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Glossary of Legal TerminologyEnglish-Spanish(471 words)Karen RataySpanish Interpreter and Translatoredited by Bruce Goodman
1legal word (explanation)- n. (noun), v. (verb), or adj. (adjective) translation of word (description,definition or synony...
2anthrax (an infectious disease of livestockwhich can be transmitted to humans)- n. ántraxappeal (a review of a case by a ...
3bond (certificate of debt redeemable by court ifdefendant fails to appear in court)- n. bono,obligaciónbooking number (id...
4claim (legal demand, complaint)- n. demandaclerk (court official, judge’s administrativeassistant)- n. secretario del tri...
5court house (building where trials and legalproceedings occur)- n. edificio de los tribunalescourt interpreter (bilingual...
6deposición,declaración juradaDeputy District Attorney (Deputy D.A.)(assistant to the D.A.)- n. Asistente al AcusadorPúbli...
7evidence, direct (evidence directly related to acase)- n. evidencia directaevidence, prima facie (evidence which isadequa...
8glue sniffing (inhaling glue as a narcotic)- n.inhalación de pegamentogood cause (supported reason for doingsomething)- n...
9innocent until proven guilty- adj. inocentehasta ser encontrado culpableinstrument (legal document)- n. documentolegalint...
10malicious mischief (harm or damage causedwith intention of hurting another person)- n.agravio maliciosomalpractice (prof...
11pandering (helping one fulfill his or her vices;procuring, pimping)- n. lenocidioparalegal (person trained to aid lawyer...
12pretrial conference (meeting before the trial totry and resolve the case, agree on evidence,etc.)- n. conferencia del ju...
13remand (to send a person back into custody)- v.; (to send a case back to a lower court oradministrative hearing office)-...
14statute of limitations (a law limiting the timewithin which legal action may be taken)- n.estatuto de limitacionesstatut...
15venue (place in which something occurs)- n.jurisdicciónverdict (final judgment)- n. veredictovictim (one who suffers los...
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Diccionario juridico ingles-espanol

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Diccionario juridico ingles-espanol

  1. 1. Glossary of Legal TerminologyEnglish-Spanish(471 words)Karen RataySpanish Interpreter and Translatoredited by Bruce Goodman
  2. 2. 1legal word (explanation)- n. (noun), v. (verb), or adj. (adjective) translation of word (description,definition or synonym in target language)abstract (summary)- n. resumen, sumario,extractoaccessory (assistant in a crime)- n. accesorioacid (LSD, an hallucinogenic drug)- n. ácidoaccomplice (assistant in a crime)- n. cómpliceaccusation (written charge)- n. acusación,denunciaaccused (defendant)- n. acusadoacquit (to decide as innocent, let free)- v.absolver, exogenar, exculparacquittal (clearing of a person from a charge;finding the defendant not guilty)- n. absoluciónaction (lawsuit)- n. acción, proceso, actoaddict (someone who is addicted to drugs)- n.adictoadjudicate (to judge)- v. adjudicaradjudication (deciding of a case throughjudicial or administrative hearing)- n.adjudicaciónadmissible (acceptable)- adj. admisible,aceptableadmission (disclosure of adverse facts)- n.admisión, confesiónadoption (legal process establishing a parentalrelationship between adoptive parent and childborn of other parents)- n. adopciónadvisement of rights (making a person aware oftheir rights)- n. notificación de derechosaffidavit (official sworn statement)- n.declaración jurada, testimonioaffidavit of prejudice (sworn statement alleginga potential judge is biased)- n. declaraciónjurada de prejuicioagreement (mutual promises)- n. acuerdo,convenioaid and abet (to assist in a crime)- v. sercómplice de, ayudaralibi (defendant’s story of innocence when acrime is committed, allegedly by another)- n.coartada, alibíalien (foreign-born immigrant who is notnaturalized)- n. extranjeroalimony (support payment to divorced spouse)-n. pensión alimenticiaallegation (statement of fact the party intends toprove)- n. alegaciónalleged (asserted as a true fact, but not yetproven)- adj. alegadoamend (to revise)- v. enmendaramendment (modification of a document)- n.enmiendaamphetamine (a stimulant and appetite-suppressing narcotic)- n. anfetaminaangel dust (PCP, an hallucinogenic drug)- n.polvo de ángel, cucuyanswer (defendant’s formal document settingout defense in a civil case)- n. contestación a lademanda
