1
Social change is “fundamental
alterations in the patterns of
culture, structure, and social
behavior over time”.
(Hughes a...
Social change comes from without
and within. Such as:








The physical environment (Katrina)
The economy (recess...
What kind of social change have you
experienced?
What about how the economy has changed
over the past twenty or thirty yea...
5
Social unrest (a bad economy)
 Riots (Watts and Rodney King)
 Manias (obsession with weight loss)
 Fads & Fashion (clot...
7



Moral Panics:
Urban Legends (California falling off the
continent—1970s)

8





Group
Public
Crowd
Mass

9
High degree of interaction;
common purpose; everyone
participates; informal and
intimate modes of address are
possible.

1...
Moderate degree of interaction; a
common purpose but the
speaker/communicator has more
influence over the shape of the
sit...
High degree of interaction but
roles are ‘scripted’; the focus of
all participants is on one thing;
participants share the...
No interaction amongst members of
the collective; individuals are
dispersed spatially; involvement is
low; no ‘actual’ con...




Suggestibility
Deindividualization
Invulnerability

14








Structural Conduciveness
Structural Strain
Growth of a Generalized Belief
Precipitation Factors
Mobilization...
16


In structure
conduciveness
(awareness and
opportunity) a group
of students gathers on
the campus quad.
Structural strai...


If the crowd decides
that the tuition hike is
the fault of the
Chancellor and that she
should lower the
tuition, if the...
A precipitation factor arises when campus security
appears to disperse the crowd using pepper spray
to do so.

© 2013 Rice...


When the student
body president sits
down and passively
resists attempts to
stop the protest this
represents
mobilizati...
Finally when the
local police
arrived and direct
students affected
their dorms, we've
seen agents of
social control in
act...
This is the final move for change.

22




Contagion Theory
Convergence Theory
Emergent Norm Theory

23
Tarde in the 19th Century
came up with the notion
of “group mind”

later taken up by Le Bon

24







Members of a crowd succumb to a hypnotic
effect.
A crowd thus assumes a life of its own.
Theory of imitation. (...





“Circular reaction”
One becomes agitated
Others pick up on the excitement
Reflection of self in others
Reflexive ...




Does not allow for agency.
Refuted by contemporary studies of riots
Takes on a “class” approach/paternalistic

27




The idea behind convergence theory is that
people of like mind come together for a
particular purpose and form a cro...






An attempt to find meaning in
uncertain settings.
...people perceive and respond to
the crowd situation with thei...




Once individuals find themselves
in a situation ungoverned by
previously established norms,
they interact in small g...
1 Evolutionary Perspectives
2 Cyclical Perspectives
3 Conflict Perspectives
31
1

Social Darwinian
Herbert Spencer:
Biological
Western Colonialism
Laissez-faire Capitalism and the
free market.

32
2 Multilinear (contemporary)
Talcott Parsons:
Structural-functionalist
Progressive differentiation
“Addaptive Upgrading”

...
3

Technology and Production:
Gerhard Lenski:
Change from technology and
economy leading to 
organization of power
strati...
1

Oswald Spengler:

All cultures grows in stages in the
same order from birth to maturity to death
His famous book was en...
2 Arnold Toynbee:
Growth and decline again.
Civilization arises in response to challenges
(war or climate).
An intellectua...
Parsons again
 Equilibrium
William F. Ogburn
 Material and Nonmaterial culture
 Change is slow and gradual
37



Material culture changes first
Then non-material culture adjusts

Think about our technologies and how well we
do or ...
Marx again:
The dialectic, or,
dialectic materialism
progress to efficiency and
digress again
The conflict between opposit...




Change is inevitable. There is a constant
struggle between classes such as the Proletariat
and the Bourgeoisie.
Chan...
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Social change

