Family aug 2014


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Family aug 2014

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  2. 2. 2  Show Zorba clip here
  3. 3. 3  Show Aretha clip here.
  4. 4. The voice of parents is the voice of gods, for to their children they are heaven's lieutenants. ~Shakespeare 4
  5. 5. Define “The Family” Take three or four minutes and write a definition for discussion. Then, for the sake of time, make a short list of one or two word descriptions, such as “blood relation,” or “supportive,” etc. We will put them on the board as well. 5
  6. 6. According to Murdock (1949), the family is “a social group whose members are related by ancestry, marriage, or adoption and live together, cooperate economically, and care for the young.” (From Hughes and Kroehler, 2007) 6
  7. 7. But others see the family as “a close knit group of people who care about and respect each other.” (From Lauer and Lauer, 2000) 7
  8. 8. Essentially the family is the basic unit of society—the most important group. Or is it? It would be, at least, the quintessential primary group. 8
  9. 9. 9 Sociologists view the family as an institution—both a pattern of behaviors and a set of cultural expectations. (Konradi and Schmidt, 2004)
  10. 10.  How has each culture's configuration of the family changed over time? I.e. Gatherer/Hunter, Pastoral, Agricultural, Complex Agricultural, Industrial, Post Industrial.  How has the configuration of the Western/European/American family changed over time relative to said cultural configurations?  How have and do men's and women's roles differ and how are they the same?Two primary approaches: Conflict and FunctionalistPatriarchy (functional/conservative) versus egalitarian (conflict/liberal).  Tribes, communities, cities, society (Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft) 10
  11. 11.  Industrialization: Different jobs for men and women.  Role changes. Both men and women in factories.  Children in factories. Wage labor. Artificial light and long hours.  The "mills." Working outside the home.Education for women and children in 19th century.  Suffrage and first sexual revolution.  Nuclear family composition.  Second sexual revolution.  Careers for women and the need for child care. (US versus Sweden). 11
  12. 12. While there is some consistency over time in the way families form and the roles members take, new ways of forming stable, supportive economic and social relationships are always emerging. 12
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  14. 14. When is a family not a family? Or is it a family? Consider the kibbutz of Israel in the fifties to the seventies. Have you ever heard of the kibbutz? 14
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  16. 16.  Nuclear family  Extended family 16
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  18. 18. Additionally one must consider two types of nuclear family:  Family of orientation  Family of procreation Which are you? 18
  19. 19. 19 Could this be a phenomenon that is increasing as due to current economic conditions?
  20. 20. 1 The patrilocal residence which is when the bride and groom live in the household of the husband’s family. 2 Matrilocal, which is living with the bride’s family. 3 Neolocal, which is living in a new residence separate from either family. 20
  21. 21. 1 Patriarchal authority is the power domination of the eldest male in the family. Examples are ancient Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans. 2 Matriarchal would be the holding of power in the woman. There is some controversy over there having actually been or is such a social structure. According to Howard Zinn (1995), a matrilineal arrangement existed among the Iroquois: the family line went down through the female members. 21
  22. 22. 3 Finally is the egalitarian authority—a shared power arrangement where authority is equally distributed between husband and wife. Again the Iroquois are a good example of an egalitarian society, the women having a say in the local politics and able to vote to remove men from office. (Zinn, 1995) 22
  23. 23. More and more couples with children break up and reunite with other couples with children, we find blended families. 23
  24. 24. What is the importance of family stability and fixed types of families? Consider the transfer of property and the responsibility for children. 24
  25. 25. What is marriage to you? Write about this for three or four minutes for discussion. 25
  26. 26.  Endogamy (marriage within the group)  Exogomy (marriage outside of the group) What are some advantages or disadvantages to either? 26
  27. 27. 1 Monogamy 2 Polygyny 3 Polyandry 4 Group marriage 27
  28. 28.  According to Hughes and Kroehler, citing Murdock, 1967, “monogamy was the preferred or ideal type of marriage in only 20 percent of 862 societies included in one cross cultural sample.” (This does not mean that the majority of marriage types allows for such an arrangement—one must be able to afford it.) 28
