Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

AGRICULTURAL MECHANISATION IN THAILAND

152 views

Published on

AGRICULTURAL MECHANISATION IN THAILAND

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

AGRICULTURAL MECHANISATION IN THAILAND

  1. 1. AGRICULTURAL MECHANISATION IN THAILAND Rob Cramb University of Queensland
  2. 2. 1. CONTEXT
  3. 3. MONSOONAL (Am) Wet Season May-Oct Dry Season Nov-Feb EQUATORIAL (Af)
  4. 4. NORTHEAST Sandy soils Mainly rainfed Single cropping Farm size 3.2 ha CENTRAL PLAIN Fertile clay soils 30% irrigated Double cropping Farm size 3.7 ha AGRICULTURAL LAND USE
  5. 5. AGRICULTURE IS DOMINATED BY SMALL-MEDIUM HOLDINGS Farm size (ha) No. of farms Area (ha) < 0.3 331,743 34,828 0.3-0.8 1,045,756 606,487 0.9-1.4 817,473 958,985 1.6-3.0 1,606,257 3,467,294 3.2-6.2 1,393,786 6,002,413 6.4-9.4 444,160 3,334,890 9.6-22.2 244,665 3,123,534 22.4-79.8 26,094 855,625 80 > 1,633 275,732 Total 5,911,567 18,659,786 1.6 - 6.2 ha 51% 51%Mean farm size = 3.2 ha
  6. 6. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THAILAND SINCE 1960s Sector 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s GNI PER CAPITA (CURRENT USD x ‘000) Economy 140 380 790 2,740 2,790 5,690 SHARE OF GDP (%) Agriculture 32 26 18 10 9 10 Industry 22 28 32 37 38 37 Services 46 46 50 53 53 53 SHARE OF EMPLOYMENT (%) Agriculture 68 65 55 44 38 Industry 11 12 18 20 21 Services 21 23 27 36 41
  7. 7. CRUDE BIRTH AND DEATH RATES, 1960-2014 POPULATION GROWTH RATE IN 2014 = 0.4%
  8. 8. RURAL AND URBAN POPULATION, 1950-2015
  9. 9. EMPLOYMENT IN AGRICULTURE 1971-2014
  10. 10. WAGE TRENDS 1980-1995 USD 1.00 = THB 30
  11. 11. 2. AGRICULTURAL MECHANISATION
  12. 12. OVERVIEW • Since 1960s, rapid and extensive mechanisation through locally-adapted, locally-made, small-scale machinery • First wave – affordable, small-scale, power-intensive, multipurpose machines, owned and operated by smallholders • Axial-flow low-lift pumps • 2WT for paddy and dryland cultivation, transport, powering other machines • Second wave – larger, control-intensive, specific- purpose machines, owned/operated by large farmers/contractors • Threshers
  13. 13. DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPLY OF MACHINERY • Many small-medium enterprises and a few large firms • Small engineering workshops of 4-5 workers in 50 m2 • Freely copied and adapted imported machinery • Close proximity to rice farmers in Central Plain • Large firms with 100+ workers also sprang up in industrial provinces north of Bangkok • Close communication with public-sector engineers (including IRRI) who shared designs • Otherwise very little policy support
  14. 14. Photo: Scott Justice 20 cm x 6 metre axial flow pump Powered by 12 hp 2WT Flexible plastic pipe Irrigation canal Rice field
  15. 15. RAPID INCREASE IN TWO- WHEELED TRACTORS • 90,000 in 1975 to 2.7 million in 2008 • Growth rate of 11% • One 2WT per 7 ha in 2008
  16. 16. DECLINE IN DRAUGHT ANIMAL POWER • Buffaloes source of draught power in rice farming before 2WTs • 6.4 million in 1982 (peak) • 1.5 million in 2001 • 1.0 million in 2014
  17. 17. OWNERSHIP AND USE OF TRACTORS (2013) 2WT 4WT No. of holdings using 2,438,848 2,427,001 % of all holdings 41.3 41.1 Owned by … • Landholder 1,827,555 366,735 • Farmer group 5,631 4,869 • Service provider 643,863 2,056,174 • Government agency 1,884 2,966 • Other 14,359 6,361 (75%) (85%) • 75% of paddy area cultivated by 2WT and 5% by 4WT • Dryland areas mostly cultivated by contractors with 4WT
