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Making Mining Work For Peace And Development In The Kivus


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This presentation provides suggestions as to what the various stakeholders in electronics supply chains can do to constructively engage with the extractives sector in DR Congo to address the appalling human rights issues and environmental destruction being wrought by artisanal mining. This presentation was given by Estelle Levin at the Finnwatch seminar on the makeITfair campaign in Helsinki on 21st January 2008.

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Making Mining Work For Peace And Development In The Kivus

  1. 1. Estelle Levin Minerals and Sustainability Consultant Cambridge, UK Finnwatch Helsinki Seminar 21st January 2008 © Estelle Levin, 21st January 2008
  2. 2. NGOs  MakeITFair Campaign Business  GeSI  EICC © Estelle Levin, 21st January 2008
  3. 3. NGO-led MULTI-STAKEHOLDER PROCESSES The Durban Process (led by the Gorilla Organization)  Great Apes Survival Project (GRASP)  Fatal Transactions Campaign (led by NiZA)  Conservation NGOs Flora and Fauna International (FFI), World Conservation Society  (WCS), Conservation International, World Wildlife Fund, World Conservation Union (IUCN). Local NGOs ACIDH (Katanga), The Pole Institute (North  Kivu), OCEAN, CENADEP, etc. Other International NGOs and Agencies working doing research, advocacy, and lobbying. Global Witness  Business and Human Rights Watch  © Estelle Levin, 21st January 2008
  4. 4. GOVERNMENT and MULTILATERALS The Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI)  The Communities and Small-scale Mining (CASM) Working Group on  ASM in DRC The British Department for International Development (DFID)  The World Bank  German Geological Survey (BGR) and Overseas Technical Assistance  Department (GTZ) Inter-governmental Forum on the Great Lakes  Initiative for Central Africa (INICA)  Also relevant: The Association for Responsible Mining (ARM)  Kimberley Process Certification Scheme  © Estelle Levin, 21st January 2008
  5. 5. Research 1. Advocacy & lobbying 2. Structural reform 3. Cultural reform 4. Developing and stimulating formal systems of 5. responsible mining and trading © Estelle Levin, 21st January 2008
  6. 6. RESEARCH Know the problems to identify solutions! Political economy of extraction, processing and trade and the role of  minerals in conflict and instability (e.g. DFID, Garrett, INICA, MakeITFair, Pole Institute, Global Witness, etc.) Structural obstacles to Development and change (e.g. INICA)  Motivations for conflict at political level (leaders, e.g. Nkunda), and  personal level (soldiers) Reasons for displacement (e.g. Refugees International, UNHCR)  Role of minerals in livelihood strategies: why are people mining? How  are they coping? What are the pressure points for change? © Estelle Levin, 21st January 2008
  7. 7. ADVOCACY Informing, lobbying and advising BUSINESS  the electronics sector, e.g. makeITfair, the Durban Process  the minerals sector (mining companies, mineral  traders, associations)  For what are they responsible?  What can they do to effect positive change?  Why do these actions make business sense? Local competitiveness (access to productive concessions)  International competitiveness (reputational risk; Green trend)  Risk management (building good relations locally and  nationally, knowing the risks in the operational environment ) Reputational risk (protecting share price; preventing law suits)  Promoting and Facilitating Corporate Social Responsibility © Estelle Levin, 21st January 2008
  8. 8. ADVOCACY Informing, lobbying, pressuring and listening to GOVERNMENTS  Local and regional governments and authorities  DR Congo  Countries benefitting from situation, e.g. Uganda, Rwanda  Governments of companies operating in and investing in DRC   Investigate and pressure for responsible behaviour Governments intervening in DRC mineral policy  © Estelle Levin, 21st January 2008
  9. 9. Structural Reform 1. Changing LAW, POLICY, INSTITUTIONS  Mineral sector  Rule of law (judiciary system)  Security Sector Reform  Revenue Collection  Transportation and Cross-border controls  Strengthening governance of social and environmental  protection, e.g. Ministry of Labour, Environment, Health, etc. © Estelle Levin, 21st January 2008
  10. 10. Cultural Reform 2. Building institutional capacity in government  Tackling corruption  Inducing transparency in government and business  Developing Systems of Responsible Mining and 3. Trading Educating miners on responsible practices  Creating appropriate structural and cultural environment to  make responsible mining more possible and more desirable © Estelle Levin, 21st January 2008
  11. 11. Supply chain audits: make demands of their suppliers and their  suppliers’ suppliers’ suppliers’ suppliers.... Build the most ethical supply chain possible: identify and work  with other champions, e.g. Coltan supply chain... Be the first to make the most ethical television possible, recycled  goods, goods from responsible mines, etc. Use recycled inputs; recycle e-waste!  Make more durable goods.  Stop pushing new products on consumers; respond to need, not  greed! Financially support international and local initiatives doing  something about it © Estelle Levin, 21st January 2008
  12. 12. Abide by local, national and international Law!  (including ILO conventions) Go beyond legal compliance!  Pursue best practice in extraction and trading by implementing the EITI and CSR performance standards, e.g. IFC, ICMM etc. Take responsibility.  Don’t just avoid social and environmental damage; optimise on opportunities for inducing sustainable development Be a champion!  Build the most ethical supply chain possible: identify and work with other champions, e.g. Coltan supply chain... Get behind the reform process.  Push for changes in Congolese Law and security sector reform. Constructively engage with and listen to NGOs, campaigns, government  and affected local communities © Estelle Levin, 21st January 2008
  13. 13. Enable and expand electronics recycling  Take responsibility.  Investigate, lobby and, where necessary, discipline companies registered  in Finland who are operating in DRC (or any fragile environment) and are in violation of international law or codes of conduct Investigate and lobby Finnish banks and financial institutions which  invest in companies committing abuses or illegal activities in DRC Provide financial assistance to initiatives such as  CASM, EITI, ARM, makeITfair, the Durban Process Engage with inter-governmental efforts to build peace and  security in eastern DRC Use trading, investment and diplomatic relations as  opportunities for building momentum for positive change in DRC © Estelle Levin, 21st January 2008
  14. 14. Investigate and lobby companies who might be in violation of  international law or codes of best practice in the extractives sector Investigate, lobby and expose banks and financial institutions which  invest in companies committing abuses or illegal activities in DRC Put pressure on governments to discipline offending companies  Get ITRI, who represents major tin smelters, active in finding champions  and pushing for responsible behaviour amongst their membership Support local NGOs working with mining communities to develop  systems of responsible mining and trading Be realistic and strategic in terms of the situation on the ground and what  can be achieved: small steps Increase consumer awareness of the issues and enable activism  Give voice to people, such as miners and community members, affected  by the problems. © Estelle Levin, 21st January 2008
  15. 15. REDUCE, RE-USE, RECYCLE!  Ask questions when you buy electronics  Tell the companies what you think. Letters, emails, protests.  Tell the companies when you have been an activist consumer.  Tell your government what you think.  Support work on these issues, e.g. makeITfair  campaign, FinnWatch, Durban Process, Conservation indigenous peoples’, and human rights NGOs. Find out about it and spread the word  If you can meaningfully contribute, volunteer for humanitarian work in  DRC Make up your own campaign  © Estelle Levin, 21st January 2008