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Tunneling: Esquivando Restricciones de Proxies y Firewalls

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Introducción al Tunneling y explicación de que herramientas utilizar para saltar las restricciones de proxies y firewalls

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Tunneling: Esquivando Restricciones de Proxies y Firewalls

  1. 1. Tunneling: Esquivandorestricciones de Proxiesy FirewallsEsteban Saavedra LopezCEO AtixLibreCEO Opentelematicsemail: esteban.saavedra@atixlibre.orghttp://esteban.opentelematics.org
  2. 2. Objetivo• Realizar una presentación de las principalesalternativas y características de como esquivarrestricciones en una red de datos.
  3. 3. Agenda• Situación actual• Métodos de anonimato• Escenarios de Tunneling• Conclusiones
  4. 4. Situación Actual
  5. 5. Situación actual• Los administradores de redes y telecomunicacionesde las empresas se dedican a establecer medidasde control y filtrado del trafico, ya sea por temasde seguridad o de gestión de ancho de banda.
  6. 6. NOC Network Operation Center
  7. 7. Geolocalización y rastreo de IP
  8. 8. Control del Origen y Destino
  9. 9. Ventajas para la Empresa• Solo se permite trafico necesario para el acceso aservicios públicos necesarios por los usuarios.• Mayor velocidad y ancho de banda para serviciosrelevantes dentro de la empresa (para accederlos opara brindarlos).• El acceso irrestricto a servicios públicos, seconvierte en una amenaza a la seguridad de laempresa.• El acceso restringido es una forma de precautelarsaturación de canales de comunicación, posiblesataques, robo de información, registro en black list,vaneo de IPs, etc.
  10. 10. Desventajas para los usuarios• No pueden acceder a servicios que no esténpermitidos por políticas de la empresa.• Se sienten limitados para poder hacer uso deservicios públicos y acceso a la información.• Piensan que el control de trafico es atentar contrasu privacidad.
  11. 11. Como usuarios debemos ver quehacer?
  12. 12. Acceso Anónimo
  13. 13. Navegación Anónima• La navegación anónima por Internet, es ocultarlenuestra identidad (dirección IP) al servidor quealoja la página web a la que deseamos ingresar.• De esta manera, el servidor no tendrá unaubicación exacta de nuestro PC en la red y seráimposible el rastreo de nuestro equipo.
  14. 14. Esquema de conexiones anónimas
  15. 15. Métodos para el anonimato1.Utilizar Anonimizadores2.Utilizar Proxies3.Utilizar Tunneling
  16. 16. 1. Anonimizadores
  17. 17. 1. AnonimizadoresEste método se basa en utilizar un servicio deanonimato web, que consiste en la ejecución depoderosos filtros de seguridad, los cuales, seincrustan en el navegador web y funcionan comouna especie de barrera entre nuestro PC y elservidor web destino.
  18. 18. Esquema de Anonimizadores
  19. 19. 2. Servidores proxy
  20. 20. 2. Servidores proxy• La idea básica de un servidor proxy es actuar depasarela (gateway) entre tu máquina o tu red localy la Internet.• Un proxy actúa como interlocutor o intermediarioal momento de realizar peticiones a través de uncortafuegos (firewall).• También sirven para prestar servicios como cachéde documentos y sitios que son pedidos pormuchos clientes, reduciendo el coste de tráficode red y acelerando las conexiones.
  21. 21. Esquema 1: Conexión Pública
  22. 22. Esquema 2: Conexión con Proxy
  23. 23. Esquema 3: Conexión por tunel
  24. 24. 3. Tunneling
  25. 25. 3. Tunneling• Es una tecnología que permite enviar datos enuna red mediante otras conexiones de la red.• La técnica de tunneling consiste en encapsular unprotocolo de red sobre otro (protocolo de redencapsulador) creando un túnel dentro de una redde computadoras.
