The scientific and_industrial_revolution


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The scientific and_industrial_revolution

  2. 2. OBJECTIVES:  To understand the meanings of Scientific Revolution from 1440 to 1690 and the Industrial Revolution from 1740 to 1895  To know and understand the causes and consequences of the Scientific Revolution and the Industrial Revolution  To know the different contributions of the Scientist from the 16th-17th
  3. 3. THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION  Refers to the great intellectual achievements from 16th-17th century marking a radical change in the assumptions, attitudes and methods in scientific inquiry.  Changed the Aristotelian world view as well as the traditional hermetic natural magic, mysticism, and superstitions.  Considered as the most fundamental transformations of human life in history.  From man power to machine power because of the machines invented.
  4. 4. THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION From 1440 A.D. to 1690 A.D. may be divided into three transformations as follows:  First Phase (1440-1540)  Rejection of the earth centered the universe of Aristotle by Copernicus and replaced by the sun centered, earth moving universe.  Included the Renaissance, the Reformation, and open navigations  Second Phase (1540-1650)  Kepler’s Law of Planetary Motion and Galileo’s Work of Motion  The new scientific method by the philosopher-mathematician of New Age, Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes.  Third Phase (1650-1690)  The age of Robert Boyle, Robert Hooke and Christian Huygens  Isaac Newton’s Law of Motion and Gravitation.
  5. 5. THE FIRST PHASE (1440-1540) Aristotle Geocentric Model of the Universe Hipparchus Claudius Ptolemy
  6. 6. THE FIRST PHASE (1440-1540) Heliocentric Model of the Universe Nicolaus Copernicus Galileo Galilei Aristarchus
  7. 7. THE FIRST PHASE (1440-1540) •The Aristotelian View of the Universe Aristotle put forth this view of the universe in the 4th century B.C. •This is commonly known as the GEOCENTRIC view where a motionless Earth is at the centre of the universe while the moon, sun, planets, and stars revolve around the Earth. •Notice also that it was believed that the orbits were circular. •Ancient astronomers also believed the Earth was composed of “heavy” elements while the celestial bodies were composed of completely different substances and thus were weightless, allowing them to orbit the Earth. Aristotelian Universe
  8. 8. THE FIRST PHASE (1440-1540) •Ptolemaic View of the Universe •The astronomer and mathematician, Ptolemy (2 nd century A.D.) had worked out complicated rules to explain the minor irregularities in the movement of the planets in an attempt to mathematically prove the GEOCENTRIC universe. •While Ptolemy was wrong, a positive consequence of his work was that it allowed stargazers and astrologers to track the planets with greater precision. Ptolemaic Universe
  9. 9. THE FIRST PHASE (1440-1540) Copernican Universe •The Copernican Hypothesis In the 16 th century, the Polish monk, mathematician, and astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) challenged the geocentric theory. •His famous work On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, held the sun to be the center of the solar system aka, the HELIOCENTRIC theory. •His ideas are attacked by religious authorities; Luther called him “the fool who wants to turn the whole art of astronomy upside down.”
  10. 10. THE SECOND PHASE (1540-1650) Tychonic Universe •Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) A Danish nobleman who received money from the king of Denmark to build an advanced observatory where he studied the stars and planets; collecting over twenty years of data. •He had a very limited understanding of mathematics, but hypothesized a universe that was part Ptolemaic and part Copernican
  11. 11. THE SECOND PHASE (1540-1650) Planet’s Orbit •Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) is brilliant young assistant of Brahe • Formulated THREE laws of planetary motion: Orbits of the planets are ELIPTICAL rather than circular Planets do NOT move at a uniform speed in their orbits The time a planet takes to make its orbit is precisely related to its distance from the sun •Kepler’s contributions are HUGE; he had mathematically proved the relations of a sun-centered solar system, aka HELIOCENTRIC
  12. 12. THE SECOND PHASE (1540-1650) •Galileo (1564-1642) Using a telescope which he refined, he viewed the moon with all of it’s irregularities and stated that the moon is NOT a luminous object but is actually made of earth-like substances. •Galileo’s greatest achievement was the elaboration and consolidation of the experimental method ; rather than speculate about what might or should happen, he conducted controlled experiments to find out what actually did happen. •Using experiments, Galileo formulated the law of inertia stating that rest is NOT the natural state of objects. •Galileo in 1591, according to the story, dropped a 10-pound and a 1-pound weight simultaneously from the top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa. •Galileo showed that despite all previous speculation on the subject two bodies of different weights, when allowance was made for differences in air resistance due to differences of size or shape, struck the ground at the same time.
