Architecture and Design Part I

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  • The Ziggurat at Ur has been restored twice.  The first time was in antiquity by the last Neo-Babylonian king, Nabodinus, in the 6th century B.C.E., who apparently replaced the two upper terraces of the structure.  Then, some 2400 years later in the 1980s, Saddam Hussein restored the façade of the massive lower foundation of the ziggurat, including the three monumental staircases leading up to the gate at the first terrace.  Since this most recent restoration, however, the Ziggurat at Ur has experienced some damage as a result of the armed conflict between the American led coalition forces and Iraq.  During the aerial bombardment of Iraq in 1990 during the “First Gulf War,” Saddam Hussein parked his MiG fighter jets directly next to the Ziggurat at Ur, believing that the bombers would spare them for fear of destroying the ancient site. Hussein’s assumptions proved only partially true as the ziggurat sustained some damage in these campaigns.
  • The Ziggurat at Ur has been restored twice.  The first time was in antiquity by the last Neo-Babylonian king, Nabodinus, in the 6th century B.C.E., who apparently replaced the two upper terraces of the structure.  Then, some 2400 years later in the 1980s, Saddam Hussein restored the façade of the massive lower foundation of the ziggurat, including the three monumental staircases leading up to the gate at the first terrace.  Since this most recent restoration, however, the Ziggurat at Ur has experienced some damage as a result of the armed conflict between the American led coalition forces and Iraq.  During the aerial bombardment of Iraq in 1990 during the “First Gulf War,” Saddam Hussein parked his MiG fighter jets directly next to the Ziggurat at Ur, believing that the bombers would spare them for fear of destroying the ancient site. Hussein’s assumptions proved only partially true as the ziggurat sustained some damage in these campaigns.
  • Elevators not complete until after expo. Took over one hour to reach the top on foot.
  • 2010- Shanghai 2012- Yeosu, S. Korea 2015- Milan, Italy
  • William Morris
  • Architecture and Design Part I

    1. 1. Architecture and Design Part I
    2. 2. Chapter 15 & 16Architecture and Design
    3. 3. Pyramids of Menkaure (c. 2470 BCE), Khafre (c. 2500 BCE), and Khufu (c. 2530 BCE).Original height of Pyramid of Khufu 480 ft., length of each side at base 755 ft.
    4. 4. Architecture and Design both depend on …3.Environment (Where?)4.Purpose (What and Why?)5.Function (How?)6.Aesthetic & Cultural Values (What and Why?)
    5. 5. Ziggurat, Ur. c. 2100 BCE. 210 x 150 ft. at base. Present day Iraq
    6. 6. Mesa Verde, Spruce Tree House. c. 1200–1300 CE.third largest cliff dwelling; constructed by Pueblo peoples; present-day Colorado
    7. 7. Cribbed roof construction of a kiva.
    8. 8. Post and Beam (Lintel) construction The Lion Gate. 1250 BCE.
    9. 9. Entasis-Slightcurvature ofthe column togive illusion ofstraight lines Corner of the First Temple of Hera. c. 550 BCE.
    10. 10. Doric Ionic CorinthianThe Greek orders, from James Stuart, The Antiquities of Athens. 1794.
    11. 11. Arch.Keystone- middle stone to support the weight of arch
    12. 12. Pont du Gard. Late first century BCE.Colannade; aqueduct bridge
    13. 13. Barrel vault (top) and groined vault (bottom) construction.
    14. 14. Barrel-vaulted gallery, ground floor of the Colosseum.
    15. 15. The Colosseum (aerial view). 72–80 CE.
    16. 16. Oculus andDome Interior, Pantheon. 117–125 CE. Rome, Italy
    17. 17. Exterior, Pantheon. 117–125 CE. Rome, Italy
    18. 18. Interior view of nave, St. Sernin. c. 1080–1120. Toulouse, France
    19. 19. Plan, St. Sernin.
    20. 20. Amiens Cathedral. begun 1220., Amiens, France
    21. 21. Gothic- Pointed arch.
    22. 22. Flying buttresses, Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres, France
    23. 23. Flying buttresses, Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres, diagram (after Acland).
    24. 24. Wood-frame construction.
    25. 25. Architect unknown. Mansion at Parlange Plantation. c. 1785–95.
    26. 26. Gustave Eiffel. Eiffel Tower. 1887–89. Height of tower 1,051 ft.Completed for the Paris World’s Fair in 1889
    27. 27. First World’s Fair, London, 1851“Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations" Joseph Paxton. Crystal Palace. World’s Fair, London, UK. 1851. 1,848 x 408 ft.
    28. 28. Joseph Paxton. Crystal Palace, interior. 1851.
    29. 29. The Arts and Crafts Movement (1860-1910 approx) -rebelling against Industrialization Morris and Company. Sussex Rush-Seated Chairs.

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