  3. 3. 2anthrax (an infectious disease of livestockwhich can be transmitted to humans)- n. ántraxappeal (a review of a case by a higher court)- n.; (to file a case in a higher court)- v. apelaciónappearance (party’s presence in court)- n.comparecenciaarbitration (judging of a dispute)- n. arbitrajeargument (debate in front of the court)- n.argumentoargumentative (fond of arguing)- adj.argumentativoarraign (to formally advise defendant of thecharges at an initial court appearance)- v. acusararraignment (legal procedure to advisedefendant of the charges; initial courtappearance)- n. acusación, denunciaarrest (law enforcement’s taking of a suspectinto formal custody)- n. arrestoarson (beginning a criminal fire)- n. incendiointencionalassault (attack on another person)- n. ataque,agresiónassault, aggravated (higher degree of assault)-n. asalto más grave, ataque agravadoassault with a deadly weapon (attacking aperson with a weapon that could potentially takea life)- n. asalto con arma mortíferaassignee (counsel assigned to defendant)- n.apoderado, cesionarioat issue (in question; the issue being addressed)-adj. en cuestión, de lo que se está hablandoattest (to affirm under oath)- v. deposición,atestaciónattorney (legal representative)- n. abogado,consejero, procuradorattorney of record (the person who has beenrecorded in the case file as the counsel for thatcase)- n. abogado que constaauthenticate (verify as authentic)- v.autentificarauto tampering (to interfere or meddle withanother’s automobile)- n. hacer modificacionesfraudulentas a un autobail (money or property given as security for therelease of a defendant awaiting trial)- n. fianza,cauciónbail bondsman (person responsible hired toenforce the conditions of bail)- n. personaresponsible de hacer cumplir las condiciones dela fianzabail forfeiture (losing the money spent on bailbecause defendant violates the conditions of thebail)- n. pérdida del dinero usado para fianza porhaberse violado las condiciones de la fianzabail review (official reconsideration of bail)- n.revisión de fianzabailiff (officer of the court)- n. alguacilbankruptcy (legal declaration of one’s inabilityto pay debts)- n. bancarrota, quiebrabattery (physical attack on another person)- n.agresiónbattery, spousal (physical attack on one’sspouse)- n. agresión contra la parejabench (judge or court)- n. banco, tribunalbias (prejudice)- n. parcialidad, predisposición,prejuicioblow (slang for cocaine, a stimulant narcotic)- n.cocaínabody attachment (official attachment ofdocument to case file)- n. anexo oficial de undocumento al archivo
  4. 4. 3bond (certificate of debt redeemable by court ifdefendant fails to appear in court)- n. bono,obligaciónbooking number (identification number forcase of person under arrest)- n. número del casoo del arrestadobookmaking (the business of taking bets)- n. elnegocio de tomar apuestasbrandishing a weapon (carrying a weapon in athreatening manner)- n. llevar un arma en formaamenazadorabreaking and entering (illegally entering abuilding)- n. allanamiento de moradabreathalyzer (breath test for alcohol)- n.análisis de alientobribe (an illegal offer of money, property orservices for another service)- n. soborno,mordidabrief (written summary of case)- n. alegato,resumenburden of proof (legal requirement ofprosecution to prove the guilt of defendant)- n.obligación de pruebaburglary (theft, stealing)- n. robo, hurtocalendar, court (official scheduling calendar fora particular court, usually scheduled by the courtclerk)- n. lista de pleitos, calendario judicialcapital punishment (death penalty)- n. penacapitalcase (criminal or civil lawsuit)- n. caso, pleitocase of action (criminal or civil lawsuit)- n.denuncia criminal o civilcausation (a causing, something producing aneffect)- n. causativo, causantecertified (verified as authentic or accurate)- adj.; (in possession of an official certificate whichidentifies that its holder is qualified orprofessional)- adj. certificado, tituladochain of custody (order of parental relationshipsto child)- n. cadena de custodia, resumen delorden de las relaciones de los padres al hijochallenge (to object to the qualifications of apotential jury)- v. poner objeción, recusaciónchallenge for a cause (party’s challenge todisqualify a potential juror)- n. recusación paracausachambers (judge’s office)- n. cámara, salacharge (accusation; indictment)- n. acusaciónchild molestation (sexually attacking or abusinga child)- n. molestia sexual de niño, abusoinfantilchild support (monetary responsibility tosupport child)- n. manutención de niñocircumstances, aggravating (fact or situationwhich increases the degree of liability orresponsibility for a criminal act)- n.circunstancias agravantescircumstances, mitigating (fact or situationwhich does not justify or excuse an offense, butdoes reduce the degree of liability orresponsibility and may also reduce the damages[civil] or punishment [criminal])- n.circunstancias mitigantescitation (official notice to appear in court,especially in traffic court)- n. citación, cita ;(notation of legal authority)- n. notación deautoridad legalcity attorney (counsel representing the city inmunicipal court)- n. abogado representando laciudadcivil action (legal action relating to money orproperty)- n. juicio civil