  13. 13. THE SECOND PHASE (1540-1650) •Galileo was put on trial for suspicion of heresy and condemned by the Catholic Church because his discoveries contradicted scripture. •He was found guilty issued on June 22, 1633 •He was forced to “recant” and was placed under house arrest for the rest if his life. •He was finally absolved by Pope John Paul II in 1992.
  14. 14. THE SECOND PHASE (1540-1650) Saturn SunspotsThe Moon Some of the drawings of Gailelo Galilei
  15. 15. THE SECOND PHASE (1540-1650)
  16. 16. THE THIRD PAHSE (1650-1690) Universal Law of Gravitation •“ If I have seen further [than others], it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants.” (Newton) 1642-1727 •Published Principia in 1687 which postulated the law of universal gravitation . This synthesized the astronomy of Copernicus, as corrected by Kepler’s laws, with the physics of Galileo. •According to this law, every body in the universe attracts every other body in the universe in a precise mathematical relationship, whereby the force of attraction is proportional to the quantity of matter of the objects and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
  17. 17. THE THIRD PAHSE (1650-1690) Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica •"Mathematical Principles of Natural Philisophy", often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Sir Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687. •Framework for later analysis and predictions the best mathematician, philosophers and scientist busy for the next 200 years. •The defining voice of science 200 years. •By 1690, Modern Science has finally arrived.
  18. 18. THE MODEL OF THE SOLAR SYTEM “Pluto is no longer a planet but considered as “dwarf planet” joining other 4 dwarf planets (Ceres, Eris, Makemake and Haumea)”
  19. 19. DWARF PLANETS Ceres Discovered by: Giuseppe Piazzi Discovery date: January 1, 1801 Eris Discovered by: M.E. Brown C.A. Trujillo and D.L. Rabinowitz Discovery date: January 5, 2005 Dysnomia (center left) Discovered by: M.E. Brown et. al. Discovery date: September 10, 2005 Pluto Discovered by: Clyde W. Tombaugh Discovery date: February 18, 1930
  20. 20. DWARF PLANETS (CONT.) Makemake Discoverd by: M.E. Brown C.A. Trujillo and D.L. Rabinowitz Discovery date: March 31, 2005 Haumea Discoverd by: M.E. Brown, J.L. Ortiz (neither official) Discovery date: December 28, 2004 Hi’iaka (top) & Namaka (bottom) Discovered by: : M.E. Brown C.A. Trujillo and D.L. Rabinowitz (both) Discovery date: January 25, 2005 June 30, 2005
  21. 21. THE THIRD PAHSE (1650-1690) The modern science that resulted from the Scientific Revolution of 1440-1690 A.D. Had the following basic assumptions and philosophy. •All knowledge about the natural world should be based on hard evidences, observations, experiments supported by sound arguments, logic or mathematics •Everything happened because of prior natural; causes and conditions •The study of the natural world should be methodical, rational, and impersonal. It should start from observations and experimentations then by inductive logic formulates a theory. •There might be different interpretations of the same evidence but that which is more useful, simpler, and capable of making the best of predictions should be preferred. •The universe is rational, understandable, measurable, and predictable whose every operation could be expressed in mathematics the method of inquiry or the procedure in the study of nature as demonstrated by Galileo in his study of Motion as follows:
  22. 22. THE THIRD PAHSE (1650-1690) Statement of the problem Initial observations Formulation of hypothesis or initial explanations Finding consequences of the hypothesis Testing the correctness of the hypothesis Further testing the hypothesis if it passed the test Formulating a theory with its consequences and predictions Testing the consequences or predictions of the theory by experiments and observations Only after the sufficient number of successful testing may a theory is accepted as a law of nature
  23. 23. CAUSES OF THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION IN THE 17TH CENTURY EUROPE •The remarkable achievements of specific individuals such as Nicolaus Copernicus, Francis Bacon, Rene Descartes, Andreas Vesalius, Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei, Robert Boyle, William Harvey, Robert Hooke, Grisseteste, and Isaac Newton. •The scientific method by Bacon and Descartes. •The desire to break away ideas from the feudal middle ages and the Aristotelian world view. •The establishments of universities form the 12th century that were engage in critical analysis of Aristotelian world views. •Important inventions such as mechanical clock, mariners magnet compass, gun powder, lenses, telescope, microscope, printing press, horse collar and horse shoes, sternpost rudder, water and windmill and proliferations of machines. •The Renaissance hopeful period of concerned with the present life as well as the empirical and mundane interest in the natural world and humanity. •The unsatisfactory state of the calendar and the inconsistencies and complexity of the Ptolemic model of the universe. •Rapid development of shipbuilding and open ocean voyages showing limitation of the medieval science of astronomy and navigation. •The economic aspirations of the emerging dynamic middle class in the 16th century provided incentives and motivations for the selection and study of created problems addressed by the new empirical-experimental science. •The combinations and cooperation of the skills of the craftsmen and intellectual, computational, and logical method of the scholars.
