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Functions of management essay


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Functions of management essay

  1. 1. Running Head: FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT 1 Planning, Organizing, Leading, and Controlling [Name of Student] [Name of Institution]
  2. 2. Running Head: FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT 2 Introduction Management refers to the social processes by which an individual or a team assumes responsibilities for the effective and economical planning and implementation of an organization’s operations to realize its objectives. Management is thus an active process consisting of processes such as marketing, finance, sales, and purchases. However, these activities are generally implemented with duly established planning, controlling, leading, and organizing functions of management (Tillman & Cassone, 2012). Thus to manage implies to plan, organize, lead, and control. Although these functions are theoretically separated, in practical management, they overlap, blend, and are quite inseparable. This paper explores the planning, organizing, leading, and controlling functions of management. Planning and Organizing Planning, perhaps the most basic management function entails designing the future course an organization wishes to take and the most appropriate strategies and processes by which its objectives are to be achieved. Planning thus entails advance decisions on what an organization intends to do at what time and the manner in which the identified activities would be implemented. Planning also bridges the gap between an organization’s current and future position in regards to solving its problems and decision making. Among the functions of planning in management is to guarantee the proper and optimal utilization of the human and the non-human resources at the disposal of an organization (Tillman & Cassone, 2012). Organizing is a management function closely related to planning as it entails the integration of all the resources by which an organization intends to achieve its objectives. The items used in organizing an organization’s operations include physical, financial and human resources, which must be presented in a productive relationship for the realization of
  3. 3. Running Head: FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT 3 organizational objectives (Lussier & Hendon, 2012). In management, organizing also implies providing all the necessary tools, labor, equipment, materials, and techniques for the entire structure of an organization. Organizing thus involves the identification and the grouping of various activities followed by the assignment of duties to the different personnel. In addition, organizing entails the delegation of authority and giving of responsibilities to employees then coordinating the relationships among these roles. Controlling Controlling is a function of management, which refers to the comparing or measuring of goals achieved against the set standards followed by the necessary corrections to any reported deviations for these measurements, comparisons, and corrections are necessary for the realization of organizational goals. Controlling thus ensures business activities conform to standards. It is thus imperative that managers design and establish efficient control systems that would not only prevent but also foresee deviations at early stages. Control systems are thus useful in the monitoring of processes for achieving organizational objectives and making corrections. In other terms, controlling in management refers to the correction of performance activities that are not in line with organizational objectives. Considered core to the controlling function of management are the establishing of standards for individual and organizational performance, the measurement actual performances, the comparison of actual performances with set standards, and correction of deviations. Leading Leading is the other function of management that is central to productive business. It is crucial that a management adopts a paradigm of leadership that not only makes it easier to lead but also endears it to employees (Lussier & Hendon, 2012). For a management to lead well, it
  4. 4. Running Head: FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT 4 should have certain characteristics identifiable with good leadership. First, a management should be composed of people with commendable characters such as trustworthy, integrity, and responsible. Importantly, leading a team requires enthusiasm, passion, and dedication about one’s work through which managers may motivate and inspire their subordinates to work towards the realization of organizational objectives (Lussier & Hendon, 2012). Managers also need to be confident to lead their teams well since such a trait would help them draw confidence from out of their juniors. Finally managers should lead in a purposeful manner; especially when faced with uncertain and unfamiliar situations for they need to reassurance others and make them feel secure, confident, and positive (Lussier & Hendon, 2012). Also worth mentioning as leadership qualities for managers are tolerance, composure, and calmness towards ambiguity and commitment to excellence and success. Conclusion Though the main functions of management may be understood as independent subjects, management is not merely made up of a single process. The main functions of management that organizations should accord the deserved attention include planning, controlling, organizing, and leading. It should be noted that this list is not exhaustive. While planning refers to the designing of the future course of an organization and the strategies and processes by which set objectives are to be achieved, controlling generally refers to the measuring and comparing of the achieved goals against the set standards. Leading on the other hand refers to guiding other employees on the principles by which they are to handle themselves and their responsibilities. Organizing on the other hand entails the integration of all the processes and materials so that an organization’s goals are achieved.
  5. 5. Running Head: FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT 5 References Lussier, R. N., and Hendon, J. R. (2012). Human resource management: functions, applications, and skill development, first edition. Sage Publications. Tillman, F. A., and Cassone, D. T. (2012). A professional's guide to decision science and problem solving: an integrated approach for assessing issues, finding solutions, and reaching corporate objectives (ft press operations management), first edition. FT Press.