning through different vistas. Most of researches on The Waste Land hasdedicated to the more significant aspects of poem such as it‘s symbolism, it‘smetaphysics, it‘s mythological and technical aspects. The Waste Land may seemslike a prism. It has the potentiality for heterogeneous or homogeneousinterpretations. In this study, the most significant concern is upon solving thestructure of these abstruse images and finding the proper way to analyze itsenigmatic arrangements. 21
  22. 22. 1.7. Materials and MethodologyPrimary sources for information and data are taken from published books andarticles. Due to the shortage and inaccessibility of these sources, hard copies ofsome of articles and journals available via internet are used. Also literary websitesand collection of limited and full view eBooks in the internet have been used as thesecondary sources. The books that are translated in to the Persian are also referreddue to the inaccessibility of the original text. As there are several layers of meaning in the poem, multiple sources in realm ofliterature, visual arts, and painting have been used to confirm our hypothesis. Oneof the most useful tips could be given to this study is its reliance on the multiplicityof sources in confirmation of Imagism in the poem. To show the affirmation ofImagism in the poem, the structure of imagist poems is analyzed and then to findsome of these structures in The Waste Land is tried out. Some lines of the poem arecompared to the haiku and cubist painting to find some resemblance in theseseemingly distinct compasses. Eliot‘s own theories and definitions are used forconfirmation of hypothesis. Arguments and purposes are clear through precisetrace of these elements in scenes of The Waste Land. 1.8. The Thesis StructureThe outline of this study consist of five chapters , including an Introduction(chapter 1) , Literature Review (chapter 2), Structure and Strategy of The WasteLand (chapter 3), Analysis of some Images of The Waste Land (chapter 4), andConclusion (chapter 5). It is also followed by the References and Bibliography. 22
  23. 23. 1. IntroductionThis is a general introduction to what the study is all about. The ImagistMovement, Eliot’s Life and Career, and The Waste Land are brieflysummarized. Some of the reasons and overviews of main results are alsomentioned. It is followed by Statement of Problem, Research Questions,Significance of Study, Materials and Methodology, the Thesis Structure, andDefinition of the Key Terms of the study.2. Literature ReviewIt is subdivided into two sections. In the first section The Origins of Imagismand the Imagism as a Movement are discussed. In the second section formativeinfluences on Eliot in compilation of form, content, and structure of The WasteLand are explained as below: _ Indian Thought _ The Metaphysical Poets _ Symbolist Poets _ F.H. Bradley _ T.E. Hulme _ Haiku _ Cubism3. Structure and Strategy in The Waste LandIt is divided into three parts. In first part style and structure of the poem areexplained. In the second part Eliot‘s own theory, objective correlative, in TheWaste Land and via negative in the poem are discussed. The last part dedicatedto impact of imagism, haiku, and cubism in the poem respectively. 23
  24. 24. 4. Analysis of some Images of The Waste Land In this part some lines of the poem from imagist retrospect are analyzed and principles of Imagism in these lines are observed. 5. Conclusion It is contained of conclusions and it also regards limitations and delimitations of study and gives some suggestions for further researches. This part also followed by Bibliography and References. 1.9. Definition of the Key TermsImagism: Name given to a movement in poetry, originating in 1912 andrepresented by Ezra Pound, Amy Lowell, and others, aiming at clarity ofexpression through the use of precise and concrete visual images and suggestionrather than complete statement. In the early period often written in the French formImagisme.Cubism: A nonobjective school of painting and sculpture developed in Paris inthe early 20th century, characterized by the reduction and fragmentation of naturalforms into abstract, often geometric structures usually rendered as a set of discreteplanes. 24
  25. 25. Haiku: Unrhymed Japanese poetic form. It consists of 17 syllables arranged inthree lines of 5, 7, and 5 syllables, respectively. The form expresses much andsuggests more in the fewest possible words and encapsulates a single impression ofa natural object or scene, within a particular season. The haiku convention wherebyfeelings are suggested by natural images rather than directly stated has appealed tomany Western imitators since c.1905, notably the Imagists.Objective Correlative: Something (as a situation or chain of events) thatsymbolizes or objectifies a particular emotion and that may be used in creativewriting to evoke a desired emotional response in the reader.Via Negativa: Is a theology that attempts to describe God, the Divine Good, bynegation, to speak only in terms of what may not be said about the perfectgoodness that is God. It is an attempt to achieve unity with the Divine Goodthrough discernment, gaining knowledge of what God is not, rather than bydescribing what God is. 25
  26. 26. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW2.1. Imagism; Definitions from Past to Present2.1.1. The Origins of ImagismA search for the origins of imagism leads us far back into literature, as far as thebeginning of poetry. Imagism, like other movements in literature, was a reactionagainst the poetry of the immediate past in England and America. Chronologically,its sources consist of two sorts: Ancient and Modern. The sources of ancientliteratures were: Greek, Latin, Hebrew, Chinese and Japanese. The modern sourcewas French. The platform on which the imagists inaugurated their movement was not asdiverse as its origins. Its fundamental elements were basic and universal: Hardnessof outline, clarity of images, brevity, suggestiveness, and freedom from metricallaws. These and other imagist ideals could be drawn from Greek, Hebrew andChinese. The modern French influence was of special importance. It reinforced theimagist‘s belief in their neoclassicism. It offered them examples of organizedpoetry movements. It clarified their ideals and gave them a method of propaganda. 26