  24. 24. CONSEQUENCES OF THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION OF THE 17TH CENTURY EUROPE •It profoundly influences development in several fields of science especially physics and astronomy. •It gave rise to a mechanistic belief and philosophy that the universe was a mechanical structure behaving according to Newton’s Laws. •It gave rise to philosophy that the universe was a mechanical structure behaving according to Newton’s Laws. •It causes the establishments in the 17th century of several scientific societies such as the Royal Society of London and the French Royal Society with the task of concentrating on central technology problems of the time. •The societies became in effect a jury for science which was sufficiently authoritative to exclude many charlatans. •It established science as an institution and a fully recognized factor in culture. •It gave science in the 17th century an underlying unity based on persons, ideas, methods and applications. •It fostered cooperation among scientist and technologist of the time that led to the rapid advance of both science and technology. •Changed the function of philosophy from allowing metaphysical speculations about the nature of reality to simply examining and justifying the logic of the new formulated assumptions, methods, principles, theory, and law. •Enabled scientist to carry on their work free from religion as long as they don’t trespass the religion realm. •It raised the status of the new experimental science to an esteem in polite circles comparable to that of literature making its way into the universities.
  25. 25. IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION A. The Copernican Model of the Universe States the following: 1. The sun is the center of the universe. 2. The earth and all the planets are moving around in the sun in circles. 3. The planets and stars are arranged according to increasing distance from the sun as follows: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn and Stars. B. Kepler’s Law of Planetary Motion 1. All planets revolved around the sun not in circular orbits but elliptical orbits. 2. The closer the planets to the sun the faster it moves. 3. The square of the period of a planet is proportional to the cube of its average distance from the sun.
  26. 26. IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION (CONT.) C. Galileo’s Work on Motion Galileo’s approach in his study of motion provided a new basic method that subsequently dominated physical science in particular and to some extent science in general. Some aspects of his approach are: a. Introduction and accurate definition (mathematical) of concepts such as velocity and acceleration. b. Accurate expressions (mathematical) of the relationship of concepts. c. Use of precise hypothesis. d. Deduction from this hypothesis of consequences. e. Testing the consequences of this hypothesis. f. Analysis in terms of abstract and ideal situation.
  27. 27. IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION (CONT.) D. Newton’s Law of Motion 1st Law (Law of Inertia) – An object left to itself if initially at rest will continue to be at rest and if initially moving will continue moving with the same speed and direction. 2nd Law (Law of Acceleration) – The net force F acting to an object of mass in producing acceleration a is given by F=ma. 3rd Law (Law of Interaction) – For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. E. Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation Everybody in the universe attracts another body with a force directly proportional to the product of the masses of the objects but inversely to the square of the distance of separation.
  28. 28. FOUNDERS OF THE MODERN SCIENCE Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) – proposed Aristarchus’ Heliocentric model of the universe Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) – formulated the three Laws of Planetary Motion. Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) – proposed his own model of the universe named Tychonic universe.
  29. 29. FOUNDERS OF THE MODERN SCIENCE Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) – discovered the correct relationships between distance, velocity and acceleration and the law of inertia using the new scientific method. Isaac Newton (1642-1727) – one of science’s GREATEST that gave the three Laws of Motion and the Universal Law of Gravitation. Robert Boyle (1627-1691) – first rational chemist that discovered laws of air pressure and believed substances being comprised of element which combines to form compounds.
  30. 30. FOUNDERS OF THE MODERN SCIENCE Hans & Zacharias Janssen (1580-1638) – invented the first microscope. Hans Lippershey (1570-1619) – invented the telescope. Francis Bacon (1561-1626) – initiated what was to become the scientific method of the Modern Science by advocating that all knowledge should be based on evidence, observations, and experiments.
  31. 31. FOUNDERS OF THE MODERN SCIENCE Christian Huygens (1629-1695) – developed the pendulum clock and study the propagation of light. Robert Hooke (1635-1704) – gave the Law of Elasticity of materials and saw microscopic objects using the microscope. William Harvey (1578-1678) – described the blood circulation by the pumping of the blood.
