Marketing library services istambul


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Marketing library services istambul

  1. 1. Marketing library services A spanish state-of-the-art Àngels Massísimo Universitat de Barcelona Facultat de Biblioteconomia i Documentació
  2. 2. First things first... What is –and what isn’t- marketing ? <ul><li>What is : </li></ul><ul><li>“ The process of planning and executing the conception , pricing , promotion , and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational goals .” </li></ul><ul><li>Christie Koontz, IFLA Glossary of Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What is –and what isn’t- marketing ? <ul><li>What isn’t: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All these are marketing tools , or resources , but they are not marketing. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. What is –and what isn’t- marketing ? <ul><li>What is: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The marketing concept holds that the key to achieving organizational goals consists of determining the needs and wants of target markets and delivering the desired satisfaction more effectively and efficiently than competitors .” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Philip Kotler, Marketing management analysis . 8th ed. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1994.P. 18 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Determining the needs and wants ... <ul><li>Needs : all information / service which could help our users to do their work – research – lifelong learning – daily life </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Users can be aware of that need or not, and if so, can want the material or service or not. And they can be shy to demand it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Wants : all information / service positively desired by our users </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Users always know their wants, but... A want is not always an actual need. And users not always express their wants. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Demands : need or want expressed to the library in order to obtain that information or service desired. </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements : needs + wants + demands </li></ul>
  6. 6. How to determine needs and wants? <ul><li>Market research: users’ studies: intended to identify who and how are our users (actual or potential) and to segment them: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Via “secondary data” (not created by us): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demographic and geografic data, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychographic and lifestyle data, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economic and social patterns, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technological capacities, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lines of work –research, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Via “primary data” (created by us): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Surveys about: use intensity, users’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>satisfaction, users’ needs, use patterns... </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Target markets ? <ul><ul><li>“ The particular segment of a total population on which the retailer focuses its merchandising expertise to satisfy that submarket in order to accomplish its profit objectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For the library, a target market might be within the market area served , children 5-8 years old, for summer reading programs, to increase juvenile use and registration.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Christie Koontz, IFLA Glossary of Marketing Definitions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. So, a target is... <ul><li>A group from our served population, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>formed by individuals who have the same characteristics -and consequently the same requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex.: children 5-8 years old? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the group members don’t have the same characteristics, they presumably won’t have the same requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex.: children 5-8 years old, but from different countries / cultures / family languages, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Delivering the desired satisfaction... <ul><li>Means to planify and execute : </li></ul><ul><li>A product / service / program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At a convenient price </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivered in a convenient place and in a form of distribution suitable for our customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And especially… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is absolutelly necessary that our users / customers know that all! (So, our plans need some promotion ) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. P roduct, P rice, P lace & P romotion… <ul><li>Are the famous “4 Ps” of the </li></ul><ul><li> Marketing - Mix </li></ul>
  11. 11. The case of Spain: a neverending story… <ul><li>The theoretic base: some history </li></ul><ul><li>The history changes: the design of appropriate products for specific user segments </li></ul><ul><li>The promotion as a part of the marketing-mix </li></ul><ul><li>The user studies: a part of market research </li></ul>
  12. 12. The theoretic base: some history(1) <ul><li>1940s: some encouragements from the top of centralised management to promote / publicize the library services </li></ul><ul><li>No help, nor resources for libraries, lack of staff </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of training: only one Library school in Barcelona (established in 1915) </li></ul><ul><li>Some isolated reports and translations from the US </li></ul><ul><li>Isolated actions of libraries to reach users: reading guides, story hours, bookmobiles… </li></ul>
  13. 13. The theoretic base: some history(2) <ul><li>1950s: Some isolated efforts in promoting libraries via radio </li></ul><ul><li>1970s: First texts to introduce marketing concepts, specially written for librarians </li></ul><ul><li>Still no resources, lack of training, </li></ul><ul><li>lack of staff in the libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Isolated actions of libraries to reach their users </li></ul>
  14. 14. Late 1970s : The history changes…
