Language, Culture, and Software

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Language, Culture, and Software, Uta Seewald-Heeg, (ESUG 2004, Koethen)

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Language, Culture, and Software

  1. 1. Language, Culture, and Software Uta Seewald-Heeg ESUG 2004 Hochschule Anhalt (FH), Köthen 9 September 2004
  2. 2. Language tree Baum arbre дерево albero ?
  3. 3. Language after Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913) concept image acoustique Baum signifié signifiant
  4. 4. Language • System of signs • By convention • System of signs • By convention
  5. 5. Structural Differences between Languages dt. Schloss château castle fr. serrure lock MannMensch homme mari époux Ehemann
  6. 6. Communication Knowledge Language Sender Message Medium Receiver Relation Content Channel Knowledge Language Culture Culture
  7. 7. Culture Culture lat. colere, to build on, to cultivate, to foster Culture lat. colere, to build on, to cultivate, to foster
  8. 8. Culture • Theory for interpreting the world and knowing how to behave [Gudykunst & Kim 1984:13] • Ideals, values, and assumptions about life that are widely shared among people and that guide specific behaviours [Brislin 1993] • Theory for interpreting the world and knowing how to behave [Gudykunst & Kim 1984:13] • Ideals, values, and assumptions about life that are widely shared among people and that guide specific behaviours [Brislin 1993] luck wealth creativity generosity honesty vicious unclean parasitic spread disease steal food
  9. 9. Different traditions – different expectations
  10. 10. Different traditions – different expectations
  11. 11. Different traditions – different expectations
  12. 12. Language and Culture • Language is the dominant sign of any culture. • The language of any group is directly connected to the world view of the group. • Humboldt: "Die Verschiedenheit der Sprachen ist nicht eine Verschiedenheit an Schällen und Zeichen, sondern eine Verschiedenheit der Weltansichten." • Language is the dominant sign of any culture. • The language of any group is directly connected to the world view of the group. • Humboldt: "Die Verschiedenheit der Sprachen ist nicht eine Verschiedenheit an Schällen und Zeichen, sondern eine Verschiedenheit der Weltansichten."
  13. 13. Languages and Cultures D I FC2 C3 C1 C4 C5 C6 C7
  14. 14. Language and Culture
  15. 15. Globalization and Cultural Differences • Globalization – We are connected, interchanged, denationalized – Influence on the national cultures – The world is interconnected – Flow of information has only very limited borders [Stephan Dahl , http://www.stephweb.com/capstone/0.htm, 30.08.2004] • Globalization – We are connected, interchanged, denationalized – Influence on the national cultures – The world is interconnected – Flow of information has only very limited borders [Stephan Dahl , http://www.stephweb.com/capstone/0.htm, 30.08.2004]
  16. 16. Globalization and Cultural Differences • Despite Globalization – We are not the same – Some people still refuse to become world citizens – Somehow the British are still British, and the Germans still Germans – We still speak different languages [Stephan Dahl , http://www.stephweb.com/capstone/0.htm, 30.08.2004] • Despite Globalization – We are not the same – Some people still refuse to become world citizens – Somehow the British are still British, and the Germans still Germans – We still speak different languages [Stephan Dahl , http://www.stephweb.com/capstone/0.htm, 30.08.2004]
  17. 17. Software
  18. 18. Software as communication • Software is communication – Communication with a machine (HCI) – Communication between the client, the software architect, the software engineer, and the coder • Software must be readable • Software must be understandable • Software is communication – Communication with a machine (HCI) – Communication between the client, the software architect, the software engineer, and the coder • Software must be readable • Software must be understandable Knowledge Language Sender Message Medium Receiver Relation Content Channel Knowledge Language
  19. 19. Software Quality Characteristics Source:
  20. 20. Users • Basic activities: – Knowing – Changing – Managing • Types of users: – naive – uninitiated – expert Anthony A. Aaby 2004-01-21, http://cs.wwc.edu/~aabyan/FAS/book/node120.html ] • Basic activities: – Knowing – Changing – Managing • Types of users: – naive – uninitiated – expert Anthony A. Aaby 2004-01-21, http://cs.wwc.edu/~aabyan/FAS/book/node120.html ]
  21. 21. Users • want to maximize their efficiency and effectiveness • differ in perceptual and psychomotor abilities • speak different languages • want to maximize their efficiency and effectiveness • differ in perceptual and psychomotor abilities • speak different languages • Values of the users drive user interface design activities – Human Centred Design (DIN EN ISO 13407) • Values of the users drive user interface design activities – Human Centred Design (DIN EN ISO 13407)