  32. 32. FOUNDERS OF THE MODERN SCIENCE William Gilbert (1544-1603) – investigated electrical and magnetic phenomena including earth’s magnetism and distinguished magnetic force from electrical force. Rene Descartes (1596-1650) – search for absolutely certain knowledge beyond doubt and invented the Cartesian coordinate system.
  34. 34. CAUSES OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION(1750- 1850)  Series of important inventions and innovations  Emergence of new type of businessman- middle class industrial entrepreneur  Easy access of overseas markets and rich in natural resources of water and coal  Interest and enthusiasm
  35. 35. FIRST INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION  between 1750 and 1850  a mainly agrarian world economy based on manual labor was transformed into one of industry and manufacturing by machines.  Its center is the development of factories  manufactured goods came from small workshops, and most of its machinery was powered by animals, wind, falling water, or human labor.
  36. 36.  Rapid rise of population  Development of efficient technical support system.  England’s cultural attitudes and interest in industry, commerce and science  British social institution capitalist private oriented market economy
  38. 38.  The economic growth during this time period was extraordinary but unstable. The world economy experienced harsh depressions in 1873 and again in 1897. Businesses competed intensely with each other and corporations battled to gain control of industries. Countless companies failed and others were bought up by larger corporations which eventually ruled the marketplace.
  39. 39.  During the Depression of 1873, the soon-to-be industry giant, Andrew Carnegie established a steel company which controlled every phase of business from raw materials to transportation, manufacturing, and distribution.
  40. 40. 2ND REVOLUTION  They also named it the "Age of Steel." Because of its strength and durability, steel became the metal choice for buildings and ships.  Electrical power was invented during this period. In 1881 the first electric power station was build in Great Britain.
  41. 41. DYNAMITE  Dynamite was invented by the Swedish Alfred Nobel, the guy from the Nobel Price.
  43. 43.  The textile industry significantly grew during the Industrial Revolution. The demand for cloth grew, so merchants had to compete with others for the supplies to make it. This raised a problem for the consumer because the products were at a higher cost. The solution was to use machinery, which was cheaper then products made by hand (which took a long time to create), therefore allowing the cloth to be cheaper to the consumer
  44. 44.  In 1813, Francis Cabot Lowell set up the first American textile factory.
  45. 45. TEXTILES INVENTIONS Invention Inventor When Descriptions/effec ts Fly shuttle John kay 1733 -Increased speed of weaving -stimulated demand for new spinning machines Spinning Jenny James Hargreaves 1764 -Performed eight times more work Water-frame Richard Arkwright 1769 -Strong span thread to be used as ward Spinning Samuel Crompton 1779 -Spun yarn suitable Cotton Gin Eli Whitney 1794 -separated the cotton from seeds
  46. 46. FLYING SHUTTLE  1733 - 1733 - Flying Shuttle (John Kay) – Used to weave cloth
  47. 47. SPINNING JENNY  1760 – Spinning Jenny (James Hargreaves) – Allowed for multiple threads to be woven together
  49. 49. COAL  The increase in demand led to the expansion of factories which required more energy. The prime energy source at the time was coal. As the Industrial Revolution began to speed up, the need for coal grew because it provided power for the factory engines, steam powered ships and steam locomotives
  50. 50. IRON  the demand for iron increased. Iron was needed to make the railway tracks, steam locomotives and the giant Watt steam engines that pumped the mines and provided energy to run factory machinery
  51. 51. INVENTIONS Invention Inventor When Descriptions/effec ts Use of coke for smelting or iron Abraham Darry 1709 -Not malleable Blast furnance John Smeaton 1760 -could smelt iron cheaply and quickly Puddling or reverberatory furnace Henry Cort 1784 -Was able to maintain low temperature Manufacturing cylinders method to manufacture iron machinery John Wilkenson 1779 Led to construction of first iron bridge and first iron ship Burning impurities by jet of cold air into the molten iron William Kelly 1846 Open-heart process William Siemens 1856 Finer steel
  52. 52. BLAST FURNACE(JOHN SMEATON)  The purpose of a blast furnace is to chemically reduce and physically convert iron oxides into liquid iron called "hot metal". The blast furnace is a huge, steel stack lined with refractory brick, where iron ore, coke and limestone are dumped into the top, and preheated air is blown into the bottom.
  54. 54.  There were three main types of transportation that increased during the Industrial Revolution: waterways, roads, and railroads.  During this time period, transportation via water was the cheapest way to move heavy products (such as coal and iron). As a result, canals were widened and deepened to allow more boats to pass.