  27. 27. The principal forerunner of imagism was Symbolism. In 1860‘s, a group of Frenchpoets declared war on romanticism. These poets who took arms against theRomantics called themselves Parnassians. During the decade 1866_1876 theypublished three anthologies of poetry under the title of Le Parnasse Contemporain.Their ideals were orderliness and objectivity. Guided by a materialistic philosophy,they tended to present the phenomena of the external world and to suppress unduepersonal emotion. There were those among the Parnassians who could not satisfythemselves with objective realism. They developed more spiritual lines in whichbecame the inspiration for Symbolism. The two Parnassians mainly responsible for Symbolism were Paul Verlaine(1844_1896) and Stephane Mallarme (1842_1898). Both of them were disciples ofan earlier Parnassian, Charles Baudelaire (1821_1867), who is thereforeconsidered as the ―Father of Symbolism―. Their influence was also equaled by individualist, Arthur Rimbaud (1854_1891).In the early 1870‘s, he conceived a kind of poetry that was as an inspiration tomany of symbolists. In 1885 the word symbolism was first used as a rallying pointfor poets of the new order. The leader and the inventor of the name was JeanMoreas (1856_1910).The purpose of the symbolists was to combat the realisticmaterialism of the typical Parnassians and also to free French poetry fromconventional forms. They did not reject the objective method of presentation, buttried to give their images of externality a spiritual and symbolic value. They alsofavored individuality with its emphasis upon egoistic emotions. From 1885 until 1900 Symbolism was the dominant force in French Poetry.Although there were parallel movements, all these movements overlapped with andalso were submerged by Symbolism. Symbolism had general doctrine. So, therewere varied characteristics of its adherents. As there were extremely vaguesignificance of the term, restatement of principles was inevitable. It was alsoimpossible to unite all the symbolists under one banner. But the first officialregrouping occurred in 1891 by Ecole Romane. They dedicated their efforts to therecovery of the formality and restraint of Greek and Roman master. Theirpropaganda was so effective and many symbolists modified their style. The moreradical changes was on the way and there was also emergence of one ―ism― afterthe other. They were always toward greater freedom of form and novelty of 27
  28. 28. content. There have been the Cubism, the Fantasism, the Unanimism, the Dadaismand the Surrealism. With the exception of the last two, which appeared after thewar, all these groups may be considered as forerunners of the Imagism. A majorityof the imagists drew direct inspiration from the symbolists. Recently, an attempt has been made by a French critic to determine theconnection between symbolism and imagism. M.Rene Taupin, in a study entitledL’ Influence du Symbolism Francais sur La Poesie Americaine: (de 1910 a 1920),traced the rise of imagism: T.E. Hulme, an aestheic philosopher may quite reasonably called the ―Father of Imagism―. During the years 1908_1912 Hulme was the center of a group of writers, painters, sculptors, architects, and philosophers. In 1908 he founded the Poet‘s Club. Although none of the poets who became officially the imagists were members of this group. It was at this meetings that the first experimental imagist poems were read and discussed. In 1909 Hulme made the acquaintance of F.S. Flint. A dining and talking society developed out of this acquaintance. They held regular meeting on Thursday evenings at a restaurant in Soho, the Latin Quarter of London. In an article entitled ―The History of Imagism ― , which appeared in the Egoist for may 1 , 1915 , Flint tells of the activities of the group , and throws light on the origins of the imagist ideals : ―I think that what brought the real nucleus of this group together was a dissatisfaction with English poetry as it was then (and is still, alas!) being written. We proposed at various times to replace it by pure vers libre ; by the Japanese tanka and haikai ; We all wrote dozens of the latter as an amusement ; by poems in a Sacred Hebrew form ; ..... by rimeless poems like Hulme‘s ―Autumn― and so on. In all this Hulme was ringleader. He insisted too on absolutely accurate presentation and no verbiage ...There was also a lot of talk and practice among us, storer leading it chiefly, of what we called the image. We were very much influenced by modern French symbolist poetry ―(L‘ Influence du Symbolism Francais sur La Poesie Americaine: (de 1910 a 1920), 1975).He then goes on to recall that: The group died a lingering death at the end of its second winter. But its discussions had a sequel. In 1912 Ezra Pound published at the end of his book , Ripostes , the complete poetical work of T.E. Hulme, five poems , thirty _ three lines , with a preface in which these words occur: ―As for the future ,Les Imagistes, the descendants of the school of 1909 ( previously referred to as the school of Images ) have that in their keeping. (L‘ Influence du Symbolism Francais sur La Poesie Americaine: (de 1910 a 1920), 1975). 28
  29. 29. In that year Ezra Pound had become interested in modern French Poetry; He hadbroken away from his old manner; and he invented the term Imagisme to designatethe aesthetic of Les Imagistes. Most of Hulme‘s writing was in the form of brief notes in which intended solelyfor his own reference. In two instances his notes were expanded into completeessays after his death, Speculations (1924) and Notes on Language and Style (1917(post. 1924)). A considerable portion of Speculations is taken up with a discussion ofhumanism. In fact, the subtitle of the volume is Essays on Humanism and thePhilosophy of Art. The basic contention is that we have reached the end of ahumanistic period (which begun with the Renaissance). Hulme regards humanismas a disease. He believed that romanticism and the exaltation of the individual arethe inevitable result of humanism: We introduce into human beings the perfection that properly belongs only to the divine, and thus confuse both human and divine things by not clearly separating them (Speculations, 1924). He gives an exposition of Egyptian, Greek, and Byzantine art. Greek art andnineteenth century art are natural; ―The lines are soft and vital ―. So, they are enjoyable. Geometrical lines of Egyptian and Byzantine art arereappeared in twentieth-century art. The age of humanism is over, and personalitysubordinated to law again. The new art will not resemble the art of previousclassical periods. It will be the product of its own age and not a mere imitation.Hulme mentioned that it ―Will culminate, not so much in the mere complicatedones associated in our minds with the idea of machinery ―(Speculations, 1924). The similarity between the new and the old will be a tendency towardabstraction. He makes significant comments on romantic and classic aspects ofpoetry. He says: ―What I mean by classical in verse, then, is this. That even in themost imaginative flights there is always a holding back, a reservation. The classicalpoet never forgets this finiteness, this limit of man. He remembers that he is mixed 29