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Social change

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. Social change is “fundamental alterations in the patterns of culture, structure, and social behavior over time”. (Hughes and Kroehler, 2007) 2
  3. 3. Social change comes from without and within. Such as:       The physical environment (Katrina) The economy (recession of Germany WWII) Population (large migrations) Clashes over resources and values (wars) Supporting values and norms (conflict— who's right?) Ideology (the big conflicts/religion as well) 3
  4. 4. What kind of social change have you experienced? What about how the economy has changed over the past twenty or thirty years? Have things gotten better or worse? 4
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. Social unrest (a bad economy)  Riots (Watts and Rodney King)  Manias (obsession with weight loss)  Fads & Fashion (clothes)  Mass flight (“white flight” -- emigration to suburbs)  Revivals (religion)  Rebellions (outrage over something like a new tax—Tea party for instance)  Panics (anthrax scare) (War of the Worlds Radio Broadcast 1938—Amazon cloud music)  6
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8.   Moral Panics: Urban Legends (California falling off the continent—1970s) 8
  9. 9.     Group Public Crowd Mass 9
  10. 10. High degree of interaction; common purpose; everyone participates; informal and intimate modes of address are possible. 10
  11. 11. Moderate degree of interaction; a common purpose but the speaker/communicator has more influence over the shape of the situation; involvement and participation is moderate to high; more formal and less intimate than a group. 11
  12. 12. High degree of interaction but roles are ‘scripted’; the focus of all participants is on one thing; participants share the same ‘mood’; sender and receiver of the message occupy the same physical space. 12
  13. 13. No interaction amongst members of the collective; individuals are dispersed spatially; involvement is low; no ‘actual’ contact between the sender and receiver of a message; new forms of address are cultivated; high degree of informality. 13
  14. 14.    Suggestibility Deindividualization Invulnerability 14
  15. 15.       Structural Conduciveness Structural Strain Growth of a Generalized Belief Precipitation Factors Mobilization of Participants for Action The Operation of Social Control 15
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17.  In structure conduciveness (awareness and opportunity) a group of students gathers on the campus quad. Structural strain emerges when they feel stressed concerning their high tuition costs. © 2013 Rice University...licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. 17
  18. 18.  If the crowd decides that the tuition hike is the fault of the Chancellor and that she should lower the tuition, if they protest, then growth and spread of a generalized belief has occurred. © 2013 Rice University...licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. 18
  19. 19. A precipitation factor arises when campus security appears to disperse the crowd using pepper spray to do so. © 2013 Rice University...licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. 19
  20. 20.  When the student body president sits down and passively resists attempts to stop the protest this represents mobilization of action. © 2013 Rice University...licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. 20
  21. 21. Finally when the local police arrived and direct students affected their dorms, we've seen agents of social control in action. © 2013 Rice University...licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. 21
  22. 22. This is the final move for change. 22
  23. 23.    Contagion Theory Convergence Theory Emergent Norm Theory 23
  24. 24. Tarde in the 19th Century came up with the notion of “group mind” later taken up by Le Bon 24
  25. 25.     Members of a crowd succumb to a hypnotic effect. A crowd thus assumes a life of its own. Theory of imitation. (Imitating those around one.) “Mob mind.” 25
  26. 26.     “Circular reaction” One becomes agitated Others pick up on the excitement Reflection of self in others Reflexive reaction 26
  27. 27.    Does not allow for agency. Refuted by contemporary studies of riots Takes on a “class” approach/paternalistic 27
  28. 28.   The idea behind convergence theory is that people of like mind come together for a particular purpose and form a crowd. Crowd behavior is not irrational; rather, people in crowds express existing beliefs and values. (Macionis, 1995) Convergence of social forces (concepts/ideas/attitudes) around a focal point (event/personality)—sharing the same disposition. 28
  29. 29.    An attempt to find meaning in uncertain settings. ...people perceive and respond to the crowd situation with their particular (individual_ set of norms, which may change as the crow experience evolves.. Ralph Turner Decision making occurs. (But so does conformity.) Lewis M. Killian 29
  30. 30.   Once individuals find themselves in a situation ungoverned by previously established norms, they interact in small groups to develop new guidelines on how to behave. Norms develop and are accepted as they fit the situation. © 2013 Rice University...licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. 30
  31. 31. 1 Evolutionary Perspectives 2 Cyclical Perspectives 3 Conflict Perspectives 31
  32. 32. 1 Social Darwinian Herbert Spencer: Biological Western Colonialism Laissez-faire Capitalism and the free market. 32
  33. 33. 2 Multilinear (contemporary) Talcott Parsons: Structural-functionalist Progressive differentiation “Addaptive Upgrading” 33
  34. 34. 3 Technology and Production: Gerhard Lenski: Change from technology and economy leading to  organization of power stratification systems 34
  35. 35. 1 Oswald Spengler: All cultures grows in stages in the same order from birth to maturity to death His famous book was entitled “The Decline of the West” 35
  36. 36. 2 Arnold Toynbee: Growth and decline again. Civilization arises in response to challenges (war or climate). An intellectual elite resolve the issue (a creative minority) 36
  37. 37. Parsons again  Equilibrium William F. Ogburn  Material and Nonmaterial culture  Change is slow and gradual 37
  38. 38.   Material culture changes first Then non-material culture adjusts Think about our technologies and how well we do or do not adapt. What about the automobile as discussed in Hughes and Kroehler (2007)? What about the importance of computers and their impact upon society. 38
  39. 39. Marx again: The dialectic, or, dialectic materialism progress to efficiency and digress again The conflict between opposites Conflict as a major source of change 39
  40. 40.   Change is inevitable. There is a constant struggle between classes such as the Proletariat and the Bourgeoisie. Change is violent and sudden from the strain of conflicting forces. This will only end when the Proletariat wins the final revolution and a true socialist state is in place. 40

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