  5. 5. 4claim (legal demand, complaint)- n. demandaclerk (court official, judge’s administrativeassistant)- n. secretario del tribunal, oficial deljuzgadococaine (stimulant narcotic)- n. cocaínacollateral (property pledged to secure a debt,e.g. bail)- n. resguardo, seguridad colateralcommissioner (public official with authorityover court room in initial appearances beforegoing to trial)- n. comisario, comisionadocommit (to institutionalize, e.g. to a mentalhospital)- v. internar (ej. en un hospital mental); (to perpetuate, e.g. a crime)- v. cometer (ej. uncrimen)commitment (incarceration)- n. encarceracióncommunity property (public property)- n.propiedad de la comunidadcompetency (legal capacity to stand trial)- n.aptitud, capacidadcomplaint (written statement initiating acriminal or civil action)- n. demanda, escrito deagravioscomply (to act as directed or ordered)- v.cumplir, obedecercomposite drawing (drawing of a suspect madeby a police artist, based on the description froma witness)- n. dibujo habladoconfession (admission of guilt)- n. confesiónconfiscate (governmental seizure of property)-v. confiscarconflict of interest (reason a party to the casemight be too personally involved to provideobjective services)- n. conflicto de interésconsideration (benefit to promisor or detrimentto promise)- n. consideraciónconspiracy (an unlawful plot, a plan to dosomething illegal)- n. conspiraciónconstitutional right (a freedom guaranteed bythe Constitution)- n. derecho constitucionalcontempt of court (acting against the rules ofthe court)- n. desacato al tribunal, rebeldíacontinuance (rescheduling a legal proceedingfor a later date)- n. aplazamiento, continuacióncontrolled substance (government-regulatedsubstance)- n. substancia controladaconvict (an individual who has been foundguilty and incarcerated)- n.convicto ; (to find adefendant guilty of a crime)- v. condenarconviction (finding of guilt in a criminal case)-n. convicción, fallo de culpabilidadcoroner (public officer who determines thecause of death)- n. médico forensecorroborate (to verify)- v. corroborar, verificarcounsel (lawyer, legal representation)- n.abogado ; (to advise)- v. aconsejarcounsel table (table where the legal counselsits)- n. mesa del consejerocount (a numbered charge)- n. cargocounterclaim (lawsuit by respondent inresponse to initial lawsuit in a civil case)- n.contrademandacounterfeit (to falsify)- v. falsificacióncounterfeiting (falsifying)- n. falsificandocounty jail (temporary place of incarcerationuntil suspect released, put into prison, etc.)- n.cárcel del condadocourt (place where trials and legal proceedingsoccur)- n. tribunal, corte
  6. 6. 5court house (building where trials and legalproceedings occur)- n. edificio de los tribunalescourt interpreter (bilingual trained person whotranslates proceedings between languages for allparties in the case)- n. intérprete de lostribunalescourt order (order issued by the court [judge,etc.] for, or prohibiting, an action)- n. orden delos tribunalescourt reporter (court official who types allwords of proceeding into a permanent record)-n. relator del tribunalCourt, District (court representing a certainarea of a state or country)- n. tribunal del distritoCourt, Federal District (national court withauthority over a specified region)- n. Tribunal,Juzgado del Distrito FederalCourt, Juvenile (court for children)- n. Tribunalde MenoresCourt, Municipal (city court)- n. TribunalMunicipalCourt, Night (court taking place at night)- n.Tribunal NocturnoCourt, Superior (higher court)- n. TribunalSuperiorCourt, Supreme (highest court)- n. Tribunal,Corte Suprema de JusticiaCourt, Traffic (court dealing with trafficviolations)- n. Tribunal de Tráficocourt-appointed counsel (attorney assigned tocase by the court, esp. for indigent defendant)- n.asesor legal designado por los tribunalescourt room (room where trials and legalproceedings occur)- n. sala del tribunalcovenant (sealed contract)- n. pacto, conveniocrack (crack cocaine, a form of cocaine)- n.crackcredibility (reliability, reputation fortruthfulness)- n. credibilidadcrime (unlawful offense)- n. crimen, delitocriminal record (written record of previousoffenses)- n. antecedentes criminalescrystal meth (a narcotic)- n. metamfetamina,cristal, vidriocustody (case and control of children)- n.custodia, patria potestad ; (incarceration)- n.custodia, encarceracióndamages (repayment for loss or injury)- n.dañosdeath penalty (sentence of death for acriminal)- n. sentencia de muertedeath row (incarceration for inmates awaitingthe death penalty)- n. fila de muertedecree (order, judgment)- n. decreto ; (todeclare)- v. declarardefault judgment (judgment entered against adefendant who does not plead or defend, oftenby not appearing in court)- n. fallo por falta decomparecenciadefendant (the accused in a legal proceeding,trial)- n. acusado, demandadodefense (the defendant/accused and defenseattorney)- n. defensa ; (evidenceoffered by an accused to defeat criminal charge)-n. defensadefense attorney (legal counsel for theaccused)- n.abogado defensordeliberation (careful consideration)- n.deliberación, consultacióndeportation (expelling of a non-citizen from thecountry)- n. deportacióndeposition (oral statement given under oath)- n.
