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Agricultural Mechanization: What Do We Learn from Bangladesh?


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Agricultural Mechanization: What Do We Learn from Bangladesh?

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Agricultural Mechanization: What Do We Learn from Bangladesh?

  1. 1. Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh Bijoy-71
  2. 2. Agricultural Mechanization: What Do We Learn from Bangladesh? M. A. SATTAR MANDAL Emeritus Professor of Agricultural Economics Bangladesh Agricultural University A presentation delivered at the International Conference for South-South Knowledge Sharing on Agricultural Mechanization, organized by the IFPRI, CIMMYT and the Ethiopian Agricultural Mechanization Forum, held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on 31 October- 2 November, 2017.
  3. 3. 3 Presentation Outline Context Machines & mechanization drivers Impact of mechanization Bangladesh as a special case of rural mechanization
  4. 4. Where is Bangladesh? 4
  5. 5. Context: Economy and Farm Structure • 6% plus GDP growth, per capita income USD1602 (2016-17), target middle income status (USD 2000 per capita) by 2021. • Rice continues to dominate ag. growth, cultivated area 7 mha, decreasing at 0.43% pa. • No. of farms increasing at 2% per year, av. farm size is 0.5 ha.  High degree of land fragmentation, 3.2 plots per farm, av. size of plots 0.16 ha.  Ag. mechanization has spread rapidly. 5
  6. 6. 6 STW provides 70% irrigation 70% STW owned by SF <1ha About 90% land tilled by 0.7 million power tillers privately owned
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  10. 10. 10 Reaper and Mini-combined Harvester
  11. 11. Why Mechanization?  Scarcity of farm labour, rising wage rate  Short turn around, quick land preparation & planting for increasing cropping intensity  Increased production, quick harvest, to avoid loss during natural calamities  Efficiency gains- cost reduction, quality of output 11
  12. 12. How Many Machines? • Estimated total no. of engines used for ag.- 2.5 mil, 1.5 mil. STW irrigation engines • 0.7 million power tillers, 35,000 tractors, 370,000 threshers, 400 rice transplanters, 500 reapers, 200 combined harvester • Small machineries- 18,800 USG applicators, 1.3 mil. sprayers, 0.25 mil. weeders, 40,000 jute ribboner, 320 solar pumps, 15,000 maize sheller, 50,000 sugarcane crushers, 15,000 rice haulers, 2,000 dryer. 12
  13. 13. 0.3 2 0.75 0.89 0.61 1.83 5.7 2.02 2.5 1.7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Bangladesh China India Thailand Vietnam Growth of Farm Power (KW/ha) uses of Different Countries 1990 2013
  14. 14. 14 Mechanization Growth Promoters Liberalization policies in the 1980s (specially following 1988 big floods) prompted import & distribution of low- cost engines and farm equipment, incl. power tillers: Tax exemption on ag. machinery import Standardization certification waived or limited Private sector encouraged in machinery import & sales Preference for handy, durable, effective and affordable machines
  15. 15. 15 Impact of Rapid Spread of Small Machines Shallow tubewell no. & area irrigated spread rapidly, accelerating food production, mainly rice. PTs saved not only 85% labour and cost of tillage and 75% time, but also 100% bullock power, which is becoming expensive to maintain. Synergies between rural mechanization and rapid growth of local workshops, mechanic services, rural transports & small trades creating RNF employment.
  16. 16. 16 Missing Links in Agricultural Mechanization Rice transplanting (Negligible) Tillage/ land preparation 80% + Irrigation 90% + Seeder (Moderate) Combine harvester (Insignificant) Rice threshing 90% +Reaper harvesting (Moderate) Maize shelling 100% Hand weeder (Moderate) M A S Mandal, 2014, BAU
  17. 17. 17 Links Being Joined- Reaper and Mini-Combines Reapers saves 35% and mini combined harvester saves 52% cost over manual harvesting (Ali, et al. 2017). Reaper, 4.5-6.5hp, costs USD 2125, while mini-combine, 12.5- 20hp, costs USD 7000- 8750. Farmers’ demand for mini-combine is higher than for reaper (3289 mini- combines against 2946 reapers during March-June 2017, DAE source). 50%-70% price subsidy & ag. credit expansion explains part of the current demands. Growth of local service providers (LSP) and custom hire services is becoming important. M A S Mandal, 2017, BAU
  18. 18. Bangladesh Followed Small-scale Mechanization • Bangladesh has not followed the green revolution model of subsidized energy driven large-scale mechanization followed by others. • Bangladesh’s strategies were to promote small-scale market led machines to fit fragmented farm structure. Started with manual irrigation i.e. hand tubewells, treadle pumps. • Shift from public sector managed large-scale DTWs to more efficient STWs irrigation by private sector. • Irrigation mechanization led to other largely unsubsidized farm equipment in the private sector. 18M A S Mandal, 2017, BAU
  19. 19. Why Bangladesh is a Special Case • 1971 liberation war brought unity & motivation for development, food self-sufficiency. • Vibrant private sector, ag. engineering R&D capacity, jute industry, machinery manufacturing hub, vocational manpower. • Informed academic engagements on policy discourses enriched by rural studies. • Building agricultural & rural development institutions utilizing local expertise and donor participation. • Planning technology interventions based on local soil, water & agronomic knowledge. • Physical infrastructure, Intensive road network, rural electrification & township, ICT facilitated spread of machines. 19M A S Mandal, 2017, BAU
  20. 20. 20 Thank you M A S Mandal, 2014, BAU