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  1. 1. Unit 16 and 17. Understanding and coping with pollution <ul><li>Pollute </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Make unclean, impure, corrupt, dirty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Contaminate (water, air, etc.) with harmful chemicals, waste material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Page 136 </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem Definition of POLLUTION Contaminate = to make impure, infected, corrupt, etc. by contact with or addition of something;
  3. 3. <ul><li>Pollution – Air, water, land, noise </li></ul><ul><li>Extent – The scale that it affects </li></ul><ul><li>Causes – Human activities, natural events </li></ul><ul><li>Effects – on people, animals, environment… anything you can think of? </li></ul><ul><li>Measures – Solutions to reduce the problem </li></ul>
  4. 4. One type of pollution can lead to other types of pollution = as the physical environment is INTERCONNECTED
  5. 5. Extent of pollution <ul><li>Local scale </li></ul><ul><li>Only affect a certain area </li></ul><ul><li>Air, water, land, noise </li></ul><ul><li>Regional scale </li></ul><ul><li>Spread over countries </li></ul><ul><li>Air and water </li></ul><ul><li>Global scale </li></ul><ul><li>Spread over continents </li></ul><ul><li>Global warming/ Ozone depletion </li></ul>
  6. 6. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4GluDBxSVfQ
  7. 7. <ul><li>Introduction of chemicals or particles into the atmosphere that are harmful or dangerous </li></ul><ul><li>Example = Dust, ash, harmful gases </li></ul>Air Pollution
  8. 9. Natural events Human Activities Causes of air pollution Motor vehicles – carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide Industries, Incinerators (Treat waste) Volcanic eruption - Produce ash and dust Forest fires – ash and smoke Q : Which human activity will also cause forest fire?
  9. 10. Acid Rain Withered trees Effects on Air pollution – 1. Environment Smog (Smoke + sulphur dioxide) Haze (Dust and smoke particles in air) Visible corrosion
  10. 11. Visibility affected in traffic (Safety issue) Eg Cars, aeroplanes Individual health problems (respiratory) Eg Asthma, Bronchitis Effects on Air pollution 2. Health 3. Traffic
  11. 12. Water Pollution <ul><li>The contamination of water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater. </li></ul>What is the keyword?
  12. 14. Causes of water pollution Discharging industrial waste Oil Spills (hard to clean up) Dumping garbage and raw sewage Seepage from landfill
  13. 15. <ul><li>Human lives (poisoning) </li></ul>Effects of water pollution Plants and Animals Economic Loss (fisherman, tourist) Algae Growth (Chemical fertilizers, affects aqualife)
  14. 16. (a) (b) (c) (d) (1) (2) (4) (5) (7) (3) (6) <ul><li>Unit 16 – Understanding pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Causes and effects of pollution </li></ul><ul><li> Name : __________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Fill in the causes of pollution in for (a) to (d) </li></ul><ul><li>State the effects of pollution on the following (1) to (7) </li></ul>1
  15. 17. <ul><li>Fill in the causes of pollution in for (a) to (d) </li></ul>Refer to text page 136 and 137 to find out more (a)Agriculture (b)Fire (c)Industry (d)Transport
  16. 18. <ul><li>Ground water – contamination of water supply, affects people, animals and plants </li></ul><ul><li>Human health – Respiratory problems, breathing difficulty eg Asthma, bronchitis </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural resources – Corrosion of surface </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>Aquatic ecosystem – Poisoning of animals, lack of oxygen due to algae boom </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking water – Poisoning of people and animals </li></ul><ul><li>Forest productivity – Withered trees, dying plants </li></ul><ul><li>Visibility – How clear/far we can see, affects traffic conditions </li></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>The degradation of Earth’s land surfaces by human activities and misuse of land resources. It also occurs when waste is not disposed properly. </li></ul>Land Pollution
  19. 22. Improper disposal of waste Farming practices = Fertilizers & pesticides (results in both water and land pollution) Causes of land pollution
  20. 23. <ul><li>Negative impact on human health (Spread of diseases) </li></ul><ul><li>Poisoning of animals (When consume untreated waste) </li></ul>Effect of land pollution
  21. 24. Sound that disrupts the environment Noise pollution
  22. 25. Effects of noise pollution <ul><li>Stress and anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Affect our hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Increase blood pressure </li></ul>
  23. 26. Write a complaint letter in pairs. Include the following : The extent of problem, causes and solutions Housing board Soil association Water treatment board Air traffic control authority To Problem From Pollution Noisy neighbour Resident Noise Spread of diseases Farmer Land Contaminated water, oil spills Fisherman Water Haze and smog Pilot Air
  24. 27. Measures <ul><li>1. International </li></ul><ul><li>– UNEP www.unep.org </li></ul><ul><li>- Control Toxic emission, increase clean water supply, implement proper sewage system </li></ul><ul><li>2. Regional </li></ul><ul><li>Case study : Haze problem in Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>- Transboundary Haze pollution </li></ul><ul><li>- Annual issue = ongoing problem </li></ul><ul><li>- Air Quality monitoring stations </li></ul>
  25. 28. Measures 3. National -Laws & regulations (control amount of pollutants within safety limits), alternative source of energy, proper waste disposal methods (landfills, incinerators) Case Study : Singapore’s Semakau landfill - Careful planning of the island led to its amazing biodiversity - Semakau maintains a sustainable solid waste management system and a wealth of natural habitats - Biodiversity includes various species of birds, sea animals and insects 4. Individual - RRR - Education
  26. 29. Pollution in the world -1 type of pollution can lead to other types as the physical environment is interconnected <ul><li>Damage hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Increase stress level & anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Lead to poor work performance </li></ul>1. Negative impact on human health – unhygienic (germs & bacteria), eyesore 2. Poisoning of animals 1. Endangering plant & animal species (oil sticks to fur & remove air insulation = freeze to death/birds cant fly & drown) 2. Chemicals cause growth of algae which blocks sunlight (cant photosynthesize) 3. Human – poison in fish, humans consume contaminated food 4. Economic loss- Livelihood of fisherman, beach unattractive to tourists <ul><li>Industrial waste leads to ACID RAIN (falls into river to cause WP) </li></ul><ul><li>Haze : Dust & smoke particles are suspended in air </li></ul><ul><li>Smog : Dust & smoke combine with water vapour & toxic gas </li></ul><ul><li>-Spreads across boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>1. Health – difficulty breathing, irritate throat & eyes (respiratory system), toxic gas (carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Traffic hazard – visibility affects safety </li></ul><ul><li>3. Environment – Acid rain destroys building (corrodes) & ecosystem (forest) </li></ul>Extent 1. Traffic - vehicles 2. Construction – drilling, knocking, heavy machines 3. Others – talking loudly, concerts 1. Improper disposal of waste – space constraint, technology 2. Excessive use of chemical fertilizers & pesticides (lead to soil contamination,) 1. Improper disposal of sewage (human waste, detergent, toxic chemicals) 2. Oil spills (spread over large areas) 1. Natural events -Volcanic eruptions release ash/smoke -Forest Fires : hot & dry weather (haze) 2. Human activities -Industries : burn fossil fuel = soot -Motor vehicles produce harmful gas -Construction work Causes Noise Pollution Land Pollution Water Pollution Air Pollution (dust + smoke)
  27. 30. Start the pledge with “We, the citizens of Singapore, pledge to reduce pollution by … “
  28. 31. Start the pledge with “We, the Government of Singapore, pledge to reduce pollution by … “
  29. 32. Start the pledge with “We, the representatives of the world, pledge to reduce pollution by … “