  7. 7. 6deposición,declaración juradaDeputy District Attorney (Deputy D.A.)(assistant to the D.A.)- n. Asistente al AcusadorPúblicodetention (being retained in custody)- n.detencióndiscovery (pre-trial process to obtain facts fromother side)- n. descubrimientodismiss (to let go)- v. desechar, denegardismissal with prejudice (a dismissal after alegal decision, based on the merits of the case,barring the plaintiff from prosecuting any laterlawsuit on the same claim)- n. denegación conpérdida de derecho a nuevo juiciodismissal without prejudice (a dismissal thatdoes not bar the plaintiff from trying to againprosecute the same claim within a certain timeperiod)- n. denegación sin pérdida de derecho anuevo juiciodisorderly conduct (acting in a way whichviolates public peace or safety)- n. desordenpúblicodisposition (final outcome of a criminal case)-n. disposicióndissolution (termination of a marriage,partnership, etc.)- n. disoluciónDistrict Attorney (D.A.) (state’s legalrepresentative in legal proceedings or a trial)- n.Acusador Público, fiscal.disturbing the peace (acting in a way whichviolates public peace)- n. perturbación al ordenpúblicodiversion (order for criminal defendant toparticipate in alternative program, instead ofprison)- n. programa alternativodivorce (legal termination of a marriage)- n.divorciodocket (list of cases before the court)- n.orden del día, actas.domestic violence (violence within a family)- n.violencia domésticadouble jeopardy (trying a person twice for thesame crime)- n. procesamiento por segunda vezdowner (depressant narcotic)- n. barbitúricosdriving while intoxicated (DWI)- n. Conducirbajo la influencia del alcoholdrug (substance used in or as a medicine or toalter the functioning of one’s body)- n droga.drug abuse (excessive or illegal use of a drug)-n. abuso de drogasdrunk driving (driving while intoxicated)- n.condujir bajo estado de ebriedaddue process (legal right of a defendant to aspeedy and fair trial)- n. debido procedimiento,proceso de leyecstasy (e or x; a narcotic)- n. tachas, éxtasisembezzlement (stealing money, property, etc.)-n. desfalco, malversaciónenhancement (factor that increases criminalpenalty)- n.enter a plea (to plea)- v. registrar unadeclaraciónentrapment (to capture by leading into a trap)-n. atraparequal protection (constitutional guarantee thatevery person will be treated equally by thegovernment)- n. protección de igualdadeviction (expel from one’s residence by theowner)- n. desalojo, evicciónevidence (a statement, object, etc. supporting apoint in the case)- n. evidenciaevidence, circumstantial (indirect evidence in acase)- n. evidencia circumstancial
  8. 8. 7evidence, direct (evidence directly related to acase)- n. evidencia directaevidence, prima facie (evidence which isadequate to establish a fact, unless refuted)- n.examination, cross (questioning of a witness bythe antagonist party)- n. contrainterrogatorio,repreguntaexamination, direct (questioning of a witnessby the supporting party)- n. interrogatoriodirectoexamination, re-cross (second questioning)- n.segunda repreguntaexamination, re-direct (second questioning)- n.segundo interrogatorio directoexecuted (signed and delivered)- adj.ejecutado, llevado a caboexhibit (object submitted as evidence)- n.documento de prueba, exhibirexhibit, defense’s (object submitted by thedefense as evidence)- n. documento de pruebade la defensaexhibit, people’s (object submitted by theprosecution as evidence)- n. documento deprueba del acusadorextortion (getting money, etc. by threat)- n.extorsiónextradition (transferring a suspect to anotherstate, country, etc. for trial)- n. extradicióneyewitness (person who saw the crime occur)-n. testigo ocularfailure to appear (FTA) (when person who isrequired to appear in court does not do so)- n.falta de comparecenciafailure to comply (when person is ordered to dosomething by the court, and does not)- n.faltafair hearing (a just hearing in which properprotocol is followed)- n. audiencia justafalse imprisonment (finding an innocent personguilty and sentencing them to a prison sentence)-n. encarcelación ilegalfelony (major crime)- n. fechoría, felonía,crimen, delitofield sobriety test (test of blood-alcohol level atthe place of first contact between the lawenforcement officer and the suspect)- n.file (record of case)- n. archivo ; (to enterinto the case file)- v. registrarfinancial responsibility (financial obligations)-n. responsabilidad financierafind guilty (to judge as guilty)- v.juzgar culpablefinding (discovery)- n. descubrimientofind not guilty (to judge as innocent)- v. juzgarinocentefine (court-imposed monetary penalty)- n. multafingerprint (mark left by one’s finger, used toidentify individuals)- n. huella digitalfirearm (weapon that fires a projectile, i.e- gun,rifle, shotgun)- n. arma de fuegoforeclosure (taking away of the right to redeema mortgage, etc.)- n. juicio hipotecario,ejecución de hipotecaforfeit (a fine or penalty for some crime)- n. dieStrafe; (to give up, lose)- v. decomisoforgery (falsification; a fake)- n. falsificaciónfoster care (temporary care of a child, but notby birth)- n. tutela de crianza temporalfraud (intentional deception, lie)- n. fraudegambling (game of chance)- n. juegogarnish (to issue process for purpose of takingaway wages or money to pay a fine)- v.embargar
