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Addiction

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Addiction

  1. 1. Addiction Much of the material is credited to Lauer and Lauer, 2008, Social Problems and the Quality of Life unless otherwise noted 1
  2. 2. Definition Repeated use of a drug or alcohol to the point of periodic or chronic intoxication that is detrimental to the user or society. 2
  3. 3. Alcohol Conditions of the alcoholic: • A craving or compulsion to drink. • Loss of control to limit drinking. • Physical dependence/withdrawal. • Tolerance: The need to drink more and more. 3
  4. 4. Patterns • About 63 percent of Americans identify themselves as drinkers. • 25 percent say they sometimes drink more than they should. • 37 percent say that drinking has been a source of trouble in their family. 4
  5. 5. Patterns • Whites drink more than African Americans or Hispanics. • Alcohol abuse is also more common among the young. 5
  6. 6. Patterns • A substantial proportion of children and young adolescents also drink. • 75.1 young people consumed alcohol by the end of high school. • 41 percent of children have consumed alcohol by the 8th grade. (Lauer and Lauer, 2008) 6
  7. 7. So who is the alcoholic likely to be? 7
  8. 8. Alcohol and the Quality of Life • Physical Health – Cirrhosis of the liver – Muscle diseases and tremors – Impotence and sterility in men – Early death • Psychological Health – Dementia – Alcohol abuse is associated with a substantial proportion of suicides – Inhibits sexual performance 8
  9. 9. More scary stuff: • Fetal alcohol syndrome. • In the alcoholic may be 1 Short term memory loss (alcohol amnestic disorder) 2 Dementia 3 Difficulty problem solving 9
  10. 10. A list of caveats to drinking • Increased risk of injury and violent death (suicide) • About 35 percent of violent victimizations involve an offender who had been drinking. • Two-thirds of intimate violence report that alcohol was a factor in the attack. • Nearly a third of fatal accidents involve an intoxicated driver or pedestrian. 10
  11. 11. • Alcohol is a disinhibitor. It relaxes normal inhibitions making social deviance all the more possible. • Alcohol increases aggression for males but not for females. 11
  12. 12. Economic Costs In one year, underage drinking resulted in 3,170 deaths and 2.6 million other harmful events, costing around $61.9 billion in medical expenses, work loss, and the lost quality of life. 12
  13. 13. Many people use alcohol without these deleterious effects or becoming addicted. 13
  14. 14. Examples are: • Alcohol use in early life in context of strong family life. • Low-alcohol-content beverages (wine and beer). • Alcohol is consumed at meals. • Parents are an example of moderate drinking. • Drinking is not a moral question, merely one of custom. 14
  15. 15. More examples are: • Drinking is not defined as a symbol of manhood or adulthood. • Abstinence is as acceptable as drinking. • Drunkenness is not socially acceptable. • Alcohol is not the center of activities (cocktail parties) • There is a general agreement about what is proper and improper in drinking. 15
  16. 16. Structural Influences • Role conflict can contribute to the use of alcohol. • The family (broken homes and homes with other members who are alcohol abusers). • The media (an examination of 601 movies found that 92 percent depicted drinking.) • Ideology: the aggressive assertion that alcoholism is a personal problem, resulting in stigma. 16
  17. 17. Treatment • Meds • Psychiatric or psychological • Group • Consider AA • The 28 day recovery industry 17
  18. 18. Treatment http://www.hbo.com/addiction/understandin g_addiction/index.html?current=0 18
  19. 19. Other Drugs • Opium • Morphine • Codeine • Heroin • Meperidine (Demerol) • Methadone • Marijuana • Hallucinogens – LSD – PCP • Stimulants – Cocaine – Amphetamines • Depressants – Barbiturates – Tranquilizers – Chloral hydrate 19
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. The previous slide showed the proportion of current users. The following represent the proportions of those who have ever used the drugs. • any illicit drug: 46.4% • marijuana & hashish: 40.6% • cocaine: 14.7% • crack: 3.3% • inhalants: 9.7% • hallucinogens: 14.5% • methamphetamine: 5.2% • Drug use is higher in the lower than in the middle or upper social classes. 21
  22. 22. • Drug abuse is currently the main preventable cause of illness and premature death in the United States. • Drug abuse contradicts the American value of physical well-being. 22
  23. 23. Economic Costs • Criminal justice expenditures. • Health care costs of drug related injuries. • Costs of low productivity due to absenteeism and errors in the workplace. • Property damage. • Toxins introduced into public air and water supplies by drug production. • Emotional damage to family, friends and co-workers. 23