  55. 55. TRANSPORTATIONS Invemtion Inventor Date Desciptions/effects Canals running from a coal James Brindley 1761 Marked canal bldg. era Steam AutoMobile Nicolas Cugnot 1769 Steam boat John Fitch 1788 Traveled 20 miles Roman method of road bldg. Thomas Telford 1800 Excellent but expensive Macadamizing John Macadam 1802 Durable 1st locomotive Richard Treyithick 1802 Clermost steam boat Robert Fulton 1807 Successful 150 miles trip Puffing Billy William Hedley 1813 Pulled 8 coal wagons at 5mph 1st steam ship 1838 Crossed Atlantic Gasoline powered automobile Karibenz and Gotilieb Daimler 1885
  56. 56. STEAM BOAT  1807- Robert Fulton demonstrated the feasibility of steam-powered boats  His steamer made the trip on the Hudson River from New York to Albany and back in five days  Although rafts and riverboats continued to carry agricultural products downstream, the steamboats easily moved against the current
  57. 57. ERIE CANAL AND THE CANAL FRENZY  The growing canal system connected major trading and manufacturing centers together. These artificial waterways linked interior areas to natural waterways, providing a new form transportation.  1825: the Erie Canal, the first major canal project, was completed; spanned 363 miles and connected Buffalo and Albany, New York. The success of the Erie Canal initiated a canal-building frenzy in both the East and the West.  1840: the United States had over 3,000 miles of canals. As a result, shipping costs dropped dramatically  Westerners were now in ample supply of affordable eastern and foreign goods in local stores, now that the price of these products no longer burdened by high transport costs.  However, canals were expensive to make and not well-maintained.
  58. 58. RESULTS  Led to westward expansion  Increased the population of cities that were previously secluded due to location, which contributed to the rise of manufacturing and industrialization  Helped create a national market  Increased the pace of business  Increased job opportunities  Reduced the costs of shipping, making products more accessible and reducing the cost
  60. 60. COMMUNICATIONS Invention Inventor Date Electric Telegraph Samuel F.B Morse 1832 First Atlantic cable between England and USA Cyrus Field 1866 Fist Telephone Alexander Graham Bell 1876 Radio Guglielmo Marconi 1901
  62. 62. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN  The discovery that lightning is electricity can be fully credit to Benjamin Franklin and his famous kite flying experiments. During Franklin’s era, tall buildings used to pose an extreme danger due to lightning fires. Benjamin Franklin, determined to find a solution, conducted (hazardous!) kite flying experiments to prove that lightning is nothing but a large current, and designed the lightning rod based on the experiments
  63. 63. GAS LIGHTING  The first gas lighting was in London between 1812-1820. Gas lighting had an impact on social and industrial organization because it allowed factories and stores to be able to be open longer at night without the use of a candle burning or oil.  The night life was safer because the streets were able to have light. Coal gas was the main fuel for gas lighting.
  64. 64. Invention Inventor Date Gas Lighting William Murdock 1792 Bunsen Burner Robert W. V Bunsen First Photograph Niepce and Daguerre 1839 Electric light Thomas Edison 1879 New type of percussion gun England
  65. 65. RESULT  The inventions solved the problem of lightning-based fires by simple redirecting the electric current into the ground.
  67. 67.  Between 1830 and 1871 agriculture become industrialized and capitalistic.  The agricultural revolution was a period of agricultural development between the 18th century and the end of the 19th century, which saw a massive and rapid increase in agricultural productivity and vast improvements in farm technology.
  68. 68. CHANGES IN AGRICULTURE Invention Inventor Date Desciptions/effect s Seed drill Jethro Tull 1701 Space seed evenly and embedded them in soil reducing seed required Marling practice Charles Townshen Increased in fertility Of soil Revolution change in stock breeding Robert Bakewell Widely popularized and adopted Enclosure movement in England McCornick Remper Cyrus McCornick 1834
  69. 69. REVOLUTIONARY CHANGE IN STOCK BREEDING  Bakewell was the first and most prominent stock breeder of farm animals. By breeding only animals with certain qualities, Bakewell was able to breed much more livestock
  70. 70. RESULT  the agricultural output of England increased about three and a half times (The Agricultural Revolution). With more productive farms and a smaller work load, more people were able to leave the farms and go to the city. It is this large available workforce that allowed for the greater production needed to spark the Industrial Revolution.
  71. 71. DIFFERENCE OF 1ST TO 2ND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION  'first industrial revolution', characterized by developments in textiles, iron and steam led by Britain, to differentiate it from a 'second' revolution of the 1850s onwards,it characterized by steel, electrics and automobiles led by the US and Germany.