  9. 9. 8glue sniffing (inhaling glue as a narcotic)- n.inhalación de pegamentogood cause (supported reason for doingsomething)- n. motivo suficientegrand jury (jury that listens to arguments anddecides innocence or guilt of defendant)- n.gran juradogrand theft (major theft)- n. hurto mayorgrounds (reasons)- n. razonesguardianship (legal protective representation ofone by another, usually of a minor by an adult)-n. pupilaje, tutelaguilty (legally judged not innocent ofcommitting a crime)- adj. culpablegun (weapon which fires a projectile; a firearm)-n. pistolahabeas corpus (writ declaring that a prisonermust be brought before a court to decide his orher innocence or guilt)- n. habeas corpushandcuffs (pair of connected rings used toshackle a prisoner)- n. esposasharassment (constant attacks or torment)- n.acosohearing (formal proceeding held before judge)-n. audienciahearing, contested (legal proceeding in whichoutcome is put into question by possibleadministrative misconduct)- n.audiencia disputadahearing, preliminary (first hearing)- n.audiencia preliminarhearsay (rumor, gossip, unsubstantiated story ofevent)- n. de oídasheroin (narcotic, usually injected into the body)-n. heroinahit and run (automobile hits a person andleaves the scene of the accident)- n./v. chocar yhuir, chocar y escaparholding cell (room for detention of suspectwhile being tried)- n. celda de detenciónhomicide (murder)- n. homicidio, asesinatoillegal (not legal; unlawful)- adj. ilegalimmigration (moving from one country toanother)- n. inmigraciónimmunity (exemption from a charge orpenalty)- n. inmunidadimpeachment of witness (discrediting awitness)- n. acusación de testigoinadmissible (not acceptable)- adj. inadmisible,inaceptableincest (sexual relationship within a family)- n.incestoincriminate (to involve in, or make appearguilty of, a crime or fault)- v. incriminarindecent exposure (taking off one’s clothes in apublic place)- n. exhibicionismoindictment (formal charging with a crime)- n.procesamiento,acusación por gran juradoindigent (poor, without money)- adj. indigenteinformant (someone who gives informationabout a crime; often referring to another criminalwho acts as a sort of undercover spy for lawenforcement)- n. informador, denuncianteinformation (formal charge)- n. acusación porel fiscalinfraction (violation of a law, pact, agreement,etc.)- n. infraccióninjunction (court order prohibiting or orderingan action)- n. mandamiento, juicio de amparoinmate (prisoner)- n. prisionero
  10. 10. 9innocent until proven guilty- adj. inocentehasta ser encontrado culpableinstrument (legal document)- n. documentolegalintent (state of mind when performing an act)-n. intencióninvestigation (search by law enforcement todetermine truth of events)- n. investigaciónjail (place where prisoner is confined)- n. cárceljoin (concur)- v. concurrenciajoyriding (driving around in a stolen automobilefor the enjoyment of doing so)- n. robar unvehículo para pasearjudge (public official with the authority to hearand decide cases in a court of law)- n. juezjudgment (final decision)- n. sentencia, fallojurisdiction (range of authority in administeringjustice)- n. jurisdicciónjuror (member of a jury)- n. juradojury (group of members from the public who areassigned the task of deciding the trial’soutcome)- n. juradojury box (place in the courtroom where the jurysits)- n. tribuna del juradojury foreman/jury foreperson (the chairpersonof a jury)- n. presidente del juradojury trial (a trial in which the final decision willbe made by a jury of one’s peers)- n. juicio porjuradojury, hung (a jury which is unable to make afinal decision in a case)- n. jurado endesacuerdo, jurado sin veredcitojuvenile hall (place of incarceration forunderage offenders)- n. cárcel de menoreskidnap (to seize and hold a person by force orfraud)- v. secuestrarkidnapping (seizing and holding a person byforce or fraud)- n. secuestrolarceny (theft)- n. hurto, robolawsuit (legal action between two parties in acivil court, having to do with money orproperty)- n. litigio, pleitoleading question (a question which leads to apoint being proven)- n. pregunta sugestivalease (contract by which a landlord rents land,property, etc. to a tenant for a specified time)- n.alquilerlewd conduct (indecent or obscene actions)- n.comportamientoliability (something that works to one’sdisadvantage)- n. responsabilidadlibel (any written or printed matter to injure aperson’s reputation)- n. difamación escritalie detector (machine which measures heart rateto determine if a person is lying)- n. detector dementiraslife imprisonment (punishment of spendingone’s life in prison)- n. cadena perpetualine-up (a line of a few people for a witness tolook at and identify a suspect in a crime)- n.línea de sospechososlitigation (lawsuit)- n. litigioloitering (lingering, spending time idly in onearea)- n. merodear, holgazanear, vagarlynching (murder by mob action, without lawfultrial)- n. linchamientomalice (purposely committing a crime with theintention of harming another person)- n. malicia