  26. 26. Formas de hacer tunneling• Tunneling sobre SSH• Tunneling sobre HTTP• Tunneling sobre DNS• Tunneling sobre ICMP
  27. 27. Escenario InicialINTERNETLANFIREWALL
  28. 28. Escenario para el TunnelingFIREWALLLANINTERNETPROXY - TUNEL
  29. 29. Tunneling sobre SSH• Requisitos> Tener instalado ssh en el cliente y en el servidor• Pasos> Crear el tunel> Servidor:– ssh -D 8080 tunel.atixlibre.org> Configurar los servicios de Socks para hacer uso deltunel.
  30. 30. Tunneling sobre HTTP• Requisitos> Tener instalado httptunnel en el cliente y en el servidor• Pasos> Crear el tunel– Servidor:– hts -F 200.80.100.100:22 200.80.100.100:8585– Cliente:– htc 200.80.100.100:80 -F 8585– htc -P 190.10.20.30:3128 200.80.100.100:80 -F 8585> Configurar los servicios de Socks para hacer uso deltunel.
  31. 31. Tunneling sobre DNS• Requisitos> Tener instalado iodine en el cliente y en el servidor• Pasos> Crear el tunel– Servidor:– Iodined -f 10.0.0.1 tunel.atixlibre.org– Cliente:– Iodined tunel.atixlibre.org> Configurar los servicios de Socks para hacer uso deltunel.
  32. 32. Tunneling sobre ICMP• Requisitos> Tener instalado ptunnel en el cliente y en el servidor• Pasos> Crear el tunel– Servidor:– Correr el servicio ptunnel– Cliente:– Ptunnel -p 200.80.100.100 -lp 3128 -da tunel.atixlibre.org> Configurar los servicios de Socks para hacer uso deltunel.
  33. 33. Redes TOR
  34. 34. Redes TOR• TOR (The Onion Routing) es un sistema oconjunto de herramientas que pretendeconseguir el anonimato y acceder a serviciospúblicos de forma anónima por Internet.• Usa una red de máquinas o nodos a través delos cuales enruta el tráfico de red.
  35. 35. Uso de SOCKS• TOR ofrece una interfaz SOCKS a las aplicaciones,por lo que cualquier aplicación preparada para usarSOCKS podrá utilizar la red TOR sin problemas.• El uso de SOCKS no es excluyente, dado que TORdistribuye un script llamado "torify" que permite quecualquier aplicación use la red TOR.
  36. 36. Funcionamiento de las redes TOR• Realiza conexiones mediante túneles virtuales, demanera que la dirección IP de salida para losservicios TCP originales no son con las que serealiza la conexión, sino otra dirección y conexiónque se puede encontrar en cualquier lugar delmundo, de manera que hace extremadamentecomplicado el uso de procedimientos de detecciónbasados en geolocalización IP.
  37. 37. Redes TOR
  38. 38. Ventajas de la conexión anónima• Enmascaramiento de nuestra dirección IP.• Aplicar políticas de navegación seguras.• Evita que puedan ingresar a nuestras preferenciasde navegación.• Disminuye el riesgo de ataques remotos.• Limita la conexión directa del servidor web connuestro PC.• Facilidad de uso.• Posibilidad de ejecución online.
  39. 39. Inconvenientes de la conexiónanónima• No funcionan con todos los sitios ni con losservidores seguros.• Tampoco se reciben cookies (lo cual para algunosrepresenta más bien un alivio).• Desactivan todos los programas en Java,JavaScript, etc.• Ralentizan la navegación.• Para un servicio óptimo hay que pagar.• Añaden a las páginas que visitamos banners conpublicidad de sus patrocinadores.
  40. 40. Conclusiones• Las conexiones anónimas son buenas para losusuarios y así saltar las restricciones de proxies yfirewalls.• Las conexiones anónimas son malas para laempresa por que atentan contra las políticas deseguridad y acceso a servicios públicos fuera de laempresa.• Existen herramientas multiplaforma para realizarconexiones anónimas.• Se deben establecer mecanismos que permitancontrolar el acceso a conexiones anónimas.
  41. 41. Preguntas - Consultas
  42. 42. Tunneling: Esquivandorestricciones de Proxiesy FirewallsEsteban Saavedra LopezCEO AtixLibreCEO Opentelematicsemail: esteban.saavedra@atixlibre.orghttp://esteban.opentelematics.org

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