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An Overview of Coffee Research in Ethiopia

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An Overview of Coffee Research in Ethiopia

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An Overview of Coffee Research in Ethiopia

  1. 1. An Overview of Coffee Research in Ethiopia IPFRI and EDRI Organized Conference on Ethiopia’s Coffee Value Chain: Evidence towards improved investments and policies, September 15th, 2015, Hilton Hotel, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Taye Kufa Senior Coffee Researcher-Agronomist EIAR, Jimma Agricultural Research Center kufataye@yahoo.com, Cell phone: +251-912 03 29
  2. 2. Doc ID 1 Presentation outline 1. Introduction 2. Opportunities & challenges 3. Coffee germplasm conservation 4. Coffee Research 5. Technology transfer 6. Coffee research strategic plan 7. Concluding remarks
  3. 3. Doc ID 2 1. Introduction: Ethiopian coffee sector • Ethiopia = coffee home • About 20 million people (25%) for livelihood. • Four broad coffee production systems • A total of 4.7 million small-holders (90 %) • Estimated total coffee area = 561,761.82 ha • Annual total production = 419,980,156 kg (productivity = 748 kg/ha). • A leading export crop (60-70%, reduced to 22 - 35%) • Share of total value traded coffees (unwashed 59 % & washed 41%) • The 5th largest global exporter & leading arabica producer in Africa. • Exports green coffees to 58 countries, European markets (53 %) • National statistical coffee data lacking. Sources: MoA 2013, CSA 2015
  4. 4. Doc ID 3 1. Introduction: Top ten producing countries 2010-2014 Country Species Total production (000 bags) % share of world total Brazil A/R 47380 33.55 Vietnam A/R 25300 17.89 Colombia A 10145 7.16 Indonesia R/A 10096 7.11 Ethiopia A 6737 4.79 Honduras A 5148 3.65 India R/A 5044 3.57 Peru A 4223 3.00 Mexico A 4141 2.94 Uganda R/A 3516 2.49 Source: ICO 2015
  5. 5. Doc ID 4 1. Introduction: Compare Ethiopia & Brazil Variable Ethiopia Brazil Difference in folds Total production (000 bags) 6,798 43,484 7 Domestic consumption (000 bags) 3,383 19,720 6 Per capita consumption (kg) 2.40 6.02 3 Export of green coffee (60-bags) 2,675, 381 30,141,034 11 Export of processed coffee (60-kg bags GBE) 38 3,366,479 88592 Gross stock at start of crop year (000 bags) 417 11,345 27 Value of export of all forms of coffee (mln US #) 822.76 8,715 11 Value of export of all merchandize (mln US #) 2,615 256,040 98 Value of coffee as % of all merchandize (mln US #) 31.5% 3.4% Value of coffee as a percent of GDP 2.59% 0.35%  Focus on coffee technology, value-addition & promotion! Source: ICO 2012
  6. 6. Doc ID 5 Estimated data for Ethiopian coffee (CSA 2015) Variable 2013/14 2014/15 Change Total area (ha) 538,467 561,762 4.33 Production (tons) 392,006 419,980 7.14 Yield (kg/ha) 728 748 2.69 Below target: why?  Limited use of appropriate technologies  Weak linkage among stakeholders  No external projects to support field management  Price risks to farmers, producers & exporters.
  7. 7. Doc ID 6 1. Introduction: Coffee Productivity (green bean, kg/ha) in Ethiopia- LOW  Conservation & managing forest coffee trees_ diversity, quality & premium prices  Sustainable intensification_ High productivity at potential/cluster areas  Encourage private sectors & scaling-up of farm management  Financial access to coffee research, extension & farmers This would ensure genetic diversity, productivity, quality and economic return . 250 450 750 900 1550 2150 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Forest Semi-forest Garden Planation Research (on-farm) Research (on-station) National = 756 kg/ha
  8. 8. Doc ID 7 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Reduced coffee's share (%) from the total export value due to export diversification 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Total production Total export Domestc consumption Production, export & local consumption (thousand 60 kg bags) 1. Introduction: coffee trends in Ethiopia (ICO 2014)
  9. 9. Doc ID 8 1. Introduction: Known coffee quality in Ethiopia • Limmu = Winy • Wellega = Fruity • Harar = Mocha • Sidama = Spicy • Yirgacheffe = Floral • Other areas = cup profiles ? Why? Coffee genetics, Environment, processing?  Agro-ecology based management and use – Local landrace R4D strategy  Trade marked & licensed for the benefits  But, not attractive and benefit farmers & local community as expected  Facing cash & food risks – shifting to other crops like Khat.
  10. 10. Doc ID 9 2. `Challenges & Opportunities 2.1 Opportunities  Genetic diversity & favorable environments  Farmers’ long standing coffee culture for their livelihood - coffee is life!  Shade-grown coffee landscape for sustainability components  Unique coffee production & ceremony .  Known coffee brands & cup profile to consumers  Participation of private sector & coffee unions/ cooperatives  Annual Coffee Day Celebration – Oromia Regional State & Federal MoA.  GoE priority to establish coffee sector institutional set-up, among others.
  11. 11. Doc ID 10 2.2 Challenges • Population pressure • Deforestation land degradation • Smallholding & traditional oriented system • Little/no use of full package coffee technologies • Limited funding access to producers and traders • Risks of climate change and variability - timing • Increasing disorders & pests – diseases, insects • Crop replacement, more productive/profitable • Reduced export coffee price- risks to producers & exporters • Frequent structural change & weak linkages at all levels  Threats to coffee genetic resources & urgent collaborative actions .