  72. 72. THE SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS THE FACTORY SYSTEM  The used of machines called for a radically different production plan from the old system of doing it at home.  The restoration of power-driven machines was installed in factories where they can be controlled and regulated.  Production could be broken up into many routine operations performed by machines but can be controlled and operated by the workers.  Manufacturing process was divided into many routine operations called the Division of Labor.
  73. 73. POWER DRIVEN MACHINES - the oldest form of machine tool. LINE SHAFT - a power driven rotating shaft for power transmission that was used extensively from the Industrial Revolution. - It was used to distribute power from a large central power source to machinery throughout an industrial complex.
  74. 74. THE SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONSDIVISION OF LABOR  it is the basic principle underlying the assembly line in mass production systems.  one of the hallmarks of the factory system, but can lead to the alienation of the workforce as the workers lose touch with the creative process.  Advantage: 1.Workers are trained in one task and specialize in this- this increases efficiency and output. 2. Less time is wasted moving from one workbench to another. 3. Production is faster and thus more products are produced.  Disadvantage: 1. Workers can become doing the same job- efficiency might fall. 2. If one worker is absent and no one else can do the job, production might be stopped. 3. This will ultimately affect the rate of production and will affect the economy of the company.
  75. 75. THE SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS  Social Division of Labor  he social structural foundation of the specialized commodity production  divides workers according to their product: steelworkers, miners, sewers, farmers, and so on.  Social division of labor creates market exchange and prices, by comparing the cost and time of making each product.  Disadvantages: If a community specializes on a product too much, the community will become dependent on the success of their product and will endure an economic disaster if their product becomes replaced or goes extinct. Another case in which too much specialization could backfire is if all communities relied on one community to produce a certain product.
  76. 76. THE SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS SEXUAL DIVISION OF LABOR  the situation in which males and females in a society perform different tasks. In hunting-gathering societies males usually hunt while females usually gather wild vegetable food.  In UK, men tend to specialize more in paid work within the market, and women tend to specialize more in unpaid work within the home.
  77. 77. THE SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS INTERNATIONAL DIVISION OF LABOR  the highest form of the social and territorial division of labor.  It is the specialization of countries in the production of particular types of products, which they use for exchange.  The capitalist international division of labor promotes the growth of the productive forces of society and the more complete utilization of the material resources of various countries on the basis of scientific and technological advances.  At the same time, it is characterized by profoundly antagonistic contradictions, which are the result of the exploitative quality of capitalism.
  78. 78. THE SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS (8) MERITS OF DIVISION OF LABOR 1. The right man in the right place. 2. The worker becomes an expert 3. Heavy work taken over by machinery 4. Less training required 5. Invention 6. Cheaper things. 7. Economic in the use of tools. 8. Saving in time
  79. 79. THE SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS (10) DEMERITS OF DIVISION OF LABOR 1. Monotony 2. Kills the creative instinct 3. Loss of skill 4. Check mobility 5. Risk of unemployment 6. Check development of personality 7. Loss of sense or responsibility 8. Evils of factory system 9. Problem of distribution 10. Dependence
  80. 80. THE SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONSSTEAM ENGINE  a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.  Another great invention that came during the industrial revolution.  the first commercial steam engine appeared in 1698. Then in 1712 Thomas Newcomen improved it.  James Watt attempted to improve Newcomen's steam engine in the 1760's, and in 1785 he had done so, by using heat more efficiently with less fuel.  Both coal and iron were crucial during the Industrial Revolution.  Coal was used to power the steam engines and to make iron.  Iron was used to improve machines and tools, and to also build bridges and ships.
  81. 81. THE SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS THE DEVELOPMENT OF STEAM ENGINE AEOLIPILE ( HERO ENGINE) • Toy rotary steam engine. • The very first steam engine produced in 2nd century B.C. by Hero of Alexandria. • A rocket style jet engine which spins when heated. • It produced rotary motion by the reaction of a couple of steam jets issuing from a bronze sphere mounted upon trunnions. STEAM TURBINE • The jet steam engine produced by Branca of Italy in 1629 A.D. • it might be used for powering pestles and mortars, grinding machines, raising water, and sawing wood. • it has a wheel with flat vanes like a paddlewheel, shown being rotated by steam produced in a closed vessel and directed at the vanes through a pipe.