  24. 24. Methamphetamine • Amp • Blue belly • Crank • Crystal • La Glass (pure meth with no cuts) • Speed • White cross • White crunch 24
  25. 25. Effects of Methamphetamine Short term • Rashes or sores • Dilated pupils • Shrinkage of vessels in gum tissue • Tooth decay • Bone loss • High blood pressure • Irregular heartbeat • Nausea • Diarrhea Long term • Fatal kidney/lung damage • Loss of pleasure center of brain • Memory impairment • Organ failure • Liver damage • Stroke • Schizophrenia/psychosis • Death 25
  26. 26. 26
  27. 27. 27
  28. 28. Normal dopamine process 28
  29. 29. How Drugs Work 29
  30. 30. How Drugs Work (hyperlink): 30
  31. 31. Contributing Factors • Group Norms • Role Problems • Family Experiences • Government • Economy • Supply 31
  32. 32. Social Structural Factors • Group Norms 1 Peer Pressure 2 Cultural Transmission Theory • Role strain Role of physician versus patients needs (such as abortion) or personal problem affecting life. • Role Conflict Two or more roles that are contradictory. 32
  33. 33. Family Experiences • Families that eat together have strong bonds that keep them together. • Family members who come from homes where there is drug abuse are most likely to become abusers themselves. • Children who grow up in broken or single-parent homes are more likely to abuse. • Alienation of the child from the family can contribute to drug abuse. 33
  34. 34. Government • The government’s definition of drug use as illegal. • Illegality raises the cost of maintaining the drug habit. • Illegality also relegates user to a dangerous environment. • It strains the criminal justice system. 34
  35. 35. The Economy • Those impoverished are most tempted by the lure of sale and use of drugs. • Contrary to that is the fact that the legal drugs—alcohol and tobacco—are marketed freely and at such a great profit to producers that it is unlikely that they will be eliminated altogether. 35
  36. 36. Supply • The organization of supply. 1 Drug cartels 2 Proximity to the US borders 3 Demand 36
  37. 37. Social Psychological Factors • Positive attitudes lead to use. • The quest for psychic effects 1 Self esteem issues 2 Low self-confidence • Popularity of drugs and alcohol during school years. • Ideology 37
  38. 38. Ideology • Enjoyment without harm to others • Consciousness raising • As moral a product as alcohol • Resistance to the domination of older adults 38
  39. 39. Enforcement Programs • Focusing on reducing demand • Making certain areas “drug free” • Street enforcement (looking for “hot spots”) • Citizen policing 39
  40. 40. Treatment • Detoxification (supervised withdrawal) • Substitute drug maintenance (methadone) • Brief intervention therapy (with a therapist—few sessions) • Family therapy • Drug treatment center (spin dry) • Religious type experience • AA and NA (spiritual without being religious) 40
  41. 41. Education and Prevention • Anti-drug advertising • Reduced medial exposure to alcohol and tobacco • Decriminalization (of some or all drugs) (What would happen?) 41
  42. 42. National Institute on Drug Abuse 2007 Percentage of 8th-Graders Who Have Used Marijuana: Monitoring the Future Study, 2007 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Lifetime 16.7% 19.9% 23.1% 22.6% 22.2% 22.0% 20.3% Past Year 13.0 15.8 18.3 17.7 16.9 16.5 15.6 Past Month 7.8 9.1 11.3 10.2 9.7 9.7 9.1 Daily 0.7 0.8 1.5 1.1 1.1 1.4 1.3 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Lifetime 20.4% 19.2% 17.5% 16.3% 16.5% 15.7 14.2 Past Year 15.4 14.6 12.8 11.8 12.2 11.7 10.3 Past Month 9.2 8.3 7.5 6.4 6.6 6.5 5.7 Daily 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 1.0 1.0 0.8 Percentage of 10th-Graders Who Have Used Marijuana: Monitoring the Future Study, 2007 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Lifetime 30.4% 34.1% 39.8% 42.3% 39.6% 40.9% 40.3% Past Year 25.2 28.7 33.6 34.8 31.1 32.1 32.2 Past Month 15.8 17.2 20.4 20.5 18.7 19.4 19.7 Daily 2.2 2.8 3.5 3.7 3.6 3.8 3.8 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Lifetime 40.1% 38.7% 36.4% 35.1% 34.1% 31.8% 31.0% Past Year 32.7 30.3 28.2 27.5 26.6 25.2 24.6 Past Month 19.8 17.8 17.0 15.9 15.2 14.2 14.2 Daily 4.5 3.9 3.6 3.2 3.1 2.8 2.8 Percentage of 12th-Graders Who Have Used Marijuana Monitoring the Future Study, 2007 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Lifetime 38.2% 41.7% 44.9% 49.6% 49.1% 49.7% 48.8% Past Year 30.7 34.7 35.8 38.5 37.5 37.8 36.5 Past Month 19.0 21.2 21.9 23.7 22.8 23.1 21.6 Daily 3.6 4.6 4.9 5.8 5.6 6.0 6.0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Lifetime 49.0% 47.8% 46.1% 45.7% 44.8% 42.3% 41.8% Past Year 37.0 36.2 34.9 34.3 33.6 31.5 31.7 Past Month 22.4 21.5 21.2 19.9 19.8 18.3 18.8 Daily 5.8 6.0 6.0 5.6 5.0 5.0 5.1

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