  11. 11. 10malicious mischief (harm or damage causedwith intention of hurting another person)- n.agravio maliciosomalpractice (professional misconduct orimproper conduct, esp. by a physician)- n.conducta ilegalmanslaughter (killing of a human being byanother, esp. without malice)- n. homicio sinpremeditaciónmanslaughter, involuntary (accidental killingof a person)- n. homicidio accidentalmanslaughter, voluntary (knowingly killing aperson, but without malice)- n. homicidiovoluntariomarijuana (narcotic)- n. marihuanamayhem (the offense of maiming a person; anyviolent destruction)- n. mutilación criminalmental health (health of the mind)- n. saludmentalMiranda Warning (the rights read to theaccused at the time of arrest)- n. DerechosConstitucionalesmisdemeanor (any minor offense with a lesserpunishment than a felony)- n. delito menormistrial (a trial made void because of a mistakemade or inconclusive outcome)- n. juicio nulomodification (alteration; change)- n.modificaciónmotion (a petition for a ruling, formal request)-n. moción, peticiónmotion denied (content of petition not allowedby judge)- petición negadamotion granted (content of petition agreed toby judge)- petición accedidamug shot (identifying photo of a suspect usedby law enforcement)- n. fotografía de reomurder (unlawful and malicious killing ofanother person, with intent to do so)- n.asesinato, homicidionarcotic (illegal or controlled drug)- n.narcóticonegligence (carelessness)- n. negligencianot guilty (innocent)- adj.inocentenull and void (invalid, without legal force)- adj.nulo, nulo y sin valoroath (sworn statement)- n. juramentoobject (to express disapproval or opposition)- v.objetar, impugnarobjection (the expressing of disapproval oropposition)- n. objeciónobjection overruled (objection rejected)-objeción negada, sin lugarobjection sustained (objection agreed to)-objeción acogida, con lugaroffender (person who committed a crime)- n.ofensor, delincuenteoffense (violation of law)- n. ofensa, delitooffer of proof (presentation of evidence for therecord, but without a jury present, after the judgehas sustained an objection to that evidence, sothat the evidence can be preserved on the recordfor an appeal of the case)- n. oferta de pruebaoral copulation, forced (forced, oral, sexualcontact)- n. copulación oral forzadaordinance (statute or regulation)- n. ordenanza,estatutooverrule (to overturn, esp. an objection)- n.denegarovert act (an action taken openly and withevident intent)- n. acto
  12. 12. 11pandering (helping one fulfill his or her vices;procuring, pimping)- n. lenocidioparalegal (person trained to aid lawyers but notto practice law)- n. ¿??parole (release of a prisoner before his or hersentence is complete, on the promise of futuregood behavior)- n. libertad condicionalparty (plaintiff [People, State, etc.], prosecutionor defense)- n. partepaternity (fatherhood)- n. paternidadpenalty (punishment)- n. castigo, multapenalty assessment (indication of the liabilityof the losing party in a civil case)- n. asesoría demultapending (not yet decided)- adj. pendientepenitentiary (prison)- n. penitenciaría, prisiónPeople (prosecution)- n. fiscalía, parteacusadora, el estadoperjury (lying while under oath to tell thetruth)- n. perjurio, falso testamentopermanent resident (person living long term ina country)- n. residente permanentepersonal estate (the whole of one’s property,possessions)- n. bienes mueblespersonal recognizance (one’s own care andresponsibility)- n. ¿??petition (formal request for an order)- n.petición; (to formally ask, request)- v. suplicar,pedirpetty theft (small scale theft)- n. robo menorpimping (acting as agent for prostitutes)- n.alcahuetamientoplaintiff (the complainant in a civil case)- n.demandanteplea (defendant’s “guilty,” “not guilty” or otheranswer to a criminal charge)- n. declaraciónplea bargain (agreement between theprosecution and defense to lower the punishmentin exchange for something else, usually for aguilty plea)- n. negociación de una declaraciónde culpablepleadings (documents filed in a case)- n.alegacionespoints and authorities (legal precedence)- n.proposicionespolygraph (lie detector test)- n. polígrafopossession of drugs- n. poseción de drogaspostponement (pushing back the date)- n.aplazamientopot (slang for marijuana; a narcotic)- n.marihuanapower of attorney (legal authority to act asone’s representative and speak for him or her)-n. poder, carta de personeríapreemptory challenge (one of a party’s limitednumber of challenges that does not need areason)- n. ¿??pre-sentence report (report written to argue forwhat kind of punishment is appropriate for aguilty party)- n. informe precondenatorioprejudice (bias or preconceived opinion)- n.prejuiciopreponderance of the evidence (enough proof toconvince the trier of fact that something is slightlymore likely than not to have occurred )- n.preponderancia de pruebapresumption of innocence (defendant isbelieved to be innocent, unless proven guilty)- n.presunción de inculpabilidad