  30. 30. up with earth. He may jump, but always returns back; he never flies away into thecircumambient gas‖ (Speculations, 1924). He feels that we are at the end of a period of romanticism. The nineteenthcentury saw its climax. He says: ―We shall not get new efflorescence of verse untilwe get a new technique, a new convention, to turn ourselves loose in―. He goes onthat ―for every kind of verse there is a corresponding receptive attitude‖(Speculations, 1924). He also distinguished between imagination and fancy. He limits imagination tothe realm of the emotions and fancy to the realm of finite things. He thinks that it isfancy which must be the weapon of the modern poet. By means of fancy one isenabled to create the physical image which is the basis of poetic expression. Hesays ―Visual meaning can only be transferred by the new bowl of metaphors; proseis an old pot that lets them leak out. Fancy is not mere decoration added on to plainspeech. Plain speech is essentially inaccurate. It is only by new metaphors, that is,by fancy, that it can be made precise―. He concludes that ―a period of dry, hard,classical verse is coming.― He says ―a literature of wonder must have an end asinevitably as a strange land loses its strangeness when one lives in it. Wonder canonly be the attitude of a man passing from one stage to another, it can never be apermanently fixed thing―(Speculations, 1924). These hints and excerpts from his Speculations illustrate Hulme‘s power ofexpressions, and also to furnish his audience with the fundamental statements ofthe imagist point of view.2.1.2. Imagism as a MovementTo make Imagism anything more than a set of theories, there was a need for aliterary man to use these theories in concrete form. In 1909, Ezra Pound joinedHulme‘s group in London. In 1922, on the other hand, Hilda Doolittle, a young 30
  31. 31. American poet, arrived in Europe and settled in London. She was known to Poundin Pennsylvania. Soon she made the acquaintance with Richard Aldington. Theywere fascinated by Greek poetry. They also began writing poetry chiefly on Greekthemes, in vers libre. They brought to life rhythms and images which reflected thebeauty of an older age but also expressed something very modern. They shared aninterest in Greek poetry, especially the surviving fragment of the Lesbian poetessSappho. A directness which they felt had no equal in contemporary modes ofwriting in English. In 1911 Miss Harriet Monroe, an art critic of Chicago Tribune, also returned toAmerica from a visit to China. She set about raising five thousand dollars tosubsidize a magazine of which she was to be the editor. She asked subscriptions offifty dollars each from a hundred businessmen. In October 1912, she prepared thefirst issue of Poetry: A Magazine of Verse. Pound was it‘s foreign representativeand correspondent. He sent the first six imagist poems to the magazine, three byAldington and three by H.D. One of the poems that first published in Poetry: A Magazine of Verse and later inthe first Imagist anthology was H.D‘s Epigram. The poem is an adaptation of aGreek epigram of unknown authorship:―The Golden one is gone from the banquets; She, beloved of Atimetus, The swallow, the bright Homonoea; Gone the dear chatterer.‖ (Modernism: a short introduction, 2004, p.4) H.D.‘s method can understand better with reference to the original form. This isan epitaph which appears in the Greek Anthology, and which can be found asepigram no. XLVI in the Epitaphs section of J.W. Mackail‘s selected Epigramsfrom the Greek Anthology (1907). This tiny volume , which does not include translations , is itself almost a modelfor the Imagist anthologies , presenting the most gracefully concise writing to befound in ancient Greek literature. The original occupies six lines, and can be foundin translation in this form: 31
  32. 32. On Claudia Homonoea Author unknown I Homonoea, who was far clearer-voiced than the Sirens, I who was more golden than the Cyprian herself at revellings and feasts, I the chattering bright swallow lie here , leaving tears to Atimetus, to whom I was dear from girlhood ; but unforeseen fate scattered all that great affection. H.D.‘s version is more economical, more oblique, and more neutral in tone thanthe translation. She is not simply rendering the Greek epigram, but transforming itinto an idiom which is, if possible, even more epigrammatic. The content of theoriginal is certainly simplified and reduced , and this is done with a view toremoving its overt emotion .The translation exploits the pathos of the deadspeaking her own epitaph , but H.D.‘s version , in which the first person hasdisappeared , is in this respect closer to the original. To the issue for January 1913 Pound contributed, in addition to H.D.‘s threepoems, some literary notes, in which he mentioned the imagists as a group. To theissue of March 1913, Pound set down the principles of Imagism. These principleswere printed over the signature of F.S. Flint in what purported to be an interviewwith an imagist. As a matter of fact it was a statement by Pound. In the samenumber A few Don’ts by an Imagiste appeared, signed by Pound himself.In the Interview the four principles of imagism were as:_―Direct treatment of the ―thing‖, whether subjective or objective.‖_―To use absolutely no word that does not contribute to the presentation.‖_―As regards rhythm, to compose in sequence of the musical phrase, not in sequence of ametronome.‖_ ―To conform to the ―doctrine of the image‖_ which the author says has not been defined forpublication, as it does not concern the public and would provoke useless discussion.‖ There was the problem of an organ of imagist expression in England. In 1909Ford Maxom Hueffer (now Ford Madox Ford) founded the English Review. One ofhis purposes was to publish the work of interesting new writers. After a year and ahalf a new editor was installed. As Hueffer was sympathetic toward the new 32
  33. 33. poetry, it was a great blow to modern English poetry. In the meantime they foundan outlet for their works in the ―poetry Review‖, a monthly magazine, and also inits successor, Poetry and Drama a quarterly. These magazines were published byHarold Monro. He had a bookshop. It was opened in January 1912 and created acenter of poetic interest in London. From this center periodical and volumes ofpoetry in which the imagists have had a considerable share were issued. Poetry and Drama suspended publication at the end of 1914. Five years later, itsplace was taken by The chapbook: A Monthly Miscellany. It was also suspendedafter four years of publication. There was a need for something to be able to secure the publication of a certainnumber of poems and critical articles. In June 1913 a fortnightly paper, The NewFreewoman: An Individualist Review was published. It‘s founders were MissHarriet Shaw Weaver (1876_1961) and Miss Dora Marsden (1882 _1960). Poundconvinced them that what they needed for their publication was