  82. 82. THE SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS THE DEVELOPMENT OF STEAM ENGINE STEAM DIGESTER • a high-pressure cooker invented by French physicist Denis Papin in 1679. • It is a device for extracting fats from bones in a high-pressure steam environment, which also renders them brittle enough to be easily ground into bone meal • The steam-release valve, which was invented for Papin's digester following various explosions of the earlier models, inspired the development of the piston-and-cylinder steam engine. SAVERY PUMP • The first commercial steam-powered device was a water pump, developed in 1698 by Thomas Savery. • It used a vacuum to raise water from below, then used steam pressure to raise it higher. • It received some use in mines, pumping stations and for supplying water wheels used to power textile machinery.
  83. 83. THE SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS ATMOSPHERIC ENGINE • the first practical device to harness the power of steam to produce mechanical work. • It worked by creating a partial vacuum by condensing steam under a piston within a cylinder. • It was employed also for providing a reusable water supply for driving waterwheels BOULTON AND WATT STEAM ENGINE ( WATT ENGINE) • the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston helped by a partial vacuum. • Improved the version of Newcomen’s engine. • Watt proceeded to develop his engine further, modifying it to provide a rotary motion suitable for driving factory machinery.
  84. 84. THE SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS MEDICINE FROM THE 16TH CENTURY LEONARDO DA VINCI  He was the first Modern Anatomist  He compare the microcosm of the body and the microcosm of the world.  These analogies extend to comparisons between arteries in the body and underground rivers in the earth  the flow of blood to the head, with circulation of water to the summits of mountains  blood when a vein bursts in the nose and water rushing out of a burst vein of the earth.  He dissected bodies and discovered maxillary sinus, the moderator band of the heart and ventricles of the brain. Maxillary sinus
  85. 85. THE SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS MEDICINE FROM THE 16TH CENTURY Andreas Vesalius He was the founder of Modern Human Anatomy  Published the De Humani Corporis Fabrica. • a textbook of human anatomy written by Andreas Vesalius. • The book is based on his Paduan lectures, during which he deviated from common practice by dissecting a corpse to illustrate what he was discussing. • It presents a careful examination of the organs and the complete structure of the human body. • Fabrica rectified some of Galen's worst errors, including the notion that the great blood vessels originated from the liver. • Vesalius clung to some of Galen's errors, such as the idea that there was a different type of blood flowing through veins than arteries.
  86. 86. THE SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS MEDICINE FROM THE 16TH CENTURY Pierre Franco o Did the Suprapubic Cystostomy.  a surgically created connection between the urinary bladder and the skin which is used to drain urine from the bladder in individuals with obstruction of normal urinary flow. o He is also the creator of suprapubic lithotomy cataract operation , it is considered to be one of the greatest surgeons of the Renaissance and a forerunner of urology.  a surgical method for removal of calculi, stones formed inside certain hollow organs, such as the kidneys (kidney stones), bladder (bladder stones), and gallbladder (gallstones), that cannot exit naturally through the urinary system .
  87. 87. THE SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS MEDICINE FROM THE 16TH CENTURY Fabricius Hildanus (also known as Wilhelm Fabry)  “Father of German Surgery”  He published the Observationum et Curationum Chirurgicarum Centuriae in 1641.  the best collection of case records of the century and gives clear insight into the variety and methods of his surgical practice.  Amputated the thigh
  88. 88. THE SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS MEDICINE FROM THE 16TH CENTURY Gasparo Tagliacozzi  Performed plastic surgery on destroyed noses by syphilis.  Rhinoplasty is a plastic surgery procedure for correcting and reconstructing the form and restoring the functions, of the nose.  Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema palladum subspecies pallidum. The primary route of transmission is through sexual contact; it may also be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy or at birth, resulting in congenital syphilis.
  89. 89. THE SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS MEDICINE FROM THE 16TH CENTURY Ambroise Pare (1510-1590) o He is considered one of the fathers of surgery and modern forensic pathology and a pioneer in surgical techniques and battlefield medicine, especially in the treatment of wounds o Applied a simple dressing on wounds obtaining excellent results.  It was during the siege of Turin (1536-1537) that Paré made his first great medical discovery. Gunshot wounds, a new medical condition, were considered poisonous and routinely treated by cauterization (sealing off) with boiling oil. When Paré ran out of oil during the siege, he turned instead to simple dressings and soothing ointment, and immediately noted the improved condition of his patients.
  90. 90. THE SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS MEDICINE FROM THE 17TH CENTURY William Harvey (1578-1657)  He was the first to describe completely and in detail the systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped to the body by the heart.  He proved that the heart was a pump which forced the blood around the body through arteries and that the blood was returned to the heart through the veins.  He published the Anatomical Essay on the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals, in which he explained his methods and gave an accurate account of how the circulatory system functioned.