  13. 13. 12pretrial conference (meeting before the trial totry and resolve the case, agree on evidence,etc.)- n. conferencia del juez con las partes antesde iniciar el pleitopretrial offense (offense committed before thetrial begins)- n. ofensa cometida antes deemplezar el juiciopriors (previous offenses committed by thedefendant)- n. precedentesprison (place of long term incarceration, whereconvicts fulfill their sentences)- n. prisiónprivilege (a special right, favor, etc. granted to aperson or group)- n. privilegioprobable cause (a reasonable explanation forwhy something occurred)- n. causa razonableprobate (having to do with the verification ofofficial documents, i.e.- wills)- n. validificaciónde un documentoprobation (suspension of defendant’s sentenceunder supervision of probation officer)- n.libertad condicionalprobation department (office which handlescases of probation)- n. departamento de libertadcondicionalprobation officer (official who supervisesconvicts who are released on probation)- n.agente de libertad condicionalprobation, formal (conditional suspension of aconvicts prison sentence)- n. libertadcondicional formalprobation, summary (suspension of a guiltyparty’s prison sentence so that, if he or sheobeys the conditions, he or she will spend notime in prison)- n.proof (evidence convincing to the judge orjury)- n. pruebaprosecution (the state’s representative in a courtroom, seeks to convict the defendant)- n.procesamiento, enjuiciamientoprosecutor (the attorney representing the state)-n. fiscal, acusador públicoprostitution (selling one’s body for sex)- n.prostituciónPublic Defender (P.D.) (state-funded counselassigned to an indigent defendant)- n. defensorpúblicoquash (to set aside, i.e.- an indictment)- v.anular, invalidarraise an issue (to bring an issue up fordiscussion)- levantar una controversiarap sheet (file/list of previous offenses)- n. listade ofensas anterioresrape (forced sexual intercourse withoutconsent)- n. violaciónrape, statutory (sexual intercourse with aminor)- n. estuprorape in concert (unlawful sexual intercourseagainst the victims will and by force, whileanother crime is being committed)- n. ¿??reasonable doubt, beyond a (absolutelycertain)- fuera de duda razonablerebuttal (contradicting or opposing in a formalmanner by argument or proof)- n. refutaciónreckless driving (driving wildly, withoutcontrol)- n. manejar imprudentementeregulation (rule; law)- n. regla, leyrelease of information (making informationavailable to the public)- revelación deinformaciónrelinquishment (giving up, e.g. giving up aright)- n. renunciamiento
  14. 14. 13remand (to send a person back into custody)- v.; (to send a case back to a lower court oradministrative hearing office)- v. reencarcelarsentence, consecutive (back to back sentences;one punishment immediately after another)- n.sentencia consecutivaremedy (legal compensation for a wrong)- n.remedioreport (to state, to inform)- v. reportar ; (aformal account of facts or information)- n.reporterespondent (defendant in a civil case)- n.demandadorestitution (reimbursement; giving back ofsomething for something else that has been lostor taken)- n. restituciónrestraining order (legal document requiringsomeone to stay away from another person orplace)- n. inhibitoria, orden de entredichorevoke (to rescind, withdraw, cancel, turndown)- v. revocarright, constitutional (right which is guaranteedto all citizens by the Constitution)- n. derechoconstitucionalrobbery (theft)- n. roborule (to decide, to judge)- n. fallosearch and seizure (investigating a place andremoving something from the premises forevidence)- n. allanamientoself defense (protecting oneself from harm)- n.defensa propiaself-incrimination (saying something whichhelps prove one’s own guilt)- n.autoincriminaciónsentence (punishment assigned by the court)- n.sentencia ; (to assign a punishment)- v.sentenciarsentence, concurrent (two or more punishmentsof prison time to be served at the same time)- n.sentencia concurrentesentence, suspended (punishment which is heldback, not put into effect)- n. sentenciasuspendidasentencing (assigning a punishment to aconvict)- n. sentenciamientoseparation (separation of a married couple, butnot yet divorce)- n. separaciónserve a sentence (to complete one’spunishment)- servir una sentenciaserve a summons to somebody (give an officialorder to respondent to appear in court)- notificaruna citaciónsettlement (negotiated solution to a lawsuit)- n.arreglosexual molestation (making improper andunwanted sexual advances or attacks)- n.molestación sexualsheriff (chief law enforcement officer of acounty)- n. funcionario jefe de un condadoshoplifting (stealing articles, not money, from ashop during shop hours)- n. robo de tiendasslander (giving a false statement that damagesanother’s reputation)- n. calumniasodomy (any sexual intercourse consideredabnormal; usually in reference to anal sexualintercourse)- n. sodomíastatement, closing (final argument summarizingthe case, made by the attorney)- n. declaraciónfinalstatement, opening (initial argumentsummarizing the case, made by the attorney)- n.declaración inicialstatute (an established law or rule)- n. estatuto