  12. 12. Doc ID 11 3. Coffee germplasm conservation In-situ Coffee Natural Forests of UNESCO Biosphere Reserves The Yayu Coffee Forest The Kafa Coffee Forest  The Sheka Forest.  Three zones identified for development (transition, buffer & core).  Wildlife, diseases & insects, climate change, low return  Support for high productivity, diversification & promotion  Empowering farmers and local people to benefit more. Ex-situ Coffee germplasm collected and ex-situ conserved  Jimma Research Center & sub-centers  Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute More potential areas remain unaddressed – due to limited capacity to collect & manage in field gene bank .
  13. 13. Doc ID 12 4. Coffee Research In Ethiopia Started before JARC-1966 • MoA & IAR signed 1958 • NCB established in 1952 • FAO, World Bank, EU Ten Coffee Research Centres  Main Cener- Jimma  Sub-centers  Trial stations  Adaptive sites EU-CIP financial supports.  Representing diverse eco-zones  Local adaption and cup profile Major Contributions:  Safeguard coffee genetic resources from loss due to CBD  Increased coffee production & productivity  Conserving coffee genetic resources for research purpose  Improved income & quality of life  Increased coffee export & foreign currency.
  14. 14. Doc ID 13 4.1 Coffee Research Capacity at JARC # of coffee researchers Laboratory facilities  Plant pathology  Coffee processing & quality  Soils & plant analysis  Breeding & seed technology  Coffee physiology  Plant biotechnology 6 17 19 46 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 1979 1989 1999 2015 Research Budget: Source = Fully Government , Total Amount (ETB) = 7.3 million/year
  15. 15. Doc ID 14 4.1 National Coffee Research Projects Five coffee projects = specific target areas Demand-driven and Export-oriented Coffee Technology Generation and Promotion in ….. Ethiopia Two Components: Comp I: Technology generation + adaptation  Varieties, agronomic practices, post-harvest handling Comp II: Technology promotion + evaluation  Seeds/seedlings, training services, FRG, capacitating experts, publications, demonstration sites, field days, etc
  16. 16. Doc ID 15 4.1 COFFEE RESEARCH – key achievements • 6,717 germplasm collected & maintained at research gene banks • 37 coffee varieties (34 pure lines & 3 hybrids) released • In 2010, 11 varieties for specialty areas (3 Sidama/Yirgachefe, 4 Wellega, 4 Harar) • More promising genotypes identified for known areas • Improved agronomic practices (nursery, forest, garden & plantation) • Harvesting and processing methods developed • Technology multiplication & quality seed • Coffee tissue culture- protocol • Coffee economics & extension research • Coffee diversification technology options.
  17. 17. Doc ID 16 4.1 COFFEE RESEARCH: Coffee varieties Suitable area # of variety Clean coffee (kg/ha) Research On-farm Highland 7 1930 1340 Mid-highland 13 1753 853 Midland 9 1934 1349 Low-highland 2 1725 850 Low-midland 1 1820 1400 Lowland 5 1878 1098 Mean 1840 1148  Lowland = 1000 - 1550, Midland = 1550 - 1750, Highland = 1750 - 2100 m  Coffee technologies are agro-ecology/location specific
  18. 18. Doc ID 17 600 1500 1200 2400 1700 2400 2400 2600 1150 1950 1800 2500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Selection Hybrid Selection Hybrid On-farm Research Min Max Mean Hybrid variety = 39-70 % yield increase on research & on-farm, respectively. 4.1 COFFEE RESEARCH: yield performance (kg/ha)
  19. 19. Doc ID 18 4.1 Coffee Research... achievements  Forest coffee management  Seed handling & nursery operations  Modern coffee cultivation  Ideal coffee shade trees (temporary & permanent)  Canopy classes & stem natures of coffee germplasms  Spacing & population density  Integrated soil fertility management  Tree management (pruning & training pratices)  Coffee processing & quality reseach findings  supply of basic coffee seeds =
  20. 20. Doc ID 19 5. Technology transfer Demand-supply share of coffee seeds at JARC 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Total Demand-supplyshare Demand Supply So far, JARC supplied = 243,600 kg & ten million seedlings.
  21. 21. Doc ID 20 5.1 Technology transfer: established seed orchards  A total of 1235 producers (1227 farmers + 5 private + 3 others)  Producing basic coffee seeds, but need support and formal system  Goverment support to authorize them as basic seed producers . Coffee area Research center Adaptive site Total Limmu /Gera 3 7 10 Wellega 2 4 6 Harar 1 1 2 Sidama/Yirgachefe 2 2 4 Total 8 14 22
  22. 22. Doc ID 21 6. Coffee Research Strategic Plan (2015-2030) National strategic issues/directions-draft: • Germplasm enhancement & variety development • Molecular characterizations & tissue culture • Crop protection (diseases, insects, weeds) • Postharvest & quality management • Agronomy/crop management • Conservation agriculture, irrigation & plant nutrition • Irrigation & conservation agriculture • Seed technology • Technology demonstration & dissemination • Socio-economics, extension & gender research • Capacity enhancement .
  23. 23. Doc ID 22  Sustainable management & use of the unique coffee resources: A key to food security & poverty alleviation in Ethiopia.  Capacity building to public & private institutions- research & development  ensuring source-sink balance (producer, trader, processor, consumers)  Generating & scaling-up of coffee technologies for sustainable intensification  Recognizing & promoting our unique coffee landscapes & cup profile by area: certification, sustainable tourism, geographical indicators, PES, etc.  Coffee training institutions & strong networking b/n local & global partners Hence, transforming coffee sector for the benefits of ALL. 7. Concluding remarks
  24. 24. Doc ID 23 Acknowledgements IFPRI & Ethiopia Strategy Support Program for the invitation to share our experiences . xmsGÂlh# Thank You!

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