The ratio of total live births to total
population in a specified community or area
over a specified period of time.
Called “crude” because it lumps all births
(regardless of race, ethnicity, classes and age
The birthrate is often expressed as the
number of live births per 1,000 of the
population per year. Also called natality.
Child Mortality Rate:
Child mortality refers to the death of infants
and children under the age of five. About
26,000 young children die every day, mainly
from preventable causes.
The under-5 mortality rate is a leading
indicator of the level of child health and
overall development in countries.
"A man who is born into a world already
possessed, if he cannot get subsistence from
his parents on whom he has a just demand,
and if the society do not want his labour, has
no claim of right to the smallest portion of
food, and, in fact, has no business to be where
he is. At nature’s mighty feast there is no
vacant cover for him."
~T. R. Malthus, Essay on the Principle of
Population (2nd ed., 1803)
Famine in the lesser
developed nations like India
and areas in Africa
Wars and, worse yet,
genocides as in Nazi
Germany, Rwanda, Khmer
Rouge (Pol Pot), Indonesia,
Darfur, and Bosnia – to name
Plagues and epidemics
(although low in numbers) as
in AIDS, polio, the flu of
WWI, and whatever is next.
Abortion in several countries
China “one child” policy (although in dispute
as to its real effect)
Modernization as a general disincentive for
having many children. (See slide graphic and
text on “demographic transition”)
There is an inverse correlation between wealth
The wealthier countries of the world have the
lowest population growth rates.
This runs counter to Malthus’s idea that left
unchecked, a population will continue to
Discuss why this is.
How does this relate to the demographic
Karl Marx's primary disagreement with
Thomas Malthus was his insistence that
society was not overpopulated but that
wealth needed to be equally distributed.
today. And in
Remember that population graph? What did it
look like by the year 2050?
The question is: is this sustainable in any
If not, then who goes? Who suffers the most?
Are we headed for a Malthusian trap?
What happens to the developing countries if
demographic transition theory is correct? Will
they survive phase two?