  15. 15. 14statute of limitations (a law limiting the timewithin which legal action may be taken)- n.estatuto de limitacionesstatutory rape (sexual intercourse, even ifconsensual, with a minor)- n. estuprostay (a delay or cessation)- n. suspenciónstipulate (to specify as an essential condition ofan agreement)- v. estipularstipulation (an essential condition of anagreement)- n. estipulaciónsubmit (to present, e.g. to present evidence tothe court)- v. presentarsubpoena (written legal order directing a personto appear in court to testify, etc.)- n. orden deapariciónsue (to prosecute in civil court in seeking toredress wrongs)- v. demandasuit (action to secure justice in a court of law)-n. acción judicialsustain (to maintain, agree to, e.g. to agree toand enforce an objection made by an attorney)-v. mantenerswear (to declare under oath)- v. jurartestify (to give evidence under oath in a court oflaw)- v. testificartestimony (the evidence given under oath in acourt of law)- n. testimoniotheft (stealing, robbery)- n. robotheft, grand (major robbery)- n. robo mayortheft, petty (minor robbery)- n. robo menortime served (the amount of time already spentin incarceration)- n. tiempo servidotort (wrongful act or damage [not involving abreach of contract] for which a civil action canbe brought)- n. agraviotraffic citation (ticket issued by lawenforcement officer for a driving violation)- n.multa de tráficotranscript (written record)- n. traslado, copiatrespassing (unlawful entry onto someone’sproperty)- n. traspasotrial (formal examination to decide a case by acourt of law)- n. juiciotrial, court/bench (trial in which outcome isdecided by a judge)- n. tribunal de primerainstanciatrial, jury (trial in which outcome is decided bya jury)- n. juicio por juradotrial, speedy (trial which begins shortly afterarrest and does not last an unacceptably longtime)- n. juicio rápidounconstitutional (illegal, goes against the rightsguaranteed by the Constitution)- adj.inconstitucionalundercover (acting in secret, e.g. an undercoverpolice officer)- adj. bajo cubiertaunemployment (being without a job)- n.desempleounlawful detainer (illegally holding a person incustody)- n. detención ilegalupper (stimulant narcotic)- n. aceleradoresvacate (to cancel)- v. cancelarvagrancy (begging; wandering from place toplace without working)- n. vaganciavandalism (to maliciously destroy or damageproperty)- n. vandalismo
  16. 16. 15venue (place in which something occurs)- n.jurisdicciónverdict (final judgment)- n. veredictovictim (one who suffers loss, is killed or injured,etc.)- n. víctimaviolation (infringement, breaking, e.g. of a law)-n. violación, infracciónvisitation (an official visit, e.g. to a convict inprison, or to inspect something)- n. inspección,visitaciónvoir dire (oath of competency)- n. interrogatoriopara determinar la competenciawaive rights (to choose to give up one’sconstitutional rights)- renunciar a los derechoswaive time (to cut time off of a prisonsentence)- renunciar al plazowaiver of rights (official giving up of one’sconstitutional rights)- n. renuncia de derechoswarrant (order, permit, writ)- n. orden, decretode prisión, garantíawarrant, arrest (order issued by the court forlaw enforcement officials to arrest a suspect)- n.orden de arresto, auto de detenciónwarrant, bench (a writ authorized by judge fora search, seizure, arrest, etc.)- n. orden de arrestopor falta de comparecenciawarrant, search (permission given to lawenforcement by the court to search a suspect’shouse, etc. for evidence)- n. orden de cateo/deregistroweapon (item used to attack another)- n. armaweapon, concealed (weapon hidden somewhereon the suspect)- n. arma escondidaweapon, deadly (weapon which has thepotential to take a life)- n. arma con potencial dematarweight of evidence (how thoroughly theevidence convinces)- n. preponderancia de lapruebawill (last will and testament: one’s writtendecree of what will happen to all of his or herpossessions upon death)- n. testamentowitness (someone who sees a crime occur, or isotherwise an expert in some aspect of the caseand asked to testify in court)- n. testigowitness, defense (a witness who appears tosupport the defense’s argument)- n. testigo de ladefensawitness, expert (a knowledgeable witness whoargues technical or other points)- n. testigoexpertowitness, hostile (a witness for the opposingside)- n. testigo hostilwitness, material (an important or essentialwitness in a case)- n. testigo materialwitness, prosecution (a witness who appears tosupport the prosecution’s argument)- n. testigode cargowitness stand (the place in the court room forthe witness to sit when being questioned)- n.silla de los testigoswork furlough (leave of absence from one’sjob, esp. for military reasons or jury duty)- n.permiso de trabajowork release (convict’s release from prisonduring the day to work at a job outside theprison)- n. permiso para salirr a trabajarwrit (a formal legal document prohibiting orordering some action)- n. decreto, orden
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