  15. 15. The design of appropriate products for specific user segments (1) <ul><li>1978: The second Library School is established in Granada (Now there are 18 Library Faculties, whose 4 in Catalonia) </li></ul><ul><li>After 1980: Libraries devolved to the region administrations (so closer to the citizens) </li></ul><ul><li>Library authorities aware of the social, cultural and supporting mission of the libraries </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of efforts in allocating resources for more and more efficient collections, more place, more staff -and continuing education </li></ul>
  16. 16. The design of appropriate products for specific user segments (2) <ul><li>Late 1980s: Still no marketing education, lack of enough staff (because of the continuous increasing of the number of users) BUT… </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries develop services intended to specific groups or targets, identified by the most experienced librarians among users and non-users (potential users): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bibliopools –beaches, and so on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bibliomarkets, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bibliometro, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Babyteca, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reach out, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The design of appropriate products for specific user segments (3) <ul><li>These are new ways of going to the customers outside the library -so, getting new users (which means: turning potential users into actual users) </li></ul><ul><li>So, smart librarians created different products and deliver them in a convenient place and for a convenient ‘ price ’ </li></ul><ul><li>What was lacking…? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Of course, promotion </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Promotion as a part of the marketing-mix <ul><li>What is actually promotion ? </li></ul><ul><li>A strategy of communication by which libraries make the population served, or a segment of it, aware of the products / services / programs it has created especially for their convenience in order to meet their requirements </li></ul><ul><li>A strategy of communication with the authorities , the partners and the stakeholders in order to raise the profile of the library and to get more support , new partnerships or any kind of sponsorship </li></ul>
  19. 19. Promotion? Because our users need… <ul><li>Be aware of that information / product / service exists </li></ul><ul><li>Discover it is most convenient for them </li></ul><ul><li>Know the library has it </li></ul><ul><li>Discover the library is wanting to deliver it to them </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the library owns to them </li></ul>
  20. 20. Promotion as a part of the marketing-mix (2) <ul><li>Promotion of reading : organised campaigns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Campaigns of booksellers, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Campaigns of libraries, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Campaigns of library authorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Campaigns of governments </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Promotion as a part of the marketing-mix (3) <ul><li>Promotion of use of libraries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First, promotion of isolated services : interlibrary loan, reading clubs, online searching, OPACs… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public libraries started promoting the library as a whole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University libraries, since their virtual libraries appeared </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Vehicles of promotion <ul><li>Printed : posters, bookmarks, calendars, flyers, postcards, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Media : press, radio, tv (more ads than articles) </li></ul><ul><li>City : bus stops, buses and metros, large ads </li></ul><ul><li>Logos </li></ul><ul><li>Merchandising: t-shirts, pins, cups, mugs, bags and pencils, fans, stationery, </li></ul><ul><li>The more involvement of authorities, the more resources for promotion and the more kinds of vehicles </li></ul>
  23. 23. The messages (1) <ul><li>General: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classic advise (let’s read, use your library…) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classic claim (“Ni un pueblo sin biblioteca”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on resources (“Tenim un milió de llibres” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on ICT (“Conect@amos”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on heritage, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis in the diversity of offerings (“Biblioteca pública: ven, mira, escucha, navega, lee”) </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. The messages (2) <ul><li>Targeted: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on the price (“0 ptes.”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Young adults, retired people </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis in human growth (“Crece con nosotros”, “Si tú lees, ell@s leen”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parents </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis in suitability (“Les biblioteques són guai”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Young adults, students </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. User studies: a part of market research <ul><li>Isolated attempts in the late 1980s, but… </li></ul><ul><li>A double problem : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of specific training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of staff </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recent developments : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PAB (1994– (Barcelona) Since 2002 all over Spain) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barcelona region (2001--) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Library of Tarragona (2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universidad Carlos III (Madrid) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universitat Pompeu Fabra (Barcelona, 2003) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (2003) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. And the story goes on…
  27. 27. Thank you for your attention Comments will be very welcomed at [email_address]