Gender differences 4 2014


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Gender differences 4 2014

  1. 1. Sex, Gender, Stratification 1
  2. 2. Why Study Gender?  Women’s gains have been slow. They are still not complete.  Women are over-represented in some occupations while being under-represented in others.  The United States never ratified the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) guaranteeing full equality to women. (The ERA was originally written by Alice Paul and, in 1923, it was introduced in the Congress for the first time. In 1972, it passed both houses of Congress and went to the state legislatures for ratification. -- But not all of the needed 38 states ratified the amendment.) 2
  3. 3. Gender  Women’s gains have been slow. They are still not complete.  The United States never ratified the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) guaranteeing full equality to women.  Women are over-represented in some occupations while being under-represented in others. 3
  4. 4. Simone de Beauvoir 1908- 1986 4
  5. 5. Gender Inequality . . . when we abolish the slavery of half of humanity, together with the whole system of hypocrisy that it implies, then the 'division' of humanity will reveal its genuine significance and the human couple will find its true form. . . To gain the supreme victory, it is necessary, for one thing, that by and through their natural differentiation men and women unequivocally affirm their brotherhood. Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex 1949 5
  6. 6. Margaret Sanger 1897-1966 Founder of Planned Parenthood 6
  7. 7. 7 “No woman can call herself free who does not own and control her body. No woman can call herself free until she can choose consciously whether she will or will not be a mother.” Margaret Sanger
  8. 8. Sex & Gender Three Minute Writing (f2f classes): In a few short sentences, 1 Define Sex 2 Define Gender 8
  9. 9. Sex & Gender If sex is biological, and gender is social (cultural and largely a construction), then why study sex? Why study gender? And where might they meet or overlap? 9
  10. 10. Sex Thought experiment: How many sexes are there? Silly question? 10
  11. 11. Sex With only a hint of irony, Anne Fausto- Sterling (1993) maintained that there are five sexes. What might they be? The Five Sexes: Why Male and Female Are Not Enough 11
  12. 12. The Five Sexes Male (two testis and no ovary) Female (two ovaries testis and no testis) Hermaphrodite “herms” (one testis and one ovary) Male pseudohermaphrodite “merms” (who have testes and some aspects of the female genitalia but no ovaries) Female pseudohermaphrodite “ferms” (who have ovaries and some aspects of the male genitalia but lack testes ) 12
  13. 13. Why Study Gender?  There is still a great deal of inequality between males and females in our society.  Women’s occupations typically receive less in wages and compensation than men’s.  Women make only about 77cents to the dollar compared to men.  Women still constitute a great minority of seats in government (17 percent of congressional membership). 13
  14. 14. Gender Identity and Gender Roles 14
  15. 15. Gender Identity: Conceptions we have about ourselves as being male or female. This is part of one’s self-concept and the product of social interaction. This emerges as we enact gender roles and are reacted to by others as being either male or female. 15
  16. 16. Gender Role “… a set of prescriptions and proscriptions for behavior— expectations about what behaviors are appropriate … in a particular social context.” 16
  17. 17. 8 Examples of Gender Roles (do you agree?) 1. How people speak 2. Dress 3. Walk 4. Engage in courtship 5. Get angry 6. Play sports 7. Deal with stress 8. Choose a career 17
  18. 18. The Nature Nurture Debate Continues: While sex is biologically determined, gender is not. Gender is socially constructed. It is part of the socialization process. It is cultural. 18
  19. 19. The Nature Nurture Debate Continues:  Just what is it that is fixed in our makeup and what is socially constructed?  How much of our gender-being is changeable.  Consider the following: 19
  20. 20. Sex, Gender and the Family POWER! 20
  21. 21. Power differences exist in gender 1 The power to 2 The power over 21
  22. 22.  The power to is power that is directed towards a task. We have the power TO do many things with the physical world. As such, it is benign. 22
  23. 23.  The power over is power that is used to dominate an individual or a group. In the case of gender, it is general the power of the male over the female.  This might be considered a misuse of power. 23
  24. 24. The practice of giving males more status, power and authority than women. 24 Patriarchy
  25. 25. 25 Patriarchy in the Workplace The Glass Ceiling
  26. 26.  Glass Ceiling: The invisible barrier to women’s advancement in the corporate world. The women can SEE opportunities, but is ignored because of her gender. Reasons given for deliberate failure to promote women often have to do with their presumed role as a mother. 26
  27. 27. Patriarchy in the Workplace 27 Glass walls: The barriers that prevent women from accessing experience laterally—the process of gaining experience by working in different departments in preparation for promotion.