  29. 29. American couples are more conventional than might be expected. For instance: although 60 percent of wives polled by Blumstein and Schwartz were employed outside the home, only 30 percent of the men and 39 percent of the women believed that both spouses should work. (1983) 29
  30. 30. 1 Matching Hypothesis: Individuals of similar or equal attractiveness are drawn to each other. 2 Complementary Needs Theory:Opposites attract. Each partner fulfills the gap that the other has. 3 Exchange Theory 30
  31. 31. 3 Exchange Theory: a) We like those who reward us and dislike those who punish us. b) How do we benefit from a relationship? c) Matching is by persons of similar physical attractiveness—thus we minimize the risk of rejection. d) The exchange of behaviors is one of low risk and high reward. 31
  32. 32. While the conventionality of couple remains strong, the shape of families is in flux. Do we need marriage? Consider Popenoe’s criticism of Sweden. (See excerpt if available. Otherwise use following slides.) Discuss or write about: 32
  33. 33. Do we need marriage if, as in Sweden: 1. Parental leave at 90 percent of salary 2. Free day care 3. Child support payments and housing subsidies (at a higher level for single than married parents) 4. Free medical and dental care 5. Free education to the university level 6. Never-married or divorced mothers are not plunged into poverty, and no child grows up hungry, unsupervised, or undereducated. (continued) 33
  34. 34. However consider Popenoe’s points based upon his studies: 1. In mother-only families, children have fewer (if any) sibling companions and adult role models). 2. Parents and children do fewer things together as a family. 3. They have less time to develop family-centered routines and traditions. 4. Children lack the security of knowing their parents will try to stay together… 5. Loss of familialism: the belief in a strong sense of family identification and loyalty, mutual assistance among family members and a concern for the perpetuation of the family unit. 34
  35. 35. Indeed, increasing numbers of Americans no longer view marriage as a permanent institution but as something that can be ended and reentered. (Hughes and Kroehler, 2007) 35
  36. 36. More than one American youngster in four lives with just one parent. (Kroehler and Hughes, 2007) 36
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  41. 41. Note that while teen pregnancy is on the decrease, unwed motherhood is on the rise. Is this a moral dilemma or a structural one? Write about this for three minutes. 41
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  43. 43. The US marriage rate peaked in 1965 at 11.1 per 1000. It dropped to a low of 8.5 per 1000 in 1991 and has remained close to this low since. 43
  44. 44. Meanwhile, divorce rates have cycled from a high in 1945 down and back up again in 1979 to a rate of 5.3 per 1000 marriages. 44
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  46. 46. Divorce results in in a slight increase in income for the father while causing a “precipitous and sustained decline in household income for the mother an child.” (Hughes & Kroehler 2007) 46
  47. 47.  Lowest divorce rate: Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont  Mass has lowest divorce rate: 2.4 per 1k  Highest in the “Bible Belt”  Alabama, Arkansas, Arizona, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and Texas  Born-again Christians have highest divorce rate Slide credited to Excelsior College 47
  48. 48.  More couples in the South enter their first marriage at a younger age.  Average household incomes are lower in the South.  Southern states have a lower percentage of Roman Catholics, "a denomination that does not recognize divorce." Barna's study showed that 21 percent of Catholics had been divorced, compared with 29 percent of Baptists. Slide credited to Excelsior College 48
  49. 49.  Education. Massachusetts has about the highest rate of education in the country, with 85 percent completing high school. For Texas the rate is 76 percent. One third of Massachusetts residents have completed college, compared with 23 percent of Texans, and the other Northeast states are right behind Massachusetts.  The liberals from Massachusetts have long prided themselves on their emphasis on education, and it has paid off: People who stay in school longer get married at a later age, when they are more mature, are more likely to secure a better job, and job income increases with each level of formal education. As a result, Massachusetts also leads in per capita and family income while births by teenagers, as a percent of total births, was 7.4 for Massachusetts and 16.1 for Texas. Slide credited to Excelsior College 49
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  51. 51.  Interestingly enough, cohabiting before marriage does NOT assure that the marriage will last.  Cohabiters who cohabit serially are more likely to divorce than those who do not cohabit.  Cohabiting, however, is becoming a natural form of courtship in the US.  Is it replacing marriage? 51
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