  91. 91. THE SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS MEDICINE FROM THE 17TH CENTURY Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694)  The one missing piece of evidence to confirm William Harvey's revolutionary theory of the blood circulation: Malpighi had discovered the capillaries, the microscopic connecting link between the veins and arteries that Harvey that no microscope available had only been able to postulate.  Malpighi also studied insect larvae (especially the silkworm), chick embryology, and plant anatomy, seeing an analogy between plant and animal organization.  He is regarded as the founder of Histology and Embryology.
  92. 92. THE SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS MEDICINE FROM THE 17TH CENTURY Anton Van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)  “Father of Microbiology”  He constructed more than 200 microscopes.  the first person to observe and describe single celled organisms, which he originally referred to as animalcules (which we now refer to as microorganisms).  He described the bacteria, protozoa, spermatozoa, infusorians and muscle fibers.
  93. 93. THE SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS MEDICINE FROM THE 17TH CENTURY Robert Hooke (1635-1703)  “The English Father of Microscopy”  The first to study and record cells by using the microscope.  He looked at a sliver of cork through a microscope lens and noticed some "pores" or "cells" in it. Robert Hooke believed the cells had served as containers for the "fibrous threads" of the once-living cork tree. He thought these cells existed only in plants, since he and his scientific contemporaries had observed the structures only in plant material.  They built the compound microscope together with Jan Swammerdam.
  94. 94. THE SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS MEDICINE FROM THE 17TH CENTURY Richard Lower (1631-1691)  He works on blood transfusion and the function of the cardiopulmonary system.  Richard Lower reported the first successful transfusion between animals.  His major work was the Tractatus de Corde.  was concerned with the workings of the heart and lungs, and he experimented with blood transfusion, thus becoming the first Western scientist ever to perform a blood transfusion.
  95. 95. THE SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS MEDICINE FROM THE 17TH CENTURY Bartholin, Stensen, Brunner, Wirsung, de graaf, Wharton and Pacchioni  They discovered body structures bearing their names Bartholin Gland o They secrete mucus to provide vaginal lubrication Stensen Duct o an excretory duct and the route that saliva takes from the major salivary gland, the parotid gland into the mouth. Brunner’s Glands o They produce a mucus-rich alkaline secretion. o They also secrete urogastrone, which inhibits s parietal and chief cells of the stomach from secreting acid and their digestive enzymes. o This is another form of protection for the duodenum.
  96. 96. THE SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS MEDICINE FROM THE 17TH CENTURY Duct of Wirsung o a duct joining the pancreas to the common bile duct to supply pancreatic juices which aid in digestion provided by the "exocrine pancreas". Ovarian Follicles o the basic units of female reproductive biology. o These structures are periodically initiated to grow and develop, culminating in ovulation of usually a single competent oocyte in humans
  97. 97. THE SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS MEDICINE FROM THE 17TH CENTURY Franciscus Sylvius  Founder of Chemical Physiology.  He discover the fissure of Sylvius in the brain.  Sylvian fissure, one of the most prominent structures of the human brain. It divides the frontal lobe and parietal lobe above from the temporal lobe below.  Sylvian Aqueduct connects the third ventricle in the diencephalon to the fourth ventricle within the region of the mesencephalon and metencephalon,.  He published the Praxeos medicae idea nova (New Idea in Medical Practice, 1671).
  98. 98. Thomas Willis  He was the first to number the cranial nerves in order, in which they are now usually enumerated by anatomists.  He distinguished between diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus and described the rickets and beriberi.  Diabetes milletus, a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood. Sugar.  Diabetes Insipidus, a condition characterized by excessive thirst and excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine, with reduction of fluid intake having no effect on the concentration of the urine.  Rickets, a softening of bones in immature mammals due to deficiency or impaired metabolism of vitamin D, potentially leading to fractures and deformity.  Beriberi, refers to a cluster of symptoms caused primarily by a nutritional deficit in Vitamin B1 (thiamine). Universal blue circle symbol for diabetes
  99. 99. THE SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS MEDICINE FROM THE 17TH CENTURY Thomas Sydenham  He described hysteria and choria.  He published his first book, Methodus curandi febres (The Method of Curing Fevers) in 1666, Observationes medicinae (Observations of Medicine) in 1668, Epistolae responsoriae (Letters & Replies) in 1680, Dissertatio epistolaris (Dissertation on the Letters), on the treatment of confluent smallpox and on hysteria, and his last completed works was the Processus integri (The Process of Healing), is an outline sketch of pathology and practice.  Differentiated between acute rheumatism and gout, between scarlet fever and measles.