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Mechanization Research in Ethiopia


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Mechanization Research in Ethiopia

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Mechanization Research in Ethiopia

  1. 1. Mechanization Research in Ethiopia South-South Knowledge Sharing on Agricultural Mechanization Prepared by Bisrat Getnet, Agricultural Engineering Research Directorate in EIAR Workshop organized jointly by IFPRI, CIMMYT, and the Ethiopian Agricultural Mechanization Forum Hilton Hotel, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia October 31– November 1, 2017
  2. 2. Doc ID 1 Contents I Background of Agricultural Engineering/Mechanization II Establishment of Agricultural Mechanization Research III Agricultural Engineering /Mechanization Research in Ethiopia IV The Way Forward
  3. 3. Doc ID 2 Background
  4. 4. Doc ID 3 Background
  5. 5. Doc ID 4 Background We are very good in neglecting mechanizatio n? or we love to live in this way?
  6. 6. Doc ID 5 Overview of Agricultural Mechanization What is mechanization? Application of tools ,implements and powered machinery(Clarke,1997). ▪ Human, animal and mechanical power sources. Meaning of Mechanization
  7. 7. Doc ID 6 6
  8. 8. Doc ID 7 Purpose of Mechanization  Saving cost in labor shortage Farm mechanization is based on total agricultural system, which is deeply connected to socio-economic environment of each country. So farm mechanization problem should be discussed from the point of view of, not only farm mechanization itself, but also socio-economic background. Effect of Mechanization  Stabilizing farm system by timeliness  Improvement of farm work by high efficiency of machine  Increase yield by working precisely  Make multi-crop system feasible for farm management etc.  Improvement of health by release from heavy work and improvement of living condition  Release from gender gap by saving time spent to farm work of woman Level up rural development by spreading of engineering knowledge
  9. 9. Doc ID 8 Farm production as a function of draught power in the Ethiopian CRV Could Farm Power be as Limiting as (or more limiting than) Seeds, Water & Nutrients? Cotton yield as a function of planting date
  10. 10. Doc ID 9 Overview current status • 12231 tractors (ECA,2014), • >90% is animal and hand tool technology • 13 million oxen ,13.3 million cultivated land • 0.28 hp/ha (DAP), 0.061 (tractor) , 0.341hp/ha (Total) • Japan (7hp/ha), South Korea (4hp/ha), Nigeria (0.7) (Lamidi and Akande,2013). Minimum requirement is 0.5 hp/ha (FA0,1981)
  11. 11. Doc ID 10 91.2 12.2 104.1 68.6 93.8 13.3 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 USA JAPAN GERMANY UK FRANCECHINA Tractor in use per thousand rural population ETHIOPIA 0.163 Overview current status
  12. 12. Doc ID 11 Dominated by smallholder farmers. Farm power relies to an overwhelming extent on human muscle and animal. Approximately only 0.061 horsepower per hectare. 36% 24% 30% 9% 1% <0.5 Ha 0.5-1 Ha 1-2 Ha 2-10 Ha >10 Ha Overview current status
  13. 13. Doc ID 12 Declining Farm Power Overview current status
  14. 14. Doc ID 13 African Agriculture Today
  15. 15. Doc ID 14 African youth-Current status
  16. 16. Doc ID 15 Current status of African youth
  17. 17. Doc ID 16 Agricultural Mechanization Job creation Mechanization services Farming operation services Farming equipment repair Agro-machines sales center Service station Repair parts services shop Tractor & farm vehicle driver and skilled repairman
  18. 18. Doc ID 17 Establishment As one of the disciplines, Institute of Agricultural Research (IAR) established the department of Agricultural Engineering comprising of farm power and machinery, soil and water engineering, energy, home science and food technology in 1976. The only remaining engineering division has been the Farm Power and Machinery section, which was then named Farm Implement Division. This division was then strengthened as a result of the signing of a project document between the Ethiopian government and UNDP to establish an Agricultural Implement and Research Center (AIRIC) in July 1984 and began to carry out development and testing of farm tools and equipment appropriate for agricultural conditions in Ethiopia farmers condition.
  19. 19. Doc ID 18 Timeline of Ag. Eng. Research Program at Federal level • 1976:started as a project worked as a section in the Department of Agricultural Engineering Continued as small farm implements till FAO project as of 1984. •1984 -2000: Development of hand tools, animal drawn equipment, small engine driven equipment and testing of all sorts. •Tested different types of Agricultural Implements locally produced and imported (Bulgarian machineries) from abroad. •2000: re-established as Agricultural Mechanization Directorate. •2016: again re-established as Agricultural Engineering Research with three programs.