  18. 18. THRESHERS AND COMBINE HARVESTERS • Development of power threshers in late 1970s • Blueprints released for commercial production (AED, IRRI) • Self-propelled Thai thresher developed (2 t/hr), ideal for contractors • By 2000, 88% of rice farmers used a power thresher • Development of combine harvesters in late 1980s • Local firms made small, track-type rice combine harvesters, 0.4-0.9 ha/hr • By 2000, 35% of rice farms used combine harvesters • By 2013, 28% of all farms and 54% of rice farms used combine harvesters, 97% through a contractor
  19. 19. MINI COMBINE HARVESTER
  20. 20. COMBINE HARVESTER
  21. 21. MACHINERY USED FOR RICE PRODUCTION (2000) Machine Capacity Source Price (THB) Quantity 4W tractor <45 hp Japan, Europe 800,000 150,383 >45 hp Europe 1,300,00 0 183,704 2W tractor 9-12 hp Thailand, Japan, China, Korea 50,000 1,753,639 Pump 5-8 hp Thailand, Japan, China 4,500 2,317,392 Thresher 1-2 t/hr Thailand 180,000 76,386 Combine harvester 0.8 ha/hr Thailand 1,500,00 0 3,000 USD 1.00 = THB 30
  22. 22. PRODUCTION OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY (2001) Item Production (units/year) Two-wheeled tractors 80,000 Large tillage implements 3,000 Small tillage implements 90,000 Theshing machines 2,000 Combine harvesters 600 Hand-operated sprayers 60,000 Irrigation pumps 55,000
  23. 23. GROWTH OF MACHINERY PRODUCTION AND EXPORTS • In 2009 there were 1,607 machinery production businesses and 1,192 repair and maintenance businesses • Exports of agricultural machinery increased more than five times from 2009 to 2014 to USD 0.79 billion • Most important export – 2WTs • Major export destinations – Cambodia, Myanmar, Indonesia, and Saudi Arabia
  24. 24. EXPLAINING PATTERN OF MECHANISATION
  25. 25. DEMAND SIDE • Agriculture dominated by small-medium landholdings (3 ha) growing rice and field crops • Axial-flow pumps saved labour and facilitated irrigation • Expansion of irrigation and double-cropping of rice in Central Plain created labour bottleneck in land preparation • Production for domestic and export markets (elastic demand) • Industrialisation led to rural-urban migration • Rapid fertility decline added to rural labour shortage • Mechanisation driven by farmer demand for small-
  26. 26. SUPPLY SIDE • Capacity of small and medium engineering workshops to develop, produce and repair suitable and affordable machines for farmers (pumps, 2WT) • Emergence of larger firms producing single-cylinder engines, locally adapted threshers, harvesters, small 4WT, implements • Informal interaction with farmers and agricultural engineers • Policy environment supportive of smallholder agriculture (e.g., credit), agribusiness, and manufacturing • Mechanisation driven by small-scale domestic industry able to freely adapt generic technology to
  27. 27. CONCLUSION • Mechanisation is widespread on both irrigated and rainfed croplands, for rice and field crops (sugarcane, cassava, maize), due to scarcity and cost of labour • Domestic manufacturing started with local inventions and adaptations in response to farmer demand • Small machines (2WT, small harvesters) have spread even though farm size is relatively large cf. other Asian countries • Smallholders have benefited by owning multipurpose machines or hiring machinery services • Mechanisation largely driven by private sector, with timely sharing of blueprints and prototypes by public

×