  22. 22. Software Localization Adaptation, i.e. translation of software products or Web-sites to a local market – with linguistic characteristics – with cultural characteristics – with desired look-and-feel – with special technological methods and tools Adaptation, i.e. translation of software products or Web-sites to a local market – with linguistic characteristics – with cultural characteristics – with desired look-and-feel – with special technological methods and tools
  23. 23. Graphical User Interface Visual Design Elements • Dialog boxes – Specification of options – Often as register cards • Menus – Menus with elliptic elements (…) lead to dialog boxes • Strings – Error messages, questions etc. – Difficult translation, no context information • Icons
  24. 24. Linguistic Adaptation !
  25. 25. Quality of Localization
  26. 26. Adaptation of Shortcuts
  27. 27. Localizing Software • Globalization (G11N) • Internationalization (I18N) • Localization (L10N) • Globalization (G11N) • Internationalization (I18N) • Localization (L10N)
  28. 28. Internationalization Development of a cultural model – Comparison of the similarities and differences of two or more cultures – Use of international variables • Categories organizing cultural data • Cultural data – reflection of national, corporate cultures, cultures of international markets – Useful to assess the degree of localization
  29. 29. Examples of Cultural Variables •Level of technologyTechnological •The target language •Official national language •Text orientation •Writing style Linguistic •Literacy •Common body of knowledge •Learning style Educational •Significance of religion/spirituality •Taboos: Food, behaviors and relationships Religious/Spiritual •Importance of age •Business etiquette •Family and social interaction •Discrimination and prejudice •Popular culture Social Organization •Wealth perception •Overall economic status Economic •Trade issues •Legal issues •Political tradition and symbolism Political http://www.ccrs.nrcan.gc.ca/ccrs/learn/tutorials/geotraining/variab_e.html
  30. 30. Internationalization • Dates and date formats • Currency and currency formats • Number formatting • Units of measure • Time, time zone and time formats • Graphics • Colours • Text directionality • Writing styles • Technology (electrical outlets, computer keyboards, printer page-size capabilities) • Page size • Forms of address and titles • Geographic references • Legal information (warranties, copyrights, patents, trademarks, health and safety-related information) • Wrapping • Dates and date formats • Currency and currency formats • Number formatting • Units of measure • Time, time zone and time formats • Graphics • Colours • Text directionality • Writing styles • Technology (electrical outlets, computer keyboards, printer page-size capabilities) • Page size • Forms of address and titles • Geographic references • Legal information (warranties, copyrights, patents, trademarks, health and safety-related information) • Wrapping
  31. 31. Colours Good luck? Bad luck?
  32. 32. Date Formats 10. März 2004 10.03.2004 10/03/2004 10/03/2004 10-03-2004 10 mars 2004 03/10/2004 March 10, 2004 10 March 2004 2004-03-10 10. März 2004 10.03.2004 10/03/2004 10/03/2004 10-03-2004 10 mars 2004 03/10/2004 March 10, 2004 10 March 2004 2004-03-10 German (DIN 5008, 2001) EU (ISO 8601 / EN 28601, 1992) American French
  33. 33. Localizing Graphics Netscape MS Internet Explorer table MS Word Tisch ? ?
  34. 34. Localizing Graphics Netscape MS Internet Explorer table MS Word Tabelle ♪ ?Notiz
  35. 35. Adaptation of writing systems Text string from left to right Text string from left to right Navigation barNavigation bar DatesDates
  36. 36. Localization of Product Names (Localisation Faux Pas ed. by Localisation Research Centre) • Mist Stick Clairol curling iron • Silver Mist Rolls Royce car • Irish Mist Irish alcoholic beverage Mist (German ) "manure".
  37. 37. VW-Lok Localization Tool for VisualWorks Smalltalk Applications • Localization Tool for VisualWorks didn‘t exist so far • Objectives: – Development of a tool that satisfies the special characteristics of the programming environment – Development of a user interface that satisfies the demands of a localizer – Creation of an experimental platform for research in the field of localization • Localization Tool for VisualWorks didn‘t exist so far • Objectives: – Development of a tool that satisfies the special characteristics of the programming environment – Development of a user interface that satisfies the demands of a localizer – Creation of an experimental platform for research in the field of localization
  38. 38. VW-LOK Localisation Tool for Visualworks Smalltalk
  39. 39. Conclusion • Language and culture are crucial for – software design – succesful use of software • Software developers should be aware of linguistic and cultural differences • Bachelor course in Information Management / Software Localization at Anhalt University – Multidisciplinarity • Language and culture are crucial for – software design – succesful use of software • Software developers should be aware of linguistic and cultural differences • Bachelor course in Information Management / Software Localization at Anhalt University – Multidisciplinarity Informations- systeme Software- lokalisierung Informationsmanagement Language Culture Software

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