as up to dateliterary department. An agreement was reached and the name of the paper waschanged to the Egoist. The subtitle, An Individualist Review was retained. The firstnumber of the Egoist appeared in January 1914. In January 1915 it became amonthly, and remained such until December 1919, when it was suspended frompublication. In the summer of 1916, H.D and Aldington were both installed as assistanteditors. In June 1917 their names were omitted (Aldington having gone to the war).T.S. Eliot took their place and continued as assistant editor until publicationceased. The Egoist was composed of short articles on modern poetry, painting,sculpture, music, and so on. It was also contained original poems by the imagistsand their contemporaries. Many of the critical articles were pure propaganda forimagism or at least advertising for the imagists. It had small circulation and almostnone outside of England. Meanwhile, Pound was working at the publication of a volume of the newpoetry. He selected ten poems by Aldington and seven by H.D. He used thesepoems as a nucleus and also invited a number of contemporaries to contribute to it.He chose six of his own poems, took five from F.S. Flint, and took one fromCannell, Amy Lowell, William Carlos Williams, James Joyce, Ford Madox 33
  34. 34. Hueffer, Allen Upward, and John Cournos. It was not a homogeneous collection,but at least it had a spirit of revolt. It was completed late in 1913, and waspublished in March 1914 under the title of Des Imagistes: An Anthology. In England it was generally scorned. A few insulted readers returned their copiesto the poetry bookshop. In America, as Amy Lowell said, ―It was much, but veryignorantly, reviewed‖. The title was cryptic and the poems were based on newtechniques. There was also no preface to explain the technique or to indicate theideals of the poets. Ezra Pound‘s interest in the movement began to wane. He deserted the imagistmovement. His interest swung to Henri Gaudier-Brzeska and Wyndhan Lewis.Brzeska was a young French Sculptor living in London and Lewis was a brilliantEnglish painter, novelist, and critic. Pound evolved a new ―ism‖ more startlingthan imagism. This was Vorticism. New manifestoes were prepared and publishedin a pamphlet called Blast on June 20, 1914. However, only one more issue everpublished on July 1915. Early in the summer of 1914, Miss Amy Lowell, the large, affluent, blue-blooded, energetic, and well-educated poet of New England, arrived in Londonfrom Boston. She had met some of imagist poets before, on her previous visit toLondon in the summer of 1913.She had also contributed one poem to DesImagistes. Until her 1913 visit to London, her poetry had been entirely of theconventional rime-and-meter sort. The poem In a Garden (Pound used this poemin Des Imagistes) was her first attempt at vers libre. When she arrived in London,she was whole heartedly in favor of technical experimentation and innovation. Sheenvisaged herself in a triple role: First, as one of the principal poets of the group;second, as business agent for the others; third, as critical interpreter of the newpoetry in America. In July 17, 1914, a dinner was given by Amy Lowell at the Dieu DonnesRestaurant. Apart from Lowell, Richard Aldington, H.D, John Coarnos, JohnGould Fletcher, F.S. Flint, F.M. Hueffer, Ezra Pound, and Allen Upward, werethose who attended the dinner. Miss Lowell‘s contention was that the group muststick together for a period of at least three years. They must not desert the campuntil the battle had been won. Some she could not get on with (a man like Ezra 34
  35. 35. Pound). Eventually six poets who became the official imagist (F.S. Flint, RichardAldington, H.D, John Gould Fletcher, D.H. Lawrence, and Amy Lowell) weredetermined. Miss Lowell signed a contract with Messrs Houghton, Mifflin andcompany for the publication of three anthologies of imagist poetry, to be issuedseparately at yearly intervals. This contract was fulfilled, and the anthologiesappeared in 1915, 1916, and 1917. Ezra Pound, as acquired a new and to him more vital interests, refused to be inthe circle of Imagist any longer. He labeled the movement as Amygism when MissAmy Lowell became its leader. Later Pound said that ―Imagism was a point on thecurve of my development. Some people remained at that point. I movedon―(Hughes, 1972, p.38). The six imagist poets also struck a national balance: H.D, Fletcher and Lowellwere Americans. Aldington, Flint, and Lawrence were English men. This is whythe movement is referred to as Anglo American. Miss Lowell preferred that thecontents of anthologies be selected by all the poets represented. This plan wasadopted. In most cases the poet‘s own selection from his work was accepted. Tothe 1915 anthology a preface was attached. It was purporting to express theprinciples of the group. It was written by Aldington. It explains that the six poetsdo not ―represent a clique― but they ―are united by certain common principles ,arrived at independently. These principles are not new; they have fallen intodesuetude. They are the essentials of all great poetry, indeed of all great literature―.These principles are:_ To use the language of common speech, but to employ always the exact word, not the nearlyexact, nor the merely decorative word._ To create new rhythms _ as the expression of new moods _ and not to copy old rhythms, whichmerely echo old moods. We do not insist upon ―free verse‖ as the only method of writing poetry.We fight for it as for a principle of liberty. We believed that the individuality of a poet may oftenbe better expressed in free verse than in conventional forms. In poetry, a new cadence means anew idea. 35
  36. 36. _ To allow absolute freedom in the choice of subject. It is not good art to write badly aboutaeroplanes and automobiles; nor is it necessarily bad art to write well about the past. We believepassionately in the artistic value of modern life, but we wish to paint out that there is nothing souninspiring nor so old-fashioned as an aeroplane of the year 1911._ To present an image (hence the name, imagist).We are not a school of painters, but we believethat poetry should render particulars exactly and not ideal in vague generalities, howevermagnificent and sonorous. It is for this reason that we oppose the cosmic poet, who seems to usto shirk the real difficulties of his art._ To produce poetry that is hard and clear, never blurred nor indefinite._ Finally, most of us believe that concentration is of the very essence of poetry. These credos were summary of the fundamental propositions of Hulme andPound. The enormous amount of discussion which followed the publication of the1915 anthology led to the inclusion of another preface in the volume for 1916.Itwas written by Miss Lowell and was made to clear up the misunderstandingswhich had arisen and also to explain the principle of verse libre. In her Tendencies in modern American Poetry (1917), Miss Lowell gave a shortaccount of the movement: There will be no more volumes of ― Some Imagist Poets ―.The collection has done its work .These three little books are the germ , the nucleus , of the school; its spreading out , its amplification , must be sought in the published work of the individual members of the group.(Tendencies in modern American Poetry, 1917, p.255) In 1930, after the decline of the movements and its fellas, Aldington published ananthology entitled Imagist Anthology. It was not a propaganda and its purpose wasto present a juxtaposition of recent works by various poets who marched under theimagist banner. 36
