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  1. 1. Why do we go to school?• Because our parents say we have to• To get a good job• To make more money• To get a bigger world view• To wizen ourselves• To better participate in a democracy 1
  2. 2. What are we taught?• How to line up• How to be respectful of authority• The process of “passive consumption”• Acceptance of the current social order This is called the “hidden curriculum” 2
  3. 3. The Hidden Curriculum 3
  4. 4. The Hidden CurriculumThis is the process in which we learn thenorms and values of the status quo. We learnnationalism (flag salute), passive learning(raise hand and be quiet), and other itemsmentioned already. 4
  5. 5. Cultural CapitalCultural capital is a concept that was conceived by Pierre Bourdieu in the 1960s. It refers to the cultural exposure that a student receives from his/her family in the way of art, music, and literature as well as a world view that is beyond the typical.How much one has as a child (according to Borurdieu) has a direct effect upon future socio-economic status (SES). 5
  6. 6. Cultural CapitalHow much cultural capital do you have? Is it the same amount as the wealthy have?You are accumulating it now. As you pass it on to your offspring they begin with an edge that they might not have had otherwise.Cultural capital can be acquired through education. 6
  7. 7. Social Promotion• How are we promoted through school? Should we be “socially” promoted or promoted only on merit?• Consider the following link: (note: you must be logged in to EBSCOhost prior to connection)"What if we ended social promotion?" 7
  8. 8. Tracking (within school effects)• The process of categorizing students into groups by IQ and achievement scores.• The intent is to better facilitate them into higher achievement.• The result is labeling and self-fulfilled prophesy.• Consider the Jennie Oakes study.(note: if link fails place cursor in address bar to right of address and hit return again.) 8
  9. 9. The Bell Curve controversyResearchers Herrnstein and Murray (1994) did a study that claimed that minority groups and those in lower SES had lower IQs, and that this was about 40 percent genetically based.Do you recall the concept of “social Darwinism?” 9
  10. 10. The Bell Curve controversyThe eight major claims of the study are:1 General intelligence exists.2 At least half of the variation in intelligence is genetically transmitted.3 Intelligence has become more necessary in the work world than before.4 Colleges have shifted their entrance priorities away from inherited wealth to those based upon merit.5 Society is now dominated by a “cognitive elite.”6 As the elite forms a social group it reproduces itself through marriage.7 As well, poor people tend to marry those alike passing on their “modest” abilities to their children.8 Because of this genetically passed on intelligence we should see the poor as having higher crime rates and drug abuse. 10
  11. 11. The Bell Curve controversyFor a critique of the work of Murray and Herrnstein, see the following link:Critique of the Bell Curve study(NOTE: You must already be logged in to EBSCOhost for link to work.)In general the study as been debunked. But this should remind you of social Darwinism. 11
  12. 12. Between school effects:• According to the Coleman study (1966) material resources in schools made little difference to educational performance.• The decisive influence was the children’s background. (Giddens et al, 2008) 12
  13. 13. Social Economic Status and EducationThere IS a relationship between social class and wealth to education—this is not the same as intelligence.Most of a student’s success is based upon the parent’s education.So what is causing what? 13
  14. 14. Social Economic Status and EducationLook at the following graphs and see how race and ethnicity and class overlap. See the numbers and consider the causes for them. 14
  15. 15. We can safely assume that the more education the more income: 15
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  24. 24. Who gets the best education?If primary and secondary education isfinanced by property taxes, which districtsflourish and which don’t?Consider Jonathan Kozol and his comparisonof impoverished schools to affluent ones? 24
  25. 25. Who gets the best education? 25
  26. 26. ContrastSuch extreme contrasts do exist. SouthCentral Los Angeles, East Saint Louis, 26
  27. 27. Who gets the best education? 27
  28. 28. Who gets the best education? 28
  29. 29. Who gets the best education?And do we all have access to those resources? 29
  30. 30. Who pays for education• State taxes (from personal property taxes— your home)—mostly for primary and secondary education).• Federal funds ( although this is minimal)— mostly for primary and secondary education).• Tuition for college (your direct cost of education) 30
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  33. 33. Who pays for education• Should education be free and tax paid?• If so, should this apply to college?• Medical school?Consider Northern Europe: in Denmark a college education is completely free to participating and qualified students. 33
  34. 34. Privatization• School vouchers: Government money granted to parents who want their children to attend an alternative to a public school.• Home schooling: Teaching your children at home via a qualified curriculum.• Charter schools: Private schools that nonetheless receive public money.• Religious schools: Private schools that receive public and private money but emphasize a particular religion. 34
  35. 35. The College EducationJohn Merrow (in the film Declining by Degrees, 1995) discusses the following issues:• Grade inflation• Debt for an education• Having to work while going to college• Government cuts in education overall• Lack or lessening of grant opportunities• Different educations for different income brackets more -> 35
  36. 36. The College Education• Lack of counseling• Special privileges to special groups (athletes, high school honor students)• An eroding social contract (gone is the easy access to a college education as is available in other developed countries) 36
  37. 37. Who pays for a college education? 37
  38. 38. You do! Note the ratio ofdecreases in Pell Grants: 38
  39. 39. Who goes to college? 39
  40. 40. Social problemAll of these issues and more compound tomake education in the United States a severesocial problem.How does this affect you and your educationalexperiences? 40