  20. 20. Doc ID 19 Timeline of Ag. Eng. Research at Regional level • 1968: in Oromia ,Bako started as a technical school others(Jimma, Assela & Fedis) were Rural Technology Promotion centers, doing mainly demonstration and multiplication of agricultural implements and equipment. • 1994, the rural technology centers were transformed in to Mechanization research centers. • 1985: The Amhara Regional State Agricultural Mechanization and Food Science Research Center started as Bahir Dar Rural Technology promotion Center with the responsibility of multiplying and popularizing agricultural implements • 1996: reorganized as a mechanization research, technology multiplication, production and maintenance center • Currently, it has been transferred to the Metal and Engineering Corporation (Amhara METEC). • 1967:attempts were made to establish implements research center at Mekele by FAO. • 1995: Mekele Rural Technology Center was established. • 2004: reorganized as an agricultural mechanization research center. Oromia Amhara Tigray
  21. 21. Doc ID 20 Currently what research does  Conducting mechanization/agricultural engineering/research on pre-harvest, harvest and post-harvest technologies.  Fabrication of prototypes and pre- scaling up of technologies and demonstration.  Provide training on use, operation and handling of the technologies.  Provide training on technology fabrication.  Provide consultation on agricultural engineering/ mechanization/ research.  Provide testing and evaluation of agricultural Engineering/mechanization/ technologies either imported or modified locally.
  22. 22. Doc ID 21 Research Achievements The beginning years → The Enset and pump research works, which started in the late 1970s. → Testing procedures for different agricultural equipment were developed and put to use. → Besides basic crop physical parameters (Dereje Adugna 1987), methods and equipment for measuring the degree of soil aggregation through the tilth depth were availed during this period (Friew and Dereje 1989). → Basic design data for the moldboard board plough were generated using the profilograph technique, which was the basis for the design and manufacturing of the moldboard part of the present animal drawn soil turning and inverting plough. → The shape of the moldboard part of the moldboard plough was generated using the profiliograph technique, which later helped generate the shape from a cylinder of 60cm diameter rolled from 3mm sheet metal. Nazareth plough, with a less draft power requirement and ease of operation based on the surface configuration of Nardi and Danish ploughs (AIRIC test report II 1988).
  23. 23. Doc ID 22 Research Achievements The years 1990-1995 → A hand metered row planter, manual maize sheller, → a safe tomato transporting box, harnessing system for horses, → Groundnut lifter, improved sickles and → Groundnut decorticator were developed → Modification on donkey cart especially on the wheel axle assembly and raised bed were done during this period. → The wheat and Barley thresher was modified to accommodate maize shelling (Friew et al 1994) and → Manual maize sheller was also delivered during the same period (Zelalem, 1994). → Information on available animate power was generated. Accordingly, anthropometry → information on the Ethiopian agricultural work force was generated (AIRIC Progress Report 1990, 1991) → In the early and mid-1990s, more works continued on land preparation implements. At this time the tie ridger was availed, more work was done on threshers ( AIRIC progress Reports 1990, 1991).
  24. 24. Doc ID 23 Research Achievements The years 1990-1995 → Information on the draft capacity of local oxen and cross bred animals was availed. → The average working speed of Ethiopian oxen was recorded as 0.4 to 0.5 m.s-1 while 1.1 m.s-1 is a commonly reported speed for draft oxen. Under the conditions of the study the local draft oxen performed best at a pull level of 15% of their body weight contrary to reports of 10% elsewhere (Adugna Kebede, 1990). → Studies on transport capacity of donkey carts (Adugna Kebede and Demeke Bekele 1990). → Low draft implements and single animal harness was developed for single animal. Recorded results show that v- yoke was found to be better than the neck-yoke as a single animal harness (Adugna Kebede, 1990).
  25. 25. Doc ID 24 Research Achievements The years 1995- 2000 → A set of pre-harvest implements like, winged plough, tie ridger row planter and inter row weeder were developed and studies on small horse power tractors were conducted during this period (Melese Temesgen, 1995,Melese Temsgen and Mengistu Geza, 1999, Muluken Tilahun and Mengistu Geza, 1995). → Studies on the improved planter and weeder showed a remarkable yield advantage over the conventional practice. → During this period a Mofer attached plough, a single row maize and a four row small cereal planter were also developed and tested at Assasa and favorable response was received from farmers. → The single ox field capacity was 32 hr.ha-1 and 21 hr.ha-1 for primary and secondary tillage respectively. → The planter draft requirement was 87.9 kgf and its field capacity was 10 hr.ha-1 and the depth of operation was adjustable between 4-7 cm (Agricultural Mechanization Progress Report, 1996)
  26. 26. Doc ID 25 MBP- Development attempts in six decades
  27. 27. Doc ID 26 Research Achievements The years 2001-2005 → Works on grain storage, reengineering work on the Assela and IITA threshers (Seyoum et al 2008) were conducted → during this period. → A pedal driven maize sheller, cotton planter, milk churner (Minwyelet Nigatu, 2008) and honey extractor were developed. → The work on Enset processing devices was restarted. → Studies on draft capacity of camels,feed choppers, onion storage (Laike Kebede and Shimeles Aklilu, 2008) tomato seed extractor, papaya harvester, groundnut decorticator (Laike Kebede, 2008) and trials on using harvesters for tef were conducted and pertinent information and technologies were also generated (National Agricultural Mechanization Research Progress Report ,2002). Besides, more work on land preparation implements and conservation tillage works on Maize and land suitability studies for maize production (Friew Kelemu and Girma Mamo 2002)
  28. 28. Doc ID 27 Research Achievements The years 2001-2005 (continued) → Works on donkey utilization as a power source were conducted during this period (Fisseha et al 2004). → The tomato seed extractor was able to pulp 12 kg of tomato and extract seed in a minute (Friew Kelemu and Amdom G/Medhin, 2008). → The papaya harvester was able to detach papaya from a height of 3 meters in 2 sec without imparting any mechanical damage to the fruit. (Agricultural Mechanization Research Progress Report 2003 and 2004). → Tef harvesting using combine harvester was found superior if the tef is grown on a leveled land and harvested by adjusting the cutter bar very low to the ground and the pickup reel has numerous spring type pick up fingers (National Agricultural Mechanization Research Program progress Report 2001, Friew Kelemu and Laike Kebede 2012). → The pedal driven maize sheller shelled 12.5 quintals of maize per hour and the Enset processing device pulverized corm at a rate of 20kg/hr and received a favorable response in Koffele area (Friew Kelemu et al 2008). → The study on camel showed that camels can generate a draft force of 568.23 N, moving at a speed of 1.14 m.s-1 ,which is equivalent to 0.65KW power and can work comfortably in hot climate without any physiological stress (Workneh Abebe 2008).