  37. 37. We can say that although imagism as an idea goes back to 1908 in England, as amovement it dates back to the publication of Pound‘s article in poetry for March1913. Although certain of the imagist poets have continued to write in the imagistmanner, imagism as a movement ended with the publication of the fourthanthology in April 1917.2.2. Theoretical and Methodological Considerations2.2.1. Indian ThoughtEliots interest in Indian thought came largely through the influence of his teachersat Harvard, most notably Irving Babbitt, Charles Lanman, and James Woods. Themost important influence in Eliots Harvard days seems to have been IrvingBabbitt. Babbitt‘s system of thought was based upon the study of the Palimanuscripts, the earliest authentic Buddhist documents. Eliot later commented thatin Babbitt he found not merely a tutor, "but a man who directed my interests, at aparticular moment, in such a way that the marks of that direction are still evident"(Criterion, October 1933). After studying for one year in Paris which was a center for Sanskrit studies, hecame back at Harvard in September 1911, studied ancient Hindu literature andscriptures for two years under the guidance of Charles Lanman and also appliedhimself to the reading of Patanjalis Yoga-Sutras under the supervision of JamesWoods. After the spring of 1913, Eliot ceased to study the documents from theEast which, nevertheless, made a lasting impression on him. In his Page-Borbour lectures which he gave at the University of Virginia in 1933he made these comments about his courtship with the East: 37
  38. 38. Two years spent in the study of Sanskrit under Charles Lanman, and a year in the mazes of Patanjalis metaphysics under the guidance of James Woods, left me in a state of enlightened mystification. A good half of the effort of understanding what the Indian philosophers were after--and their subtleties make most of the great European philosophers look like schoolboys--lay in trying to erase from my mind all the categories and kinds of distinction common to European philosophy from the time of the Greeks. My previous and concomitant study of European philosophy was hardly better than an obstacle. And I came to the conclusion--seeing also that the influence of Brahmin and Buddhist thought upon Europe, as in Schopenhauer, Hartmann, and Deussen, had largely been through romantic misunderstanding--that my only hope of really penetrating to the heart of that mystery would lie in forgetting how to think and feel as an American or a European: which, for practical as well as sentimental reasons I did not wish to do (T. S. Eliot, After Strange Gods, pp. 40-41). This comment clearly shows the relationship of Eliot with Indian thought andreligion. A reading of Eliots poetry reflects the contribution and influence of theideas and wisdom of ancient India. In his poetry, references may be found to theVedas, the Upanishads, the Bhagavad-Gita, Patanjalis Yoga-Sutras, and Buddhistliterature. One of the most famous examples of Indian thought in Eliots poetry isfound in The Waste Land. In The Waste Land there are two well-known examplesof Hindu influence both coming at the end of the poem in the section entitled Whatthe Thunder Said. At the end we find the triple use of the word "Shantih" which isboth Vedic in origin and Upanishadic in content:These fragments I have shored against my ruinsWhy then Ile fit you. Hieronymos mad againe.Datta. Dayadhvam. Damyata.Shantih shantih shantih (lines 431_434)In his notes on The Waste Land, Eliot himself offers this explanation of the word: Shantih. Repeated as here, a formal ending to an Upanishad. The Peace which passeth understanding is our equivalent to this word ( Eliot‘s note ). There is also the threefold message of the thunder—Da Da Da which Eliot drewfrom the Brihadaran-yaka Upanishad. These three words stand for Datta,Dayadhvam, Damyata, respectively meaning "Give, Sympathize, Control." In theUpanishadic context, the meaning is symbolic. The terms sum up Prajapatisteaching to three kinds of his disciples, gods, men and demons. After their formaleducation, they ask him what kind of virtues they should obtain to lead ameaningful life and Prajapati responds with the same word, Da, three times each 38
  39. 39. with a different meaning. To the gods it means Damyata -control yourself; to themen in conveys Datta -give in; and to the demons is suggests Dayadhvam -becompassionate. These words at the end of the poem, along with shantih, haveelicited numerous interpretations.In this regard Amar Nath Dwivedi suggests that: The clear-cut hint of Eliot in using this highly symbolically event from the Upanishad is at the prevailing sterility in ― The Waste Land ― , which can hardly be turned into an oasis unless the virtues exhorted by Prajapati are earnestly practised by mankind. It shows also that Eliot wanted the poetic fragments of the Hindu Scriptures incorporated in ― The Waste Land ― to be read and understood in a way alien to Western habit of thought (T. S. Eliot: A Critical Study , 2OO2 , P.86 ). It seems that "Shantih, shantih, shantih" (line 434) is the hope drawn from thewisdom of the great Indian cultural tradition. In other words, Eliots concern in TheWaste Land was universal and he expresses his concern for world peace as theremedy to the inferno of modern life in Hindu terms to convey his global outlook.Dwivedi also has mentioned about Indian interpretation of The Waste Land: It appears from the bulk of The Waste Land that the poet was terribly moved by the chaotic world-order created by the World War I, the result of modern millions live alone. To escape from this lamentable situation, he turns to the wisdom of India. Further, the poet of The Waste Land "speculates on human destiny" which concerns the entire globe, and which transcends the man-made barriers of caste and creed, of colour and sex, of nationality and religion. The inclusion of Hindu religion and thought in The Waste Land constitutes a part of the poets international outlook (T. S. Eliot: A Critical Study, 2OO2, P.79). Indic texts acted not only as a repository of images and local allusion for Eliot,but often as a deliberately evoked catalyst for fundamental changes in his thoughtand style. In the major classics of Hindu and Buddhist traditions Eliot foundperspectives that intersected at crucial points with his own growing religiousconvictions, his work in philosophy, and his interest in techniques of meditationand their relation to writing. In general, however, these classics offered not simplypoints of confirmation of previously held ideas but valuable challenges toestablished points of view. Eliot learned to appreciate the multiple perspectivesinvolved in his Indic and Western studies. The juxtaposition of these differentconcepts and of the different cultural contexts from which they came, gave 39
  40. 40. dimensions to Eliot‘s work. These works were subtle and pervasive and affectedthe form as well as the matter of his poetry.2.2.2. The Metaphysical PoetsEliot regarded the Metaphysical poets as representatives of his ideologiesconcerning poetry. He had praised the metaphysical poets to a great extent. In hisessay, The Metaphysical Poets (1921), he has highlighted the appreciative featuresof metaphysical poets according to his own perception. In the essay, TheMetaphysical Poets, Eliot praises the metaphysical poets on the basis of theirsubject matter and their poetry. The Metaphysical Poets investigate the world byrational discussion based on its phenomena rather than by intuition or mysticism.By his essay, he draws people‘s interest towards metaphysical poets. The Metaphysical Poets was first published as a review of J.G. Grierson‘s editionof Metaphysical lyrics and poems of the 17th century. It is one of the mostsignificant critical documents of the modern age. It has brought about a revaluationand reassessment of interest in these poets who had been neglected for aconsiderable time. Eliot has thrown new light on the metaphysical poets, andshown that they are neither quaint nor fantastic, but great and mature poets. Theydo not represent a digression from the mainstream of English poetry, but rather acontinuation of it. Eliot examines the characteristics which are generallyconsidered metaphysical: First, there is the elaboration of a simile to the farthestpossible extent, to be met with frequently in the poetry of Donne and Cowley.Secondly, there is the device of the development of an image by rapid associationof thought requiring considerable agility on the part of the reader that is atechnique of compression. Thirdly, the Metaphysical poets produce their effects bysudden contrasts. Such telescoping of images and contrasts of associations are not a characteristicof the poetry of Donne alone. It also characterizes Elizabethan dramatists likeShakespeare, Webster, Tourneour and Middleton. This suggests that Donne, 40
  41. 41. Cowley and others belong to the Elizabethan tradition and not to any school. Thedominant characteristics of Donne‘s poetry are also the characteristics of the greatElizabethans. Eliot then takes up Dr. Johnson‘s (1709 _ 1784) famous definition ofMetaphysical Poetry, in which he has tried to define this poetry by its faults. Dr.Johnson in his Life of Cowley (published in 3 volumes between 1779 and 1781)points that in Metaphysical Poetry ―the most heterogeneous ideas are yoked byviolence together‖. But Eliot says that to bring together heterogeneous ideas andcompelling them into unity by the operation of the poet‘s mind is universal inpoetry. Such unity is present even in the poetry of Johnson himself, The Vanity ofHuman Wishes (1749). The force of Dr. Johnson‘s remark lies in the fact that in hisview the Metaphysical poets could only ―yoke― by violence dissimilar ideas. Theycould not unite them or fuse them into a single whole, however this is not a fact. Anumber of poets of this school have succeeded in uniting heterogeneous ideas.Eliot quotes from Herbert, Cowley, Bishop King and other poets to support hiscontention. Therefore, he concludes that Metaphysical poetry cannot bedifferentiated from other poetry by Dr. Johnson‘s definition. The fault, which Dr.Johnson points out, is not there, and the unity of heterogeneous ideas is common toall poetry. Eliot shows that Donne and the other poets of the 17th century, ―were the directand normal development of the precedent age‖ (The Metaphysical Poets, 1921), andthat their characteristic virtue was something valuable which subsequentlydisappeared. Dr. Johnson has rightly pointed out that these poets were ―analytic―;they were devoted to too much analysis and dissection of particular emotionalsituations. But Dr. Johnson has failed to see that they could also unite into newwholes the concepts they had analyzed. Eliot shows that their special virtue wasthe fusion of heterogeneous material into a new unity after dissociation. In otherwords, metaphysical poetry is distinguished from other poetry by unification ofsensibility. He mentioned that the great Elizabethans and early Jacobians had a developedunified sensibility which is expressed in their poetry. By ―sensibility― Eliot doesnot merely mean feeling or the capacity to receive sense impressions. By―sensibility― he means a synthetic faculty, a faculty which can amalgamate and 41
  42. 42. unite thought and feeling , which can fuse into the varied and disparate, oppositeand contradictory, experiences. The Elizabethans had such a sensibility. Eliot givesconcrete illustration to show that such unification of sensibility, such fusion ofthought and feeling, is to be found in the poetry of Donne and other Metaphysicalpoets, but it is lacking in the poetry of Tennyson, Browning and the RomanticPoets. He says that after Donne and Herbert, a change came over English poetry. Thepoets lost the capacity of uniting thought and feeling. The ―unification ofsensibility― was lost, and ―dissociation of sensibility― set in. After that the poetscan either think or they can feel; there are either intellectual poets who can onlythink, or there are poets who can only feel. The poets of the 18th century wereintellectuals. They thought but did not feel. The romantics of the 19th century feltbut did not think. They can merely reflect or ruminate and meditate poetically ontheir experience, but cannot express it poetically. Eliot says: Tennyson and Browning are poets and they think; but they do not feel their thought as immediately as the odor of a rose. A thought to Donne was an experience; it modified his sensibility. When a poet‘s mind is perfectly equipped for its work, it is constantly amalgamating disparate experience; the ordinary man‘s experience is chaotic, irregular, and fragmentary. The latter falls in love, or reads Spinoza and these two experiences have nothing to do with each other, or with the noise of the typewriter or the smell of cooking; in the mind of the poet these experiences are always forming new wholes (The Metaphysical Poets, 1921). In other words, the metaphysical poets had a unified sensibility which enabledthem to assimilate and fuse into new wholes with most disparate andheterogeneous experiences. They could feel their thoughts as intensely as the odorof a rose, that is to say they could express their thoughts through sensuousimagery. In his poems, Donne expresses his thoughts and ideas by embodyingthem in sensuous imagery and it is mainly through the imagery that the unificationof sensibility finds its appropriate expression. He added that: The poets of the seventeenth century, the successors of the dramatists of the sixteenth, possessed a mechanism of sensibility which could devour any kind of experience. They are simple, artificial, difficult, or fantastic, as their predecessors were; no less nor more than Dante, Guido Cavalcanti, Guinicelli, or Cino. In the seventeenth century a 42
  43. 43. dissociation of sensibility set in, from which we have never recovered (The Metaphysical Poets, 1921). Eliot then proceeds to examine the close similarity between the age of Donne andthe modern age, and the consequent similarity between the sensibility of theMetaphysicals and the modern poets. The Metaphysicals are difficult and the poetin the modern age is also bound to be difficult. Hence the modern poet also usesconceits and methods very much similar to those of the Metaphysicals who alsolived in complex and rapidly changing times. Like them the modern poet alsotransmutes ideas into sensations, and transforms feelings into thought or states ofmind: Our civilization comprehends great variety and complexity, and this variety and complexity, playing upon a refined sensibility, must produce various and complex results. The poet must become more and more comprehensive, more allusive, more indirect, in order to force, to dislocate if necessary, language into his meaning. (A brilliant and extreme statement of this view, with which it is not requisite to associate oneself, is that of M. Jean Epstein, La Poesie daujourd-hui.) Hence we get something which looks very much like the conceit - we get , in fact , a method curiously similar to that of the ― metaphysical poets ― , similar also in its use of obscure words and of simple phrasing (The Metaphysical Poets , 1921). Eliot attempted to value the Metaphysical poets and Jacobean playwrights overthe Victorians. As a great touchstone era, there are some references andadaptations, in which he directly used in The Waste Land, to poems and plays ofMetaphysical poets and Jacobean playwrights. Here are some examples in the text of the poem in which show that Eliot hasinfluenced by poets of metaphysical time:"Oh keep the Dog far hence, thats friend to men,"Or with his nails hell dig it up again! (lines 74_75) Cited from the dirge in Webster‘s White Devil ( Eliot‘s note ).In the play by JohnWebster ( 1580 _ 1634 ) , the dirge , sung by Cornelia , has the lines: ― But keepthe wolf far thence , that‘s foe to men , for with his nail he‘ll dig them up again.‖Eliot makes the Wolf into Dog, which is not a foe but a friend to man. 43
  44. 44. A GAME OF CHESS The title of second part of the poem suggests two plays by Thomas Middleton(1580 _ 1627): A Game at Chess, and, Women Beware Women.The Chair she sat in, like a burnished throne,Glowed on the marble (lines 77_78) Cited from Shakespeare‘s Antony and Cleopatra .In the play , Enobarbus‘sfamous description of the first meeting of Antony and Cleopatra begins : ― Thebarge she sat in , like a burnish‘d throne , Burn‘d on the water ... ―.As though a window gave upon the sylvan scene (line 98)Sylvan scene. V. Milton, Paradise Lost, iv.140.(Eliot‘s note).The phrase is part of the first description of Eden, which we see through Satan‘seyes.Jug jug jug jug jug jug (line 204)It is a conventional representation of nightingale‘s song in Elizabethan poetry.― What is that noise? ―The wind under the door. (lines 117_118) Cf. Webster: "Is the wind in that door still?" (Eliot‘s note).The line cited in thenote is from John Webster‘s The Devil’s Law Case.Good night, ladies, good night, sweet ladies, good night, good night. (line 172)Cf. the mad Ophelia‘s departing words (Hamlet 4.5.72). 44
  45. 45. Sweet Thames, run softly till I end my song. (line 176) ―V. Spenser, Prothalamion―(Eliot‘s note).Eliot‘s line is the refrain fromSpenser‘s marriage song, which is also set by the Thames in London, but a verydifferent Thames from the modern littered river.But at my back in a cold blast I hearThe rattle of the bones, and chuckle spread from ear to ear. (lines 185_186) It is an ironic distortion of Andrew Marvell‘s (1621 – 1678) To His CoyMistress:―But at my back I always hear / Time‘s winged chariot hurrying near―.Musing upon the king my brothers wreck (line 191)―Cf. The Tempest, 1.2 ―(Eliot‘s note).But at my back from time to time I hearThe sound of horns and motors (lines 196_197)Cf. Marvell, To His Coy Mistress (Eliots note).Twit twit twitJug jug jug jug jug jugSo rudely forcd. Tereu (lines 203_206) ―Tereu― is a reference to Tereus, who ―rudely forc‘d― Philomela; it was also oneof the conventional words for a nightingale‘s song in Elizabethan poetry. Cf. thesong from John Lyly‘s Alexander and Campaspe: ―Oh, ‗tis the ravishednightingale./Jug , jug , jug , jug , tereu! She cries, ―. 45
  46. 46. Co co rico co co rico (line 393) Cited from Hamlet, the crowing of the cock signals the departure of ghosts andevil spirits.2.2.3. Symbolist PoetsEliot owed a great deal to the French Symbolists and through Eliot the wholecourse of English poetry was influenced by them. The Symbolists wished toliberate poetry from its expository functions and its formalized oratory in order todescribe instead the fleeting, immediate sensations of man‘s inner life andexperience. They attempted to evoke the ineffable intuitions and sense impressionsof man‘s inner life and to communicate the underlying mystery of existencethrough a free and highly personal use of metaphors and images that, thoughlacking in precise meaning, would nevertheless convey the state of the poet‘s mindand hint at the dark and confused unity of an inexpressible reality. Theyconcentrated on the suggestive power of word music and on suggestion by meansof association of ideas. Their whole method was indirect. Stéphane Mallarmé (1842 – 1898), a major French symbolist poet, said ―my aimis to evoke an object in deliberate shadow without even actually mentioning it, byallusive words, never, direct words―. Eliot has acknowledged his debt to the Frenchsymbolists in these words: I myself owe Mr.Symons a great debt. But for having read his book I should not, in the year 1908, have heard of La Forgue and Rimbaud; I should probably not have begun to read Verlaine, and but for reading Verlaine I should not have heard of Corbiere. So the Symons‘s book is one of those that have affected the course of my life (The Achievement of T. S. Eliot: An Essay on the Nature of Poetry, 1947). 46
  47. 47. Eliot here referred to Arthur William Symons (1865 –1945) and his book ―TheSymbolist Movement in Literature―(1899).Eliot had found this book in the Libraryof the Harvard Union in 1908. So much did he appreciate the poems of Tristan Corbière (1845– 1875) and JulesLaforgue (1860 – 1887) that certain of his early poems show a closecorrespondence with some of theirs in tone, metre and even theme .In Corbiere, hefound the combination of romance and mockery. In both, tones were in irony andpathos and the style were mingled by slang and the poetic diction. Laforgue wasalso his master in conversational rhythm. While the details of Eliot‘s style show the mark of his responsive mastery of thelater symbolists, the impressions of William Butler Yeats (1865 – 1939) upon hisspirit has been more profound. Eliot was affected and deeply influenced both byYeats‘s sense of what it is to be a poet and by the example of the poet in whichYeats provided in his life and his work. Further more Eliot influenced to the degreethat he not only wrote one of his finest critical pieces as the Yeats memorial lectureof 1940, but also allowed phrases, ideas, and attitudes of the Yeats to enter his ownpoetry. Eliot writes that it was not Yeats‘s ideas or his attitudes and not even his stylethat was so important but rather it was ―the work, and the man himself as poet thathave been of the greatest significance‖, ―but the influence of which I speak is dueto the figure of the poet himself, to the integrity of his passion for his art and hiscraft‖ (The Cambridge companion to T.S. Eliot, 1994, P.5 ). Most extra ordinary in Yeats was the ―continual development‖ that exhibited inhis works. Behind that continual development, Eliot says that was the character ofthe artist as artist. This characteristic is discernable in every work of the poet, andit produces, according to Eliot, a superior impersonality in the work. In this impersonality, Eliot says ‖the poet who , out of intense and personalexperience, is able to express a general truth ; retaining all the particularity of hisexperience , to make of it a general symbol‖ (On Poetry and Poets , 1957). 47
  48. 48. In reading Yeats backwards from the point of final development to the earliestbeginning , Eliot is following a Yeatsian principle of poetic structuring , a poeticstructure in which called by Yeats , in the different context of ―A Vision‖ , ‖TheDreaming Back‖.2.2.4. F.H. BradleyEliot settled on the philosophy of F.H. Bradley (1846 –1924) as the topic of hisdoctoral research. Eliot‘s thesis originally titled Knowledge and Experience in thePhilosophy of F. H. Bradley. It was completed and sent to Harvard by April1916.The thesis was enthusiastically received by the Harvard faculty. Eliot‘sfailure to return for his oral defense (wartime conditions made it difficult and riskyto cross the Atlantic Ocean) prevented him from being awarded his doctorate inphilosophy. Since Eliot‘s critical career so closely follows his intense study ofBradley and since he himself recognized an influence of Bradley in his own prosestyle and poetry, many have insisted that Bradley‘s Philosophy is the key tounderstanding Eliot‘s practice and theory of criticism. Ann Bolgan who wrote her dissertation on Eliot‘s involvement with Bradleyianmetaphysics states the following in the introduction to her thesis: It is the specific objective of this dissertation to assert that every major critical concept which appears in Mr. Eliots literary criticism—many of which initiated such stubborn controversies—emerges from his radical absorption in and criticism of Bradleys philosophy, and the content of my dissertation is but a demonstration of the way in which these notions and concepts originate in Bradley, are digested and recorded by Eliot as he writes his own Ph. D. dissertation between 1914 and 1916 and reappear beginning a year or two later, now in new, full, literary dress in Mr. Eliots reviews and essays (What the Thunder Said: Mr. Eliots Philosophical Writings ,1960, p. 44). 48
  49. 49. Kristian Smidt considered Bradleys influence on Eliot and writes: We are not surprised to find that the philosophy which seems to have exercised the strongest influence on Eliots poetry is that which he studied with the greatest application, namely that of Francis Herbert Bradley, particularly Bradleys theory of knowledge. His entire poetical output may be regarded, if one chooses, as a quest for knowledge-not necessarily of a rational kind-and one frequently recognizes in it Bradleys ideas in poetic costume. They are often indistinguishable from those of Royce and other Idealists, but , recognizing the importance of Bradley to Eliot, we may let his name stand for them all where they are in general agreement (The Intellectual and Religious Development of T. S. Eliot , 2003 , p.7). Best of all are Eliots own words to the effect of Bradley on his work. In ToCriticize the Critic (1965) Eliot wrote: But I am certain of one thing: that I have written best about writers who have influenced my own poetry. And I say writers and not poets, because I include F. H. Bradley, whose works-I might say whose personality as manifest in his works-affected me profoundly (To Criticize the Critic and Other Writings, 1991, p.20). Interesting connections can be drawn between Bradley and Eliot‘s criticism,apart from their shared style of urbane skeptical critique. As we have mentioned,Eliot‘s dissertation is focused on Bradley‘s epistemology. Bradley dividedcognition into three stages. The first exists prior to (and beneath) consciousness ofconsciousness, the second consists of consciousness of consciousness, and the thirdinvolves a transcendence of consciousness of consciousness. The movement fromthe immediate experience of the first level to the intellectual experience of thesecond is accompanied by the intrusion of language, by the rise of objects, and bythe fragmentation of reality. The movement from the second to the third levelinvolves a transcendence of brokenness and a return on a higher level to the unityof the first level. Both in his dissertation and in his literary criticism, Eliot oftenrefers to the first level as feeling, the second as thought, and the third as aunification of the first two. Perhaps the most important is Bradley‘s Hegelian holism .It is an organicismwhere the meaning of any thing is never autonomously given but always a functionof its place and interrelations with other things in a wider whole. This is congenialto Eliot‘s theory of tradition, where the meaning of a poet or a work of art dependson its relations with all the other elements in the tradition. The theory of tradition is 49

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