  28. 28. Women in the Workplace 28
  29. 29. Moms and the Workplace What kind of issues affect mothers in the context of work, employment, and career development? 29
  30. 30. Moms and the Workplace Consider: Job security after giving birth. Length of maternity leave. Breast feeding in the workplace. Role conflict (good mom or good worker? Career interruption. (Nancy Pelosi and her statement regarding her first run for congress and the question “but who will take care of your children?”) Any others? 30
  31. 31. Moms and the Workplace Should mothers be compensated under the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) designed to provide employees job-protected and unpaid leave for qualified medical and family reasons. The Supreme Court says no. 31
  32. 32. Examples of Patriarchy:  Men dominating a conversation  Men assuming a controlling role such as in business or the household.  Men assuming that women are less competent.  Men excluding women from “men’s” events such as business or recreational activities.  Consider golf. 32
  33. 33. Golf Gentlemen Only Ladies Forbidden 33 Click on image for John Boehner Women and Golf Story
  34. 34. Sexism  Individual sexism: The belief that one’s sex is superior to the other.  Institutional sexism: Policies, practices and procedures that result in unequal outcomes for men or women. 34
  35. 35. Gender is a cultural, or social, construction. Like any other institution, it is part and parcel to the “social construction of reality.” (Refer to Berger and Luckman’s work by the same name.) 35
  36. 36. “If this sociological position is correct— that culture, not anatomy, is our destiny—how do we become the ‘way we are?’” 36
  37. 37. Media, Colors, clothing and toys! Becoming labeled and learning to label ourselves. 37 Socialization: how it works
  38. 38. 38 Socialization: color coding
  39. 39. 39 Socialization: color coding
  40. 40. Gender Stereotype 40 “Strongly held overgeneralizations about people in some designated social category.” Basow 1992
  41. 41. 41 Gender Stereotype
  42. 42. Little Boys Toys 42
  43. 43. Little Boys Toys 43
  44. 44. Views of Gender  Functionalism  Conflict Theory  Interactionist 44
  45. 45. Consider the family as organized along “instrumental-expressive” lines. That is, men specializing in instrumental tasks such as having a job and making money, while women focus on expressive tasks such as raising children and supporting their husbands. 45 Functionalist Approach
  46. 46. Where do gender differences give advantages to one group over another? Who benefits? How do conflict outcomes resemble the current status quo? Do gender differences play out in the household the same as in the workplace? 46 Conflict Perspective
  47. 47. Interactionist Perspective: While sex is a given in nature, gender is a social construction. We create a social context which exacerbates differences between the sexes. If that is the case, can we undo what we have created? 47
  48. 48. Feminist Perspective This perspective stresses the differences in class-subject position emphasized by the dominant social structure. Both in the workplace and in the home social status is differentiated with the male maintaining dominance. 48
  49. 49. What does sexism look like to a child? 49
  50. 50. There are over 1000 versions of the Barbie doll 50 Click on image for story and video
  51. 51. Progress! From a teenage activist. 53
  52. 52. Progress! From an 8th Grade Activist. 54 images-of-real-girls
  53. 53. The Blond Women of Fox 55
  54. 54. States Scott M. Lewis: The basic premise of THE BEAUTY MYTH is that forced adherence to standards of physical beauty has grown stronger for women as they gained power in other societal arenas. Wolf argues that this standard of beauty has taken over the work of social coercion formerly left to myths about motherhood, domesticity, chastity, and passivity, all of which have been used to keep women powerless. … However, Wolf contends that the beauty myth is really not about women, it is about men’s institutions and power. 56
  55. 55. Body Dysmorphia 57
  56. 56. Body Dysmorphic Disorder  dysmorphia |disˈmôrfēə|noun  Medicine deformity or abnormality in the shape or size of a specified part of the body: muscle dysmorphia.  Body dysmorphic disorder is a type of chronic mental illness in which you can't stop thinking about a flaw with your appearance — a flaw that is either minor or imagined. But to you, your appearance seems so shameful that you don't want to be seen by anyone. Body dysmorphic disorder has sometimes been called "imagined ugliness." (Mayo Clinic staff) 58
  57. 57. Real Women – looking backward The Three Graces, Peter Paul Rubens, 1639 62
  58. 58. Mid Twentieth Century 63
  59. 59. V I C T O R I A ’ S S E C R E T 2 0 1 4 64