  29. 29. Doc ID 28 Research Achievements The years 2006-2010 → Three two wheel tractors models DF15 DF 12 and VARI of 15, 12 and 6 hp and associated equipment were purchased and tested in 2008 and 2009. Among the three tractors the DF 15 showed better field performance and lower fuel consumption followed by the DF12 model, VARI was inferior to the two (Unpublished report). → Manufacturers were trained extensively on the manufacturing of proven and potential technologies. → Works on extruders was also picked up during this period. → Manual lime spreader was developed. → Cassava chipping device → High capacity maize sheller
  30. 30. Doc ID 29 Research Achievements The years 2010-2015 → Studies were conducted on wheat and tef planters; single axle tractor based conservation agriculture, appropriate mechanization system post-harvest handling of horticultural crops,metal silo, cassava processing devices. → The works at this time included collaborative and externally funded projects (Eastern African Agricultural Productivity Project (EAAPP), McKnight, → Evaluation, participatory demonstration of metal silo storage units in four major regions of Ethiopia supported by FAO. → Farm Mechanization and Conservation Agriculture for Sustainable Intensification (FACASI) supported by the Australian Government and being jointly conducted with CIMMYT started).
  31. 31. Doc ID 30 Research Achievements The years 2015-2017 → Development of electrical potato peeler. → Development of 2WT-trailer with multi-crop thresher and seeders. → Development of small hp attached ancillary equipment. → Development of teff row planter → Development of multi-crop bike planter → Development of wheat and rice harvester. → Development of multi-row modified knapsack sprayer → Development of 2WT-teff seeder
  32. 32. Doc ID 31 Research Achievements The years 2015-2017 → Studies were conducted on wheat and tef planters; single axle tractor based conservation agriculture, appropriate mechanization system post-harvest handling of horticultural crops, , metal silo, cassava processing devices. → Reducing Losses through Improved Postharvest Management supported by FAO. → Studies on evaporative cooling storages for horticultural crops. → Farm Mechanization and Conservation Agriculture for Sustainable Intensification (FACASI) supported by the Australian Government and being jointly conducted with CIMMYT). → Appropriate Mechanization for Sustainable Intensification supported by giz through CIMMYT. → Development of bean thresher → Development of multi-crop seeder
  33. 33. Doc ID 32 Some of imported technology testing and evaluations Laboratory and field testing of 2WT and ancillary equipment Laboratory and field testing of magnetic spraying equipment
  34. 34. Doc ID 33 Training on skill building and Business development to Youth groups/Artisans 33
  35. 35. Doc ID 34 2WT and ancillary equipment Research 34
  36. 36. Doc ID 35 15 years(2016-2030) Research strategies developed and projects started 35
  37. 37. Doc ID 36 Research Trends for Agricultural Mechanization/Engineering ☞ 2010s : the adaptability test for power tillers, development of ancillary equipment for small hp riding tractor & attachment to expand the use of power tiller, reapers, pumps, threshers, trailers/milling machines ☞ 2020s : mechanization of major crops (tef, wheat, maize, barley, sorghum, beans, rice) on cultivation and post-harvest technology development for livestock and crop production ☞ 2030s :mechanization and technology development for the controlled agriculture like horticultural crops and animal husbandry. ☞ 2050s : adaptability test for precision agriculture and controlled traffic farming machineries Research and Development of the Agricultural Machinery Our future plan
  38. 38. Doc ID 37 1. Resource • Human capacity building(PhD) • Skill development training 2. Directional change  Type of research • Transitional changes: Medium scale motorized level of mechanization. • Reverse engineering. • Animal production research • Business incubation • Public -private partnership strengthening(scale-out technologies) Way forward
